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Differentiated
Instruction Using
Problem Based Learning
Anthony Kadnar
University of New England
Introduction
 In the following slides, you will be introduced to Problem Based Learning and
how this teaching model can d...
Project-Based Model
 “ A project-based Model provides a framework for the goals and objectives,
the topic choices, the ou...
Student Centered
 In Problem Based Learning, students have the ability to choose their path to
solving the problem, inste...
How It Works?
 In the following slides, I will show two examples of Problem Based Learning
challenges that I have introdu...
How It Works: Introduction
 Students are brought through the introduction first.
 Once introduced, students have time to...
How It Works: The Problem
 Next, students are given the problem they have to solve.
 In this section, students are allow...
How It Works: Discussion Resources
 In this section, students are introduced to resources that will help them get
started...
How It Works: Teacher Monitoring
 During the problem solving phase, teachers can monitor student progress, but
are not al...
How It Works: Solution
 Once students solve the problem, they are asked to present their findings to
the class.
 In this...
How It Works: Teacher/Industry Solution
 Once students have presented their findings, the teacher, then, presents their
s...
Problem Based Learning
Challenge 1
Introduction
 With energy costs increasing on a yearly basis, the cost associated with
keeping our homes climate controll...
Introduction
 With new products on the market today, such as geothermal, air source heat
pumps, biomass, and condensing b...
System Examples
Biomass System Geothermal System
System Examples
Air Source Heat Pump Condensing Furnace
Introduction
 With some of these technologies coupled to PV solar, we can make a home net
zero. This means, after install...
Introduction
 Yes, these projects can be quite costly up front, but have major overall cost
reductions over the life of t...
Introduction
 Yes, there are many federal tax incentives as well as state programs that can
dramatically reduce the cost ...
Introduction
Organization Overview
 KDNR Heating is located in Belgrade, and has been in the installation and
service business for 27 ...
Problem
 Jim and Jane are planning to build a house and have hired KDNR Heating to
install the new heating and cooling sy...
Problem
 While talking with the customers, Jim states that he will be doing the building
himself and provides KDNR with a...
Heat Loss/Gain Data
Walls sqft Notes:
1st Floor - Old Side 1038.3 2x4 framed
1st Floor Addition 785 New Construction: 2x6 ...
Discussion
 Keith from KDNR Heating asks Jim where the house will be constructed; Jim
replies “The house will be built in...
Discussion
 Jim- “Keith, with all the options out on the market today, from furnaces to
geothermal, what is the best bang...
Discussion
 Jim states they would like a quote for a geothermal heat pump system, an air
source heat pump system, and a c...
Discussion Resources
 Efficiency Maine:
 http://www.efficiencymaine.com/
 Federal tax incentives:
 https://www.energys...
Solution
 With $5,000.00 incentives from Efficiency Maine and a tax credit for 30%
through the federal government, a geot...
Problem Based Learning
Challenge 2
Introduction
 When homeowners buy a house, they like to maximize their home’s space.
 The best place to do this is to re...
Introduction
 All heating systems must have a specific amount of combustion air in order to
have perfect to ideal combust...
Organizational Overview
 MRM Mechanical is an HVAC contractor in Sterling Heights, MI.
 They have been in the installati...
Problem
 Mike from MRM Mechanical gets a service call to one of their long time
customers, Donna and Frank.
 They are co...
Problem
 Mike enters the basement and notices there is a change from the last time he
was there.
 Frank and Donna remode...
Problem
 As these systems get walled off, they tend to lose their ability to function as
they would in an open basement.
...
Discussion Resources: System Data
 The original basement was 30’x 50’ and was open.
 The new mechanical room is 8’x 12’....
Dialogue
 Mike- “Frank I really like what you and Donna have done with your
basement.”
 Frank replies “Thank you.”
 Don...
Dialogue
 Mike- “That could very well be because the furnace was not running during
the summer, only the hot water heater...
Solution
 Mike uses the alternative method to find out the maximum BTUs that can be
used in that room.
 L x W x H= Room ...
Solution
 The maximum BTUs that can be fired in this new mechanical room is 23,040 BTUs.
 The total BTUs for the furnace...
Solution
 Mike must next come up with a way to get the rest of the combustion air into
the room, so both appliances can o...
Solution
 Mike decides to put a louvered door on the mechanical room door.
 He uses the 146,960 BTUs to size the louvers...
