SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 16
Download to read offline
Quantitative Methods
Anthony J. Evans
Professor of Economics, ESCP Europe
www.anthonyjevans.com
(cc) Anthony J. Evans 2019 | http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
What are methods?
• Def. “Methods”: The techniques used for inquiry
• Def. “Methodology”: Discussion over methods
TITLE
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Methodology
4. Results
5. Conclusion
6. References
TITLE
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Conclusion
6. References
2
The role of methodology in empirical research
Epistemology
Study of
knowledge
How we see things
Ontology
Categories of being
Underlying reality
Methodology
Procedures
employed
How we analyse
things
3
A methodological framework
Natural language
English
Formal language
Mathematics
Universal theory
Valid across
time/space
Particular theory
Depends on context
Case StudiesGame Theory
Econometrics Parable
4
What are quantitative methods?
5
Qualitative
• Interpretation of events
• Case Studies
• Thought Experiments,
counterfactuals etc.
Quantitative
• Measurement (i.e. numbers)
• Turning empirical observations
into formal expressions
• Statistics/Econometrics
What’s your attitude towards outliers?
6There is an interesting relationship between total market value and EPL success. But what about the
outliers? Source: http://www.baymul.com/en/data-viz-epl.html
What is this?
7
4. Penicillin
Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming
was researching the flu in 1928 when
he noticed that a blue-green mold had
infected one of his petri dishes - and
killed the staphylococcus bacteria
growing in it. All hail sloppy lab work!
“The Best: Accidental Discoveries”
Wired, Issue 14.03 - March 2006
However faulty methods shouldn’t be the goal
Creative discovery Waste of time
8Source: ESCP Europe team analysis
Procedures matter
• What constitutes compelling evidence is a function
of how it is gathered
• OJ Simpson trial
– Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman were
murdered on June 12th 1994
– Blood stains matching OJ Simpson (her ex
husband) were found inside the house, at the
crime scene, and inside Simpson’s Ford Bronco
– The day after the murders Simpson provided a
blood sample to Police Detective Philip
Vannatter
– Before booking the evidence Vannatter
returned to the crime scene
– Simpson’s defence were able to argue that
LAPD had an opportunity to plant the evidence
9See https://www.pasadenastarnews.com/2014/06/08/oj-simpson-case-taught-police-what-not-to-do-at-a-
crime-scene/ and “O.J.: Made in America” (2016) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrB3rOcrJxg
Work should be replicable
• A number of seminal research papers (especially in social
psychology) have proven to be difficult to replicate
• According to John Ioannidis, “most published research
findings are false”
• Solutions:
– Share raw data
– State intended tests before conducting them
– Document all processes and choices made
– Use larger sample sizes or meta analysis
10See “John Ioannidis on Statistical Significance, Economics, and Replication”, EconTalk
http://www.econtalk.org/john-ioannidis-on-statistical-significance-economics-and-replication/
Statistical analysis has historical context
11
High theory
• Blackboard
reasoning, a priori
logic
History
• Data, econometrics,
“facts”
Applied Theory
• The law is true, but
does it apply to this
institutional and
cultural context?
How many sheep?
12
How many sheep?
These are intact
males (rams)
This one is heavily pregnant
This is a baby (lamb)
13
Quantitative methods can illuminate but also confuse
• Statistics have the potential to reduce conflict through
hard evidence to support judgment
• When analysing a large number of cases it becomes too
complex and the use of abstract models and symbols are
necessary
• In some situations decision-making process has to be made
explicit for legal reasons
However
• Statistical techniques are only as good as the quality of raw
data
• Classification is a human construct, and a cultural
phenomena
• Never lose sight of the importance of theory to illuminate
what we deem to be “evidence”
14
Some key terms
• Population: the complete set of objects under study
• Sample: a subset of the objects under study
• Census: gathering data from the population
• Survey: gathering data from the sample
15
• This presentation forms part of a free, online course
on analytics
• http://econ.anthonyjevans.com/courses/analytics/
16

