First language Acquisition
First language Acquisition        Behaviorists         Nativists       Functionalists
First Language Acquisition• Behaviorists
Behaviorists - Reinforcement
Behaviorists - Imitation
Behaviorists - Conditioning
Behaviorists - Habit
Behaviorists – Clean Slate
Behaviorists – Skinner
Nativists - Innate
Nativists - Innate• Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Natavists - Innate• Universal Grammar (UG)
Natavists - Innate• Construct Rules of language
Natavists - Innate• Construct Rules of language – predetermined  steps
Natavists - Innate• Construct Grammar
Natavists - Innate• Abstract Thinking – Creative Process                             Predisposition to language
Natavists - Innate• Pre-wired                          Wired for language
First Language Acquisition• Functionalists
Functionalists• Social Interaction
Functionalists• 2-way Communication/Discourse
Functionalists• Serves a purpose
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Construct language from prior  conceptual knowledge.
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Active learner who tests and  revises hypotheses.
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Requires an interactional process
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Use cognitive strategies eg  oversimplification
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – is aided by modified input. Both  will attempt to simplify language p. 42
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Develop language in predicatable  steps – prewiredPredictable
L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Developmental errors
L1 Acquisition• L1 – Silent Period a must
L2 Learning• L2 – Silent Period desireable
L2 Learning• L2 – Cognitively more developed
L2 Learning• L2 – Greater Knowledge of the world
L2 Learning• L2 – Can learn and apply grammar rules more  readily
L2 Learning• L2 – Has more control over input
L2 Learning• L2 – Has L1 as a resource
L2 Learning• L2 – Is familiar with one or more cultures
L2 Learning• L2 – Negative attitude & motivation
L2 Learning• L2 – Inhibition & anxious & afraid of errors.
4. Aspects of Human Learning                    Cognitive   ConstructivistBehavioristic   Skinner Pavlov   Ausubel        ...
4. Aspects of Human Learning                              Cognitive              ConstructivistBehavioristicS- R          ...
4. Aspects of Human LearningCommunity of learners          Learner centeredInteraction                                    ...
4. Learning - Gagne• One – Signal Learning   BEHAVIOURIST
4. Learning - Gagne• Two – Stimulus Response   BEHAVIOURIST
4. Learning - Gagne• Three – Chaining   BEHAVIOURIST
4. Learning - Gagne• Four – Multiple discriminations BEHAVIOURIST
4. Learning - Gagne• Five – Concept Learning   COGNITIVE
4. Learning - Gagne• Six – Principle Learning   Cognitive/Constructivist  Patterns
4. Learning - Gagne• Seven – Problem Solving   Cognitive/Constructivist
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Linguistic
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Logic - Maths
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Musical
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Spatial – forming mental pictures of reality
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Body - Kinesthetic
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Naturalist
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Interpersonal
4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Intrapersonal – ID , me , self-awareness
Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response   The Natural Approach                          “Silent”     “ i + I”    ...
Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response   The Natural Approach                          “Silent”     “ i + I”    ...
Total Physical Response• Low stress environment
Total Physical Response• Listening
Total Physical Response• Acting
Total Physical Response• Today useful for classroom activities• Based on Behaviorist ideas of  stimulus – response (S-R)
Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response   The Natural Approach                          “Silent”     “ i + I”    ...
Krashen’s Natural Approach• “Silent Period”
Krashen’s Natural Approach• “ i + I”• Basic conversation. New input just beyond the  learners level.
Krashen’s Natural Approach• “conversation”
Krashen’s Natural Approach• Facilitator – groups , games
Krashen’s Natural Approach• Criticism – reliance on input not interaction
Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response   The Natural Approach                          “Silent”     “ i + I”    ...
The Audiolingual Method• Reinforcement, Set phrases, repetition
The Audiolingual Method• Lost popularity – LA not through rote and  error avoidance.
Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response   The Natural Approach                          “Silent”     “ i + I”    ...
Community Language Learning• Fundamental affective and interpersonal  nature of learning.
Community Language Learning• CLL – Rogers – student teacher joint facilitation.
Community Language Learning• CLL – Rogers – student teacher joint facilitation.
Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – develop trust in L1.
Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – group work – using tapes
Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – dependence to independence
Community Language Learning• CLL – Criticisms – too non-directive
Community Language Learning• CLL – Criticisms – heavily reliant on language translation
Community Language Learning• CLL – Positives:• Lower anxiety, supportive groups, own pace, develop  autonomy
Vygotsky – Sociocultural Learning• ZPD – zone of proximal development• “what a learner could learn with appropriate stimul...
6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences
6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences                        Metacogntive  Learning Strategies    ...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Metacogntive  Learning Strategies           ...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice                        Metacogntive:                        Plannin...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice                        Metacogntive:                        Plannin...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Metacogntive:                        Plannin...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice                        Metacogntive:                        Plannin...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Cognitive Strategies:                       ...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Cognitive Strategies:                       ...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Cognitive Strategies:                       ...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective:                        - Lo...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective:                        - Lo...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective:  Learning Strategies   -- P...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective                        -- As...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective:                        -- C...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                        Socio-Affective:                        --Em...
6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences  Learning Strategies                        Communication St...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Avoidance Strategies:  Communication     - Messa...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    -Cir...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    -Cir...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    - Ap...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    - Al...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    - Wo...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    - Pr...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:  Compensatory      - No...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    -Cod...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    -Cir...
6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice                    Compensatory Strategies:                    -- S...
6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences  Learning Strategies                        Communication St...
7. Affective Factors• Affective factors underpin language learning                 “Doing language                Language...
7. Affective Factors – cognitive +             emotion
7. Affective Factors• Methods a response to Affective Domain• Eg Silent Way, Total Physical Response, Natural  Approach, C...
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SWillingness to communicate:“Collaborative language helps to develop  interpersonal i...
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SWillingness to demonstrate empathy:“Walk a mile in my shoes”
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SExtroversion/Introversion:- Some activities will suit e/I people.- Be wary of wester...
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SInhibition :- Overly self-critical can inhibit SLA.Teach – “Mistakes OK”
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SRisk Taking :- Some errors may be associated with risk  aversion- Be prepared to gue...
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SAnxiety:“Anxiety a major SLA factor (Arnold & Brown)”.- Some require to be alert & r...
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SSelf-Esteem:“Self-esteem can influence SLA (Arnold &  Brown)”.
7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SSelf-Efficacy: D.E.A.LReasons people attribute to their own success.DEAL – Difficult...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation   Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                  Perspectives
8. Socio-cultural Factors –               acculturation                “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation   cu...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –               acculturation                “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation   cu...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                 “Social and psychologicalAcculturation  acculturation                integrati...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                 “Social and psychologicalAcculturation  acculturation                integrati...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                 “Social and psychologicalAcculturation  acculturation                integrati...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                Social and psychological contactAcculturation  acculturation the NL            ...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                 “Motivation – instrumental &Acculturation  acculturation                integr...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                Subordination – people may avoidAcculturation  acculturation                eff...
8. Socio-cultural Factors –                Assimilation – people may avoidAcculturation  acculturation                effo...
8. Socio-cultural– Factors –                High enclosure avoid new                institutions of SL culture.Acculturati...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation   culture”        ...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                 2. Culture Shock – dosorientation,Acculturation   stress, anxiet...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation   culture”        ...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                3. CopingAcculturation                L2 reluctance amongst adult...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation   culture”        ...
8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation                4. RecoveryAcculturation                At this point TL capabili...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation   Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                  Perspectives
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation              Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                     ...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation   Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                  Perspectives
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation   Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                  Perspectives
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation            Social Distance             Sociolinguistic                             ...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation           Social Distance                Sociolinguistic                           ...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation           Social Distance              Sociolinguistic                             ...
8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation   Social Distance   Sociolinguistic                                  Perspectives  ...
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching              implications• Raise awareness of opportunities  outside the classroom.
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching              implications• Discuss affect issues and draw  attention to their relevan...
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching               implications• Do you take up opportunities –  tasks, activities, writin...
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching              implications• Do you have set goals – have you  identified based on your...
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching              implications• Do you have work collaboratively  in groups, ask questions...