Assessing the Problem Based Learning
Activity
 Once the Challenge is completed, students are given a self assessment shee...
Assessing the Problem Based
Learning Activity
 For the teacher, we can assess the students’ progress through the Challeng...
Differentiated Learning Using Problem
Based Learning
 In conclusion, students and teachers alike can experience Problem B...
Link To Problem Based Learning Site With
Passwords to Access the Challenges:
 http://www.pblprojects.org/stem-pbl-challen...
Link To Problem Based Learning Site With
Passwords to Access the Challenges:
 http://www.pblprojects.org/photon-pbl-chall...
Link To Problem Based Learning Site With
Passwords to Access the Challenges:
Challenge Discussion Solution Teacher
Resourc...
References:
 Chapman, C. & King, R. (2012). Differentiated assessment strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA.
 New England Board ...
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Differentiated instruction using problem based learning

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction Using Problem Based Learning Anthony Kadnar University of New England
  2. 2. Introduction  In the following slides, you will be introduced to Problem Based Learning and how this teaching model can differentiate your classroom.  Problem Based Learning allows the student to solve real world problems using differentiation.  During the problem based activities, students develop spatial understanding, and are able to work in small groups or individually.  In this model, teachers monitor progress and can give suggestions, but do not guide the student to the answer.
  3. 3. Project-Based Model  “ A project-based Model provides a framework for the goals and objectives, the topic choices, the outline for the task, progress checks and assessment tools, the timeline, and the presentation format. Projects engage students in an expanded independent, partner, or student-choice contract” (Chapman, C. & King R., 2012)  “ PBL (project based learning) organizes learning around projects defined as complex tasks, based on challenging problems and involving students in problem-solving, decision making, collaboration, design and development.” (O'Sullivan, D. & Krewer, F., 2015)  “Problem based learning is a teaching and learning strategy that uses a problematic stimulus as a means of motivating and directing students to develop and acquire knowledge.” (Rogal, S. M. M., & Snider, P. D., 2008).
  4. 4. Student Centered  In Problem Based Learning, students have the ability to choose their path to solving the problem, instead of a predetermined pathway to the answer.  Students can find their way through a problem in their own way. If they get stuck, teachers can provide hints. Teachers must not guide, but hint a possible direction.
  5. 5. How It Works?  In the following slides, I will show two examples of Problem Based Learning challenges that I have introduced into my classroom.
  6. 6. How It Works: Introduction  Students are brought through the introduction first.  Once introduced, students have time to take notes and start collecting data.  The teacher is not allowed to answer any questions at this point.
  7. 7. How It Works: The Problem  Next, students are given the problem they have to solve.  In this section, students are allowed to take notes, but once again, the teacher cannot answer questions.
  8. 8. How It Works: Discussion Resources  In this section, students are introduced to resources that will help them get started solving the problem presented.  Once introduced to the resources, students are released to start solving the problem.
  9. 9. How It Works: Teacher Monitoring  During the problem solving phase, teachers can monitor student progress, but are not allowed to give assistance unless the student is completely stumped.  At this point, the teacher is only allowed to give limited direction to steer students back to a productive path.
  10. 10. How It Works: Solution  Once students solve the problem, they are asked to present their findings to the class.  In this presentation, they tell the class how they arrived at their solution.  Going step-by-step on how they came up with the solution allows the class to see the many differentiated ways the class can solve a problem.
  11. 11. How It Works: Teacher/Industry Solution  Once students have presented their findings, the teacher, then, presents their solution to the class and how they came up with their answer.  After the presentations are concluded, there is a class dialogue where students are able to ask questions and defend their findings, if different from the teacher’s solution.  In this model, always remember there is a possibility to have a different approach to solving the problem.  Also, make sure your students know that there is more than one way to solve a problem and there is not just one answer.
  12. 12. Problem Based Learning Challenge 1
  13. 13. Introduction  With energy costs increasing on a yearly basis, the cost associated with keeping our homes climate controlled are becoming very expensive.
  14. 14. Introduction  With new products on the market today, such as geothermal, air source heat pumps, biomass, and condensing boilers and furnaces, these costs can be dramatically reduced.
  15. 15. System Examples Biomass System Geothermal System
  16. 16. System Examples Air Source Heat Pump Condensing Furnace
  17. 17. Introduction  With some of these technologies coupled to PV solar, we can make a home net zero. This means, after installation, there is no energy bill for that structure.  Is this an expensive option?