More Related Content

What's hot

Quantitative reseach method
Quantitative reseach methodQuantitative reseach method
Quantitative reseach method
metalkid132
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to research
Reshma Reddy
 
An introduction to qualitative research
An introduction to qualitative researchAn introduction to qualitative research
An introduction to qualitative research
Najibullah Safi
 
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative ResearchQuantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
doha07
 

What's hot (20)

Qualitative and quantitative research
Qualitative and quantitative researchQualitative and quantitative research
Qualitative and quantitative research
 
Sampling Methods in Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Sampling Methods in Qualitative and Quantitative ResearchSampling Methods in Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Sampling Methods in Qualitative and Quantitative Research
 
Quantitative reseach method
Quantitative reseach methodQuantitative reseach method
Quantitative reseach method
 
Introduction to Research Methods
Introduction to Research MethodsIntroduction to Research Methods
Introduction to Research Methods
 
Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)Chapter 7 (research design)
Chapter 7 (research design)
 
Quantitative Research Design - Module 1 provides a basic understanding of qua...
Quantitative Research Design - Module 1 provides a basic understanding of qua...Quantitative Research Design - Module 1 provides a basic understanding of qua...
Quantitative Research Design - Module 1 provides a basic understanding of qua...
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to research
 
Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research
Qualitative & Mixed Methods ResearchQualitative & Mixed Methods Research
Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research
 
Research methodology - Analysis of Data
Research methodology - Analysis of DataResearch methodology - Analysis of Data
Research methodology - Analysis of Data
 
Descriptive Research Method
Descriptive Research MethodDescriptive Research Method
Descriptive Research Method
 
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
Research Methodology- lecture 2 and 3
 
Qualitative Research methods
Qualitative Research methodsQualitative Research methods
Qualitative Research methods
 
An introduction to qualitative research
An introduction to qualitative researchAn introduction to qualitative research
An introduction to qualitative research
 
Research process and sampling
Research process and samplingResearch process and sampling
Research process and sampling
 
Research Design and Sampling
Research Design and SamplingResearch Design and Sampling
Research Design and Sampling
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
 
Mixed method
Mixed methodMixed method
Mixed method
 
Qualitative research and its types
Qualitative research and its typesQualitative research and its types
Qualitative research and its types
 
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative ResearchQuantitative And Qualitative Research
Quantitative And Qualitative Research
 
Research methodology introduction ch1
Research methodology introduction ch1Research methodology introduction ch1
Research methodology introduction ch1
 

Similar to Quantitative Methods

Case study research by maureann o keefe
Case study research by maureann o keefeCase study research by maureann o keefe
Case study research by maureann o keefe
wawaaa789
 
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
englishonecfl
 
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
atrantham
 
Case study jackeline oviedo
Case study   jackeline oviedoCase study   jackeline oviedo
Case study jackeline oviedo
katerinegomezj
 
Presentation types of qualitative research
Presentation types of qualitative researchPresentation types of qualitative research
Presentation types of qualitative research
afzal39sp
 
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
Gillian King
 

Similar to Quantitative Methods (20)

classJan11.ppt
classJan11.pptclassJan11.ppt
classJan11.ppt
 
Research methoggwgwgwgdology Kakar final.pptx
Research methoggwgwgwgdology Kakar final.pptxResearch methoggwgwgwgdology Kakar final.pptx
Research methoggwgwgwgdology Kakar final.pptx
 
1 Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
1 Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx1 Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
1 Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 
Case study research by maureann o keefe
Case study research by maureann o keefeCase study research by maureann o keefe
Case study research by maureann o keefe
 
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
 
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
PO 397 Introduction to Social Science Research
 
Case study final
Case study finalCase study final
Case study final
 
Case study jackeline oviedo
Case study   jackeline oviedoCase study   jackeline oviedo
Case study jackeline oviedo
 
Presentación pavel
Presentación  pavelPresentación  pavel
Presentación pavel
 
Case study jackeline oviedo
Case study   jackeline oviedoCase study   jackeline oviedo
Case study jackeline oviedo
 
PR 1- Module 1, Lesson 2.pptx
PR 1- Module 1, Lesson 2.pptxPR 1- Module 1, Lesson 2.pptx
PR 1- Module 1, Lesson 2.pptx
 