8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching              implications• Do you seek feedback and and  evaluate progress formally
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output   Frequency          cit
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output   Frequency          cit
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness                  Intentional               Conscious   control of I/O   ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwarenessConscious and unconscious learning plays a part in SLA   Conscious       ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output   Frequency          cit
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FExplicitImplicit    Explicit                    Implicit
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FExplicit       Conscious               intention to               learn    Explici...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F                 Implicit    Without                             intention or     ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F                 Implicit   Unaware that learning                            has t...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F  Both have a roll in SLA   Both have a roll in SLA Explicit                      ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output   Frequency          cit
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F  Both have a roll in SLA   Both have a roll in SLA Input                         ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F  Listening, reading      Speaking Writing Input                           Output
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F                    What is the  Both required                    optimum? Input  ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output       Frequency          cit              ...
9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output    Frequency          cit                 ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor   Natural Order   Input   Affective FilterLearning
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor       Natural Order   Input        Affective FilterLearning           ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning                   Fluency due to A not L                                ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning                 Critics do not see A and L as mutually                 e...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning                Critics – you cannot distinguish conscious and           ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -       Monitor   Natural Order   Input        Affective FilterLearning           ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -       MonitorLearning                    Grammar                              “T...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -       MonitorLearning                    Grammar                              “T...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor   Natural Order    Input   Affective FilterLearning                   ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor   Natural Order   Input             Affective FilterLearning          ...
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen                              Input                              Critics – I & O              ...
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen                              Input                              Critics – I & O              ...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor   Natural Order   Input   Affective FilterLearning                    ...
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• Not mutually exclusive   Acquisition                             Learning
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• Not mutually exclusive   Conscious               Conscious
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• ?????????????????????????????????????      Acquisition                                 Learn...
9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• ?????????????????????????????????????          Is Child One the ideal as                   i...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          processing Cognitive Model               Controlled – new skill      ...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          processing Cognitive Model    A to B/C to D   Controlled             ...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          Processing Cognitive Model     Accounts for Ausubel’ssubsumtion -   C...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          Processing Cognitive Model  Unlike Krashen does   not hold C1 as the ...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          Processing Cognitive Model  Does not emphasise   Controlled          ...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          Processing Cognitive Model  Allows for conscious    and unconscious  ...
9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information          Processing Cognitive Model   Continuums not      Controlled          ...
Social Constructivist Model - Long                          Focus     Social Interaction     Input     Conversation
Social Constructivist Model - Long                             Focus     Social Interaction   “Dynamic interplay between l...
Social Constructivist Model - Long                             Focus     Social Interaction   “Interpersonal context signi...
Social Constructivist Model - Long                           Focus      Social Interaction   Input “Interlocutors slow dow...
Social Constructivist Model - Long                           Focus      Social Interaction   Input “Slow speech of native ...
Social Constructivist Model - Long                                  Focus       Social Interaction   Input   Conversation“...
Social Constructivist Model - Long   Teaching implications T.A.G     Social Interaction                                   ...
Social Constructivist Model - Long   Teaching implications T.A.G     Social Interaction                           Interact...
Social Constructivist Model - Long   Teaching implications T.A.G     Social Interaction                           Socially...
9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -   Monitor   Natural Order   Input   Affective FilterLearning
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  1. 1. First language Acquisition
  2. 2. First language Acquisition Behaviorists Nativists Functionalists
  3. 3. First Language Acquisition• Behaviorists
  4. 4. Behaviorists - Reinforcement
  5. 5. Behaviorists - Imitation
  6. 6. Behaviorists - Conditioning
  7. 7. Behaviorists - Habit
  8. 8. Behaviorists – Clean Slate
  9. 9. Behaviorists – Skinner
  10. 10. Nativists - Innate
  11. 11. Nativists - Innate• Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
  12. 12. Natavists - Innate• Universal Grammar (UG)
  13. 13. Natavists - Innate• Construct Rules of language
  14. 14. Natavists - Innate• Construct Rules of language – predetermined steps
  15. 15. Natavists - Innate• Construct Grammar
  16. 16. Natavists - Innate• Abstract Thinking – Creative Process Predisposition to language
  17. 17. Natavists - Innate• Pre-wired Wired for language
  18. 18. First Language Acquisition• Functionalists
  19. 19. Functionalists• Social Interaction
  20. 20. Functionalists• 2-way Communication/Discourse
  21. 21. Functionalists• Serves a purpose
  22. 22. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Construct language from prior conceptual knowledge.