  18. 18. Introduction  Yes, these projects can be quite costly up front, but have major overall cost reductions over the life of the system.  Are there any incentives to switch to a system like this?
  19. 19. Introduction  Yes, there are many federal tax incentives as well as state programs that can dramatically reduce the cost of a project like this.
  20. 20. Introduction
  21. 21. Organization Overview  KDNR Heating is located in Belgrade, and has been in the installation and service business for 27 years.
  22. 22. Problem  Jim and Jane are planning to build a house and have hired KDNR Heating to install the new heating and cooling system for them.
  23. 23. Problem  While talking with the customers, Jim states that he will be doing the building himself and provides KDNR with a set of plans outlining the dimensions of the structure.
  24. 24. Heat Loss/Gain Data Walls sqft Notes: 1st Floor - Old Side 1038.3 2x4 framed 1st Floor Addition 785 New Construction: 2x6 framed 2nd Floor - Old side end wall 297.5 2x4 framed 2nd Floor - Old side knee wall 188 2x4 framed 2nd Floor - Middle section knee wall 143.5 2x4 framed 2nd Floor - Old side back end wall 160 2x4 framed 2nd Floor - Addition knee wall 170 New Construction: 2x6 framed 2nd Floor - Addition end wall 180 New Construction: 2x6 framed 2nd Floor - Dormers 120 : 2x4 framed Ceiling sqft Notes: Old side Front section 594 Blown in - estimated 9" Old side Middle section 535.5 Blown in - estimated 9" New Addition lower Roofs 458.25 9" fiberglass - 2x10 framed New Addition Upper Roofs 385.25 12" Fiberglass - 2x12 framed Floor sqft Notes: Old Section Basement 1301 26x25 New Section - Basement 544 20x28 Windows sqft Notes: South Facing 171.35 Double pane windows East Facing 45 Double pane windows West Facing 66 Double pane windows North Facing 57.8 Double pane windows Doors sqft Notes: Front Door 33.3 south facing Side Door 20 East facing Side Door 20 West facing Sliding Glass door 40 West facing
  25. 25. Discussion  Keith from KDNR Heating asks Jim where the house will be constructed; Jim replies “The house will be built in Waterville, ME in the spring.”
  26. 26. Discussion  Jim- “Keith, with all the options out on the market today, from furnaces to geothermal, what is the best bang for my buck?” Keith replies “There are many great options out on the market today to suit your needs and save you money.” Keith goes on to ask “What is your budget for the heating and cooling system?”  Jim replies “We are open on budget as long as we are saving over the long term.”
  27. 27. Discussion  Jim states they would like a quote for a geothermal heat pump system, an air source heat pump system, and a conventional natural gas furnace/air conditioning system.  With these quotes, Jim requests a 10 year energy cost. With this data, he can estimate a return on investment for the project.
  28. 28. Discussion Resources  Efficiency Maine:  http://www.efficiencymaine.com/  Federal tax incentives:  https://www.energystar.gov/about/federal_tax_credits  Build it solar:  http://www.builditsolar.com/References/Calculators/HeatLoss/HeatLoss.htm  Heat loss/ heat gain worksheet:  http://www.ci.brainerd.mn.us/building/docs/heat_loss_calculation.pdf
  29. 29. Solution  With $5,000.00 incentives from Efficiency Maine and a tax credit for 30% through the federal government, a geothermal system gives Jim and Jane the best return on investment. This system also gives them the opportunity to add PV solar to their home at a later date to make their home Net Zero, thus eliminating their monthly energy bill.
  30. 30. Problem Based Learning Challenge 2
  31. 31. Introduction  When homeowners buy a house, they like to maximize their home’s space.  The best place to do this is to refinish a basement.  When doing this, the mechanical room always seems to be the smallest room.
  32. 32. Introduction  All heating systems must have a specific amount of combustion air in order to have perfect to ideal combustion.  Most new appliances are designed to be direct vented to the outside and do not require a vertical chimney.  They also bring their combustion air in from the outside as well.  This eliminates the need to draw air for combustion from inside the space.  With older conventional type 1 systems, air for combustion comes from inside the room.
  33. 33. Organizational Overview  MRM Mechanical is an HVAC contractor in Sterling Heights, MI.  They have been in the installation and service business for 23 years.