10 Recommendations from the Reproducibility Crisis in Psychological Science
10 Recommendations from the Reproducibility Crisis in Psychological Science10 Recommendations from the Reproducibility Crisis in Psychological Science
10 Recommendations from the Reproducibility Crisis in Psychological Science
 
Practical Research Lesson1.pptx
Practical Research Lesson1.pptxPractical Research Lesson1.pptx
Practical Research Lesson1.pptx
 
Presentation types of qualitative research
Presentation types of qualitative researchPresentation types of qualitative research
Presentation types of qualitative research
 
Research Methodology for Design
Research Methodology for DesignResearch Methodology for Design
Research Methodology for Design
 
Personal online reputation: the development of an approach to investigate how...
Personal online reputation: the development of an approach to investigate how...Personal online reputation: the development of an approach to investigate how...
Personal online reputation: the development of an approach to investigate how...
 
Qualitative research designs
Qualitative research designsQualitative research designs
Qualitative research designs
 
Research Methodologies
Research MethodologiesResearch Methodologies
Research Methodologies
 
IRP for Dummies
IRP for DummiesIRP for Dummies
IRP for Dummies
 
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
1.3 Museum Research Methods Social Research Fundamentals
 

More from Anthony J. Evans

More from Anthony J. Evans (16)

Time Series
Time SeriesTime Series
Time Series
 
The Suitcase Case
The Suitcase CaseThe Suitcase Case
The Suitcase Case
 
Correlation
Correlation Correlation
Correlation
 
Nonparametric Statistics
Nonparametric StatisticsNonparametric Statistics
Nonparametric Statistics
 
Student's T Test
Student's T TestStudent's T Test
Student's T Test
 
Significance Tests
Significance TestsSignificance Tests
Significance Tests
 
Taxi for Professor Evans
Taxi for Professor EvansTaxi for Professor Evans
Taxi for Professor Evans
 
Inferential Statistics
Inferential StatisticsInferential Statistics
Inferential Statistics
 
Probability Distributions
Probability Distributions Probability Distributions
Probability Distributions
 
Probability Theory
Probability Theory Probability Theory
Probability Theory
 
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive StatisticsDescriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
 
Statistical Literacy
Statistical Literacy Statistical Literacy
Statistical Literacy
 
Collecting and Presenting Data
Collecting and Presenting DataCollecting and Presenting Data
Collecting and Presenting Data
 
Numeracy Skills 1
Numeracy Skills 1Numeracy Skills 1
Numeracy Skills 1
 
The Dynamic AD AS Model
The Dynamic AD AS ModelThe Dynamic AD AS Model
The Dynamic AD AS Model
 
Numeracy Skills 2
Numeracy Skills 2Numeracy Skills 2
Numeracy Skills 2
 

Recently uploaded

Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertaintyFuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
RafigAliyev2
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
pyhepag
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
cyebo
 
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
Amil baba
 
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Valters Lauzums
 
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
pyhepag
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
pyhepag
 
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
pyhepag
 
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
cyebo
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertaintyFuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
Fuzzy Sets decision making under information of uncertainty
 
Machine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
Machine Learning for Accident Severity PredictionMachine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
Machine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
 
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
Data Visualization Exploring and Explaining with Data 1st Edition by Camm sol...
 
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp ClaimsSlip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
Atlantic Grupa Case Study (Mintec Data AI)
 
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
 
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
NO1 Best Kala Jadu Expert Specialist In Germany Kala Jadu Expert Specialist I...
 
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdfFormulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
Formulas dax para power bI de microsoft.pdf
 
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
Data Analytics for Digital Marketing Lecture for Advanced Digital & Social Me...
 