  23. 23. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Active learner who tests and revises hypotheses.
  24. 24. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Requires an interactional process
  25. 25. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Use cognitive strategies eg oversimplification
  26. 26. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – is aided by modified input. Both will attempt to simplify language p. 42
  27. 27. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Develop language in predicatable steps – prewiredPredictable
  28. 28. L1 Acquisition and L2 Learning• Similarities – Developmental errors
  29. 29. L1 Acquisition• L1 – Silent Period a must
  30. 30. L2 Learning• L2 – Silent Period desireable
  31. 31. L2 Learning• L2 – Cognitively more developed
  32. 32. L2 Learning• L2 – Greater Knowledge of the world
  33. 33. L2 Learning• L2 – Can learn and apply grammar rules more readily
  34. 34. L2 Learning• L2 – Has more control over input
  35. 35. L2 Learning• L2 – Has L1 as a resource
  36. 36. L2 Learning• L2 – Is familiar with one or more cultures
  37. 37. L2 Learning• L2 – Negative attitude & motivation
  38. 38. L2 Learning• L2 – Inhibition & anxious & afraid of errors.
  39. 39. 4. Aspects of Human Learning Cognitive ConstructivistBehavioristic Skinner Pavlov Ausubel Rogers
  40. 40. 4. Aspects of Human Learning Cognitive ConstructivistBehavioristicS- R Old + New = Meaning Social interactionGoverned by consequence Systematic forgetting Adaption Personal growthLanguage learning requires Language Learningstimulus response exposure requires meaningful Community of learners – contexts Facilitate, Interact, empower
  41. 41. 4. Aspects of Human LearningCommunity of learners Learner centeredInteraction Social InteractionLearn how to learn Constrictivist - Whole Person RogersEmpowerment EmotionFacilitation not instruction Adapt & grow to enhance Self-concept – individual existence reality
  42. 42. 4. Learning - Gagne• One – Signal Learning BEHAVIOURIST
  43. 43. 4. Learning - Gagne• Two – Stimulus Response BEHAVIOURIST
  44. 44. 4. Learning - Gagne• Three – Chaining BEHAVIOURIST
  45. 45. 4. Learning - Gagne• Four – Multiple discriminations BEHAVIOURIST
  46. 46. 4. Learning - Gagne• Five – Concept Learning COGNITIVE
  47. 47. 4. Learning - Gagne• Six – Principle Learning Cognitive/Constructivist Patterns
  48. 48. 4. Learning - Gagne• Seven – Problem Solving Cognitive/Constructivist
  49. 49. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Linguistic
  50. 50. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Logic - Maths
  51. 51. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Musical
  52. 52. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Spatial – forming mental pictures of reality
  53. 53. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Body - Kinesthetic
  54. 54. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Naturalist
  55. 55. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Interpersonal
  56. 56. 4. Learning – Multiple Intelligence : Gardiner• Intrapersonal – ID , me , self-awareness
  57. 57. Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response The Natural Approach “Silent” “ i + I” “conversation”The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning
  58. 58. Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response The Natural Approach “Silent” “ i + I” “conversation”The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning
  59. 59. Total Physical Response• Low stress environment
  60. 60. Total Physical Response• Listening
  61. 61. Total Physical Response• Acting
  62. 62. Total Physical Response• Today useful for classroom activities• Based on Behaviorist ideas of stimulus – response (S-R)
  63. 63. Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response The Natural Approach “Silent” “ i + I” “conversation”The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning
  64. 64. Krashen’s Natural Approach• “Silent Period”
  65. 65. Krashen’s Natural Approach• “ i + I”• Basic conversation. New input just beyond the learners level.
  66. 66. Krashen’s Natural Approach• “conversation”
  67. 67. Krashen’s Natural Approach• Facilitator – groups , games
  68. 68. Krashen’s Natural Approach• Criticism – reliance on input not interaction
  69. 69. Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response The Natural Approach “Silent” “ i + I” “conversation”The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning
  70. 70. The Audiolingual Method• Reinforcement, Set phrases, repetition
  71. 71. The Audiolingual Method• Lost popularity – LA not through rote and error avoidance.
