Shelf ZoneGrant et al., 2006e.g. Thomas & Greene, 1998
Marginal Ice zoneGrant et al., 2006e.g. Hopkins et al., 1993
Identify trophic links• Gut content analysis– snapshot• Stable isotopes/Fatty acid composition– Integrated over time• Barcoding/high throughput sequencing– snapshotDeagle 2009, Brown et al.2012, ORorke et al. 2012
Barcoding/high throughputsequencing• Barcoding: use of‘standardised’ sequence– COI, 16S..– Still requires differentprimers• High throughputsequencing– High volume of data– Semi quantitativeSuz Bateson, University of Guelph
Quantify various trophic levels• Energetic content• Abundance/Biomass• Productivity
Questioning the Krill importance• Copepods– same biomass– more productive• Lanternfish– biomassunderestimated– High energy content• Under certaincircumstancesimportantalternative
Interesting reads• Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E., Rothery, P., 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the SouthernOcean. Nature 432 (7013), 100-103.• Barrera-Oro, E., 2002. The role of fish in the Antarctic marine food web: differences between inshore and offshore waters in thesouthern Scotia Arc and west Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Science 14 (4), 293-309• BROWN, D. S., JARMAN, S. N. and SYMONDSON, W. O. C. (2012), Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthwormconsumption by slow worms. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12: 259–266. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03098.x• DEAGLE, B. E., KIRKWOOD, R. and JARMAN, S. N. (2009), Analysis of Australian fur seal diet by pyrosequencing prey DNA in faeces.Molecular Ecology, 18: 2022–2038. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04158.x• Flores, H., Van de Putte, A. P., Volker, S., Pakhomov, E.A., Van Franeker J.A., Meesters, E., Volckaert, F.A.M., 2008. Distribution,abundance and ecological relevance of pelagic fish in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series.• Grant, S., Constable, A., Raymond, B., Doust, S., 2006. Bioregionalisation of the Southern Ocean: Report of Exports Workshop. WWF-Australia and ACR CRC, Hobart, September 2006.• Hill et al. 2012 A Foodweb Model to explore uncerteinties in the South Georgia shelf Pelagic Ecosystem. Deep Sea Research II, 59-60,237-252.• Hopkins, T.L., Ainley, D.G., Torres, J.J., Lancraft, T.M., 1993. Trophic structure in open waters of the marginal ice zone in the Scotia-Weddell confluence region during spring (1983). Polar Biology 13 (6), 389-397.• ORorke R, Lavery S, Chow S, Takeyama H, Tsai P, et al. (2012) Determining the Diet of Larvae of Western Rock Lobster (Panuliruscygnus) Using High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Techniques. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42757. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042757• Rodhouse, P.G., White, M.G., 1995. Cephalopods occupy the ecological niche of epipelagic fish in the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone.Biological Bulletin 189 (2), 77-80.• Thomas, P.B., Green, K., 1988. Distribution of Euphausia crystallorophias within Prydz Bay and its importance to inshore the marineecosystem. Polar Biology 8, 327-331.