Easy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp onlineEasy and simple project file on mp online
Easy and simple project file on mp online
 
Generative AI for Trailblazers_ Unlock the Future of AI.pdf
Generative AI for Trailblazers_ Unlock the Future of AI.pdfGenerative AI for Trailblazers_ Unlock the Future of AI.pdf
Generative AI for Trailblazers_ Unlock the Future of AI.pdf
 
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxPre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
 
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictSupply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
 
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
 
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版加利福尼亚大学尔湾分校毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 

Quantitative Methods

  • 1. Quantitative Methods Anthony J. Evans Professor of Economics, ESCP Europe www.anthonyjevans.com (cc) Anthony J. Evans 2019 | http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
  • 2. What are methods? • Def. “Methods”: The techniques used for inquiry • Def. “Methodology”: Discussion over methods TITLE 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Methodology 4. Results 5. Conclusion 6. References TITLE 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Methods 4. Results 5. Conclusion 6. References 2
  • 3. The role of methodology in empirical research Epistemology Study of knowledge How we see things Ontology Categories of being Underlying reality Methodology Procedures employed How we analyse things 3
  • 4. A methodological framework Natural language English Formal language Mathematics Universal theory Valid across time/space Particular theory Depends on context Case StudiesGame Theory Econometrics Parable 4
  • 5. What are quantitative methods? 5 Qualitative • Interpretation of events • Case Studies • Thought Experiments, counterfactuals etc. Quantitative • Measurement (i.e. numbers) • Turning empirical observations into formal expressions • Statistics/Econometrics
  • 6. What’s your attitude towards outliers? 6There is an interesting relationship between total market value and EPL success. But what about the outliers? Source: http://www.baymul.com/en/data-viz-epl.html
  • 7. What is this? 7 4. Penicillin Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming was researching the flu in 1928 when he noticed that a blue-green mold had infected one of his petri dishes - and killed the staphylococcus bacteria growing in it. All hail sloppy lab work! “The Best: Accidental Discoveries” Wired, Issue 14.03 - March 2006
  • 8. However faulty methods shouldn’t be the goal Creative discovery Waste of time 8Source: ESCP Europe team analysis
  • 9. Procedures matter • What constitutes compelling evidence is a function of how it is gathered • OJ Simpson trial – Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman were murdered on June 12th 1994 – Blood stains matching OJ Simpson (her ex husband) were found inside the house, at the crime scene, and inside Simpson’s Ford Bronco – The day after the murders Simpson provided a blood sample to Police Detective Philip Vannatter – Before booking the evidence Vannatter returned to the crime scene – Simpson’s defence were able to argue that LAPD had an opportunity to plant the evidence 9See https://www.pasadenastarnews.com/2014/06/08/oj-simpson-case-taught-police-what-not-to-do-at-a- crime-scene/ and “O.J.: Made in America” (2016) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrB3rOcrJxg
  • 10. Work should be replicable • A number of seminal research papers (especially in social psychology) have proven to be difficult to replicate • According to John Ioannidis, “most published research findings are false” • Solutions: – Share raw data – State intended tests before conducting them – Document all processes and choices made – Use larger sample sizes or meta analysis 10See “John Ioannidis on Statistical Significance, Economics, and Replication”, EconTalk http://www.econtalk.org/john-ioannidis-on-statistical-significance-economics-and-replication/
  • 11. Statistical analysis has historical context 11 High theory • Blackboard reasoning, a priori logic History • Data, econometrics, “facts” Applied Theory • The law is true, but does it apply to this institutional and cultural context?
  • 13. How many sheep? These are intact males (rams) This one is heavily pregnant This is a baby (lamb) 13
  • 14. Quantitative methods can illuminate but also confuse • Statistics have the potential to reduce conflict through hard evidence to support judgment • When analysing a large number of cases it becomes too complex and the use of abstract models and symbols are necessary • In some situations decision-making process has to be made explicit for legal reasons However • Statistical techniques are only as good as the quality of raw data • Classification is a human construct, and a cultural phenomena • Never lose sight of the importance of theory to illuminate what we deem to be “evidence” 14
  • 15. Some key terms • Population: the complete set of objects under study • Sample: a subset of the objects under study • Census: gathering data from the population • Survey: gathering data from the sample 15
  • 16. • This presentation forms part of a free, online course on analytics • http://econ.anthonyjevans.com/courses/analytics/ 16