  72. 72. Language Teaching MethodsTotal Physical Response The Natural Approach “Silent” “ i + I” “conversation”The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning
  73. 73. Community Language Learning• Fundamental affective and interpersonal nature of learning.
  74. 74. Community Language Learning• CLL – Rogers – student teacher joint facilitation.
  75. 75. Community Language Learning• CLL – Rogers – student teacher joint facilitation.
  76. 76. Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – develop trust in L1.
  77. 77. Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – group work – using tapes
  78. 78. Community Language Learning• CLL – joint facilitation – dependence to independence
  79. 79. Community Language Learning• CLL – Criticisms – too non-directive
  80. 80. Community Language Learning• CLL – Criticisms – heavily reliant on language translation
  81. 81. Community Language Learning• CLL – Positives:• Lower anxiety, supportive groups, own pace, develop autonomy
  82. 82. Vygotsky – Sociocultural Learning• ZPD – zone of proximal development• “what a learner could learn with appropriate stimuli”• “social interaction the foundation of cognitive development”
  83. 83. 6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences
  84. 84. 6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences Metacogntive Learning Strategies Cognitive Socio-Affective
  85. 85. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Metacogntive Learning Strategies Cognitive Socio-Affective
  86. 86. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice Metacogntive: Planning and organising Learning Strategies - Previewing -- Monitor -- Evaluate
  87. 87. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice Metacogntive: Planning and organising Learning Strategies - Previewing
  88. 88. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Metacogntive: Planning and organising Learning Strategies -- Monitor
  89. 89. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to iscolatein practice Metacogntive: Planning and organising Learning Strategies -- Evaluate
  90. 90. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Cognitive Strategies: -Memorisation Learning Strategies
  91. 91. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Cognitive Strategies: -- repetition Learning Strategies
  92. 92. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Cognitive Strategies: -- note taking Learning Strategies
  93. 93. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective: - Lower anxiety Learning Strategies -- Positive Self-talk -- Ask Questions -- Cooperate --Empathise
  94. 94. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective: - Lower anxiety Learning Strategies
  95. 95. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective: Learning Strategies -- Positive Self-talk
  96. 96. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective -- Ask Questions Learning Strategies
  97. 97. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective: -- Cooperate Learning Strategies
  98. 98. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Socio-Affective: --Empathise Learning Strategies
  99. 99. 6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences Learning Strategies Communication Strategies
  100. 100. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Avoidance Strategies: Communication - Message abandonment Strategies -- Topic avoidance
  101. 101. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: -Circumocution Compensatory - Approximation - All-purpose-words Strategies - Word coinage - Prefabricated patterns - Non-linguistic signals -Code switching -- Stalling
  102. 102. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: -Circumocution Compensatory -“thingy” Strategies
  103. 103. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: - Approximation Compensatory Strategies “Ship”
  104. 104. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: - All-purpose-words Compensatory Strategies “what you call” “thingy”
  105. 105. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: - Word coinage Compensatory Invent a word – “vegetarianist” for Strategies “vegetarian”
  106. 106. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: - Prefabricated patterns Compensatory Strategies Stock expressions; “Parle-vous Frances”
  107. 107. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: Compensatory - Non-linguistic signals Strategies
  108. 108. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: -Code switching Compensatory Strategies English – French - English
  109. 109. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: -Circumocution Compensatory - Approximation - All-purpose-words Strategies - Word coinage - Prefabricated patterns - Non-linguistic signals -Code switching -- Stalling
  110. 110. 6. Cognitive Factors• Difficult to isolate in practice Compensatory Strategies: -- Stalling Compensatory Strategies
  111. 111. 6. Cognitive Factors• Help to account for learner differences Learning Strategies Communication Strategies
  112. 112. 7. Affective Factors• Affective factors underpin language learning “Doing language Language Structures AFFECTIVE FACTORS
  113. 113. 7. Affective Factors – cognitive + emotion
  114. 114. 7. Affective Factors• Methods a response to Affective Domain• Eg Silent Way, Total Physical Response, Natural Approach, Community Language Learning
  115. 115. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SWillingness to communicate:“Collaborative language helps to develop interpersonal intelligence”
  116. 116. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SWillingness to demonstrate empathy:“Walk a mile in my shoes”
  117. 117. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SExtroversion/Introversion:- Some activities will suit e/I people.- Be wary of western preference of extrovert
  118. 118. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SInhibition :- Overly self-critical can inhibit SLA.Teach – “Mistakes OK”
  119. 119. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SRisk Taking :- Some errors may be associated with risk aversion- Be prepared to guess and attempt
  120. 120. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SAnxiety:“Anxiety a major SLA factor (Arnold & Brown)”.- Some require to be alert & ready to enhance SLA
  121. 121. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SSelf-Esteem:“Self-esteem can influence SLA (Arnold & Brown)”.