  34. 34. Problem  Mike from MRM Mechanical gets a service call to one of their long time customers, Donna and Frank.  They are complaining their old type 1 gas furnace and hot water heater are on the fritz.  Mike heads downstairs to see if he can find a problem and get the two appliances back online.
  35. 35. Problem  Mike enters the basement and notices there is a change from the last time he was there.  Frank and Donna remodeled their basement last summer.  Mike makes his way down the new hallway and opens the door to the new mechanical room.  When he opens the door half-way, it hits the front of the furnace.  Shimmying his way into the very small room, that he can barely fit in, he notices some black soot on the front of the furnace.
  36. 36. Problem  As these systems get walled off, they tend to lose their ability to function as they would in an open basement.  Sometimes, this can go unnoticed until the middle of the winter.
  37. 37. Discussion Resources: System Data  The original basement was 30’x 50’ and was open.  The new mechanical room is 8’x 12’.  The furnace is a type 1 natural draft furnace with an input of 145,000 BTUs with an efficiency of 88%.  All the air for combustion comes from within the structure.  The 41 gallon hot water is also a type 1 natural draft appliance. This system has an input rating of 35,000 BTUs.  All of its combustion air comes from within the structure.
  38. 38. Dialogue  Mike- “Frank I really like what you and Donna have done with your basement.”  Frank replies “Thank you.”  Donna asks “Mike, what do you think the problem might be?”  Mike replies “I think the furnace and hot water heater is being starved of air and not able to fire correctly.”  Frank- “We did our remodel at the beginning of the summer and it has been working fine until now.” (it is now December)
  39. 39. Dialogue  Mike- “That could very well be because the furnace was not running during the summer, only the hot water heater.”  Mike- “The problem did not show until the furnace and hot water heater both started to operate at the same time.”  Frank- “What do we do now?”  Mike- “I will do some calculations and see if we can come up with a solution.”
  40. 40. Solution  Mike uses the alternative method to find out the maximum BTUs that can be used in that room.  L x W x H= Room Volume  8 x 12 x 8= 1,152 ft³  1,152 x 20= 23,040 BTUs maximum  Appliance BTUs:  Furnace 135,000 BTUs / Hot water heater 35,000 BTUs  Total = 170,000 BTUs
  41. 41. Solution  The maximum BTUs that can be fired in this new mechanical room is 23,040 BTUs.  The total BTUs for the furnace and hot water heater are 170,000 BTUs.  This is a differential of 146,960 BTUs.
  42. 42. Solution  Mike must next come up with a way to get the rest of the combustion air into the room, so both appliances can operate with enough combustion air.
  43. 43. Solution  Mike decides to put a louvered door on the mechanical room door.  He uses the 146,960 BTUs to size the louvers for the door.  Code states there needs to be 4000 BTUs per inch of free air opening.  146,960/4000= 36.74 in²  Mike will use metal louvers and with 75% of the free air opening.  This would require a 49 in² louver to get the required additional combustion air.
  44. 44. Assessing the Problem Based Learning Activity  Once the Challenge is completed, students are given a self assessment sheet to prompt reflectively:  Was this learning experience worth the time I spent on it? Why or why not?  I learned…  Where did I need more direction?  I am proud of the following tasks…  Which tasks needed more time to complete?  My deepest thinking was used when…  I want to know more about…  If I could select another project, it would be… (Chapman, C. & King R., 2012)
  45. 45. Assessing the Problem Based Learning Activity  For the teacher, we can assess the students’ progress through the Challenge by asking:  Is the problem worth the time?  Do the assignment and activities enhance the content and standards required at this grade level?  Is it age appropriate?  Will the results be observable for the learner?  How will individual roles and tasks be assigned?  What checkpoints and self-assessment tools will be used?  Do the learners understand the assessment process? (Chapman, C. & King R., 2012)
  46. 46. Differentiated Learning Using Problem Based Learning  In conclusion, students and teachers alike can experience Problem Based Learning as an alternative to the current teaching methods we are practicing today.  Allowing the teacher to become the “facilitators rather than disseminators” (Wilkerson and Gijselaers 1996). This is the way to a true differentiated classroom, where the traditional lecture approach is taken away and students take control of their own learning.  In my experience, students take a little while to adapt, but once they have, the learning process is like no other. Students transform their learning and are engaged, and learning is fun!  Please give Problem Based Learning a try in your classroom and see what a true differentiated classroom looks like!