  122. 122. 7. Affective Factors – W.E.E.I.R.A.S.SSelf-Efficacy: D.E.A.LReasons people attribute to their own success.DEAL – Difficulty, Effort, Ability, Luck“Self-esteem can influence SLA (Arnold & Brown)”.
  123. 123. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives
  124. 124. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – acculturation “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation culture” 1. Euphoria
  125. 125. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – acculturation “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation culture” “Social and psychological integration of the learner” Schumann
  126. 126. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – “Social and psychologicalAcculturation acculturation integration of the learner” Schumann’s Model Acculturation SLA
  127. 127. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – “Social and psychologicalAcculturation acculturation integration of the learner” Not linear but related to SLA. Acculturation SLA
  128. 128. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – “Social and psychologicalAcculturation acculturation integration of the learner” Social and psychological contact helps. Acculturation SLA
  129. 129. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – Social and psychological contactAcculturation acculturation the NL helps. Don’t need to adopt culture. Acculturation SLA
  130. 130. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – “Motivation – instrumental &Acculturation acculturation integrative Acculturation SLA
  131. 131. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – Subordination – people may avoidAcculturation acculturation efforts to adopt the dominant language. Acculturation SLA
  132. 132. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – Assimilation – people may avoidAcculturation acculturation efforts to assimilate. Acculturation SLA
  133. 133. 8. Socio-cultural– Factors – High enclosure avoid new institutions of SL culture.Acculturation acculturation Acculturation SLA
  134. 134. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation culture” 2. Culture Shock
  135. 135. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation 2. Culture Shock – dosorientation,Acculturation stress, anxiety fear
  136. 136. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation culture” 3. Coping
  137. 137. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation 3. CopingAcculturation L2 reluctance amongst adults as they do not want to make fools of themselves
  138. 138. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation “The process of adapting to a newAcculturation culture” 4. Recovery
  139. 139. 8. Socio-cultural Factors - acculturation 4. RecoveryAcculturation At this point TL capability improves
  140. 140. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives
  141. 141. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic PerspectivesSocial and psychological Social and psychologicalproximity to TL distance from TL
  142. 142. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives
  143. 143. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives
  144. 144. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives Norton &Toohey - interaction within a certain context and the opportunities offered.
  145. 145. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives Norton &Toohey – situated experience
  146. 146. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives Norton &Toohey – human agency ( action to bring about an effect
  147. 147. 8. Socio-cultural FactorsAcculturation Social Distance Sociolinguistic Perspectives Teaching implications
  148. 148. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Raise awareness of opportunities outside the classroom.
  149. 149. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Discuss affect issues and draw attention to their relevance to SLA How do you feel about SLA?
  150. 150. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Do you take up opportunities – tasks, activities, writing, listening?
  151. 151. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Do you have set goals – have you identified based on your current strengths and weaknesses (SWOT?).
  152. 152. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Do you have work collaboratively in groups, ask questions etc
  153. 153. 8. Socio-cultural Factors – teaching implications• Do you seek feedback and and evaluate progress formally
  154. 154. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit
  155. 155. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit
  156. 156. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Intentional Conscious control of I/O Focal attention learning Conscious Unconscious
  157. 157. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwarenessConscious and unconscious learning plays a part in SLA Conscious Unconscious
  158. 158. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit
  159. 159. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FExplicitImplicit Explicit Implicit
  160. 160. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FExplicit Conscious intention to learn Explicit Implicit
  161. 161. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F Implicit Without intention or awarness Explicit Implicit
  162. 162. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F Implicit Unaware that learning has taken place or of what has been learned Explicit Implicit
  163. 163. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F Both have a roll in SLA Both have a roll in SLA Explicit Implicit
  164. 164. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit
  165. 165. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F Both have a roll in SLA Both have a roll in SLA Input Output
  166. 166. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F Listening, reading Speaking Writing Input Output
  167. 167. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.F What is the Both required optimum? Input Output
  168. 168. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit How often a language structure gains attention!
  169. 169. 9. Theories of SLL – Hot Topics: A.E.I.FAwareness Explicit/Impli Input / Output Frequency cit Frequency will impact SLA
  170. 170. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning
  171. 171. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning Learning Acquisition
  172. 172. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning Fluency due to A not L Learning Acquisition
  173. 173. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning Critics do not see A and L as mutually exclusive Acquisition Learning
  174. 174. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition -Learning Critics – you cannot distinguish conscious and unconscious learning Conscious Conscious
  175. 175. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning Grammar Editing Rules Acquisition Learning
  176. 176. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - MonitorLearning Grammar “Too much learning limits acquisition” Editing Rules Acquisition Learning
  177. 177. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - MonitorLearning Grammar “Too much learning limits acquisition” Editing CRITICS – “Monitor requred Rules Acquisition Learning
  178. 178. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning Rules acquired in a Natural Order so you can over do teaching
  179. 179. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning “I + I” Input is the only true cause of SLA! Output is independent of Input Critics – I & O relevant
  180. 180. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen Input Critics – I & O relevant I Interaction Input All three aspects are relevant to SLA. Output Can’t rely solely on the input of others
  181. 181. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen Input Critics – I & O relevant I Interaction Input Distinction between Intake and Input? Output Student motivation, learning strategies?
  182. 182. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning Low anxiety required
  183. 183. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• Not mutually exclusive Acquisition Learning
  184. 184. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• Not mutually exclusive Conscious Conscious
  185. 185. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• ????????????????????????????????????? Acquisition Learning
  186. 186. 9. Theories of SLL – Krashen• ????????????????????????????????????? Is Child One the ideal as implied?
  187. 187. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information processing Cognitive Model Controlled – new skill Automatic - trained spelling grammarFocused rulesattention Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent,attention memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  188. 188. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information processing Cognitive Model A to B/C to D Controlled Automatic spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  189. 189. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information Processing Cognitive Model Accounts for Ausubel’ssubsumtion - Controlled Automatic forgetting spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  190. 190. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information Processing Cognitive Model Unlike Krashen does not hold C1 as the Controlled Automatic ideal spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  191. 191. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information Processing Cognitive Model Does not emphasise Controlled Automatic Input over Output spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  192. 192. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information Processing Cognitive Model Allows for conscious and unconscious Controlled Automatic learning spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  193. 193. 9. Theories of SLL – McLaughlin Information Processing Cognitive Model Continuums not Controlled Automatic mutually exclusive spelling grammarFocused rules Monitoring language A BPeripheral Phrases, greetings, Conversational, fluent, memorising, learning fast reactions phrases C D
  194. 194. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction Input Conversation
  195. 195. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction “Dynamic interplay between learners and peers” Input Conversation
  196. 196. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction “Interpersonal context significant” Input Conversation
  197. 197. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction Input “Interlocutors slow down speech” Conversation
  198. 198. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction Input “Slow speech of native learners” Conversation
  199. 199. Social Constructivist Model - Long Focus Social Interaction Input Conversation“Future classrooms where careful design allows for individual construction of own language”
  200. 200. Social Constructivist Model - Long Teaching implications T.A.G Social Interaction T. Ask A uthentic Input G roup Conversation
  201. 201. Social Constructivist Model - Long Teaching implications T.A.G Social Interaction Interactionist - Is this Input the future? Conversation
  202. 202. Social Constructivist Model - Long Teaching implications T.A.G Social Interaction Socially constructed Input interactive clasroom Conversation
  203. 203. 9. Theories of SLL – KrashenAcquisition - Monitor Natural Order Input Affective FilterLearning

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