  47. 47. Link To Problem Based Learning Site With Passwords to Access the Challenges:  http://www.pblprojects.org/stem-pbl-challenges/ Challenge Discussion Solution Teacher Resources FloDesign Students need to design a new way to extract electrical energy from a wind turbine PD1095 PS0109 trfenna RLS Fiber Systems is designing a new, energy efficient lighting system for submarines. Can this lighting system be ergonomic as well? PD6108 PS0610 trfenna Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Association Can a cranberry bog use technology to become energy efficient? PD2330 PS0233 trfenna Tookany/Takony-Frankford Watershed Partnership needs to protect a watershed that is invisible to the neighborhood. PD9138 PS1913 trfenna SPG Solar/City of Tucson The city of Tucson, AZ wants SPG Solar to put a solar array on a large building but the roof is not strong enough to support a traditional panel array. PD4949 PS9494 trfenna Johnson & Johnson enlists a team of scientists to develop a treatment for eczema based on plant-derived active ingredients. PD8993 PS0899 trfenna
  48. 48. Link To Problem Based Learning Site With Passwords to Access the Challenges:  http://www.pblprojects.org/photon-pbl-challenges/ Challenge Discussion Solution Teacher Resources Blinded by the Light – What dangers does a pilot face in an aircraft targeted by a laser pointer? PD2819 PS3281 Trfenna Stripping with Light, Fantastic! – Photomachining, Inc. needs to develop a process for stripping the coating from 50 micron wire PD3076 PS0307 Trfenna DNA Microarray Fabrication – Boston University graduate students need to determine the best starting exposure time for a DNA microarray fabricator PD2215 PS0221 Trfenna High Power Laser Burn-In Test – IPG Photonics needs a way to run 100 hour unattended burn-in tests on a 2 kwatt laser. PD1540 PS0154 Trfenna Shining Light on Infant Jaundice – Can technology provide a safe and effective portable home treatment for newborn jaundice? PD5081 PS7508 Trfenna Watt’s My Light? – The package says a 26 watt fluorescent has the same light output as a 100 watt incandescent. How can this statement be verified? PD1768 PS9176 Trfenna Of Mice and Penn – Can optics provide a non-contact measurement method as part of a research project to study the healing of tendons? PD9104 PS1910 Trfenna Hiking 911– Two boys are lost in deep woods in rough terrain. What is the best technology to locate them? PD6229 PS1622 Trfenna
  49. 49. Link To Problem Based Learning Site With Passwords to Access the Challenges: Challenge Discussion Solution Teacher Resources IBM has a problem with a thin film etching process causing an area at the edge of the wafer to be under-etched. How can IBM locate and repair the problem? PD5452 PS0545 trfenna Sound Manufacturing needs to manufacture a sheet metal panel with many connector cutouts spaced closely together. Can metal be cut and bent beyond existing metal and machine standards without increasing the failure rate? PD6475 PS0647 trfenna Cirtec Medical Systems needs to ramp up production of power packs for an implantable medical device from 300 per year to 5000 per year. How do you go from a one-person operation to full- fledged production? PD1028 PS0102 trfenna FastCAP Systems’s carbon nanotubes need a uniform thin film layer for even growth, but the sputtered coating is bunching into clusters. How can they make the thin, even metal films they need? PD2210 PS0221 trfenna Hypertherm is experiencing too many defects in its wave solder process. How can Hypertherm minimize the number of solder defects? PD3755 PS0375 trfenna http://www.AMPBL.org
  50. 50. References:  Chapman, C. & King, R. (2012). Differentiated assessment strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA.  New England Board of Education: Problem Based Learning Projects (2015). http://www.pblprojects.org/  O'Sullivan, D., & Krewer, F. (2015). Structured approach to project based learning using a new type of learning management system. Paper presented at the 460-XVII. Retrieved from https://une.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.une.idm.oclc.org/docview/1 728004308?accountid=12756  Rogal, S. M. M., & Snider, P. D. (2008). Rethinking the lecture: The application of problem based learning methods to atypical contexts. Nurse Education in Practice, 8(3), 213-9. doi:http://dx.doi.org.une.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2007.09.001  Tomlinson, C.A, (2004). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms. (2nd edition) Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.  Wilkerson, L., & Gijselaers, W. H. (1996). “Concluding comments.” In L. Wilkerson & W. H. Gijselaers (Eds.), Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and practice (pp. 101-104). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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