Nick mcmasterpresentation

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Nick mcmasterpresentation

  1. 1. Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  2. 2. Issues of language and power when teaching refugees in New Zealand one on one. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  3. 3. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Arndt, V. , Harvey, P. , & Nuttall, J (2000). Alive to Language . United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Auerbach, E.R. (1995). The politics of the ESL classroom: Issues of power in pedagogical choices. In J.W. Tollefson (Ed.), Power and inequality in language education (pp. 9-33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching . New York: Pearson Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Casanave, C. (2004) Controversies in second language writing (pp. 205-223). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 5-20. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Matsuda, A. (2006). Negotiating assumptions in EIL classrooms. In J. Edge (Ed), Re- locating TESOL in an age of empire (pp. 158-170). Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. </li></ul><ul><li>Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2001). Changing perspectives on good language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 35(2), 307-322. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford, R., Massey, R. & Anand, S. (2005). Transforming teacher-student relationships: Toward a more welcoming and diverse classroom discourse. N J. Frodense & C. Holten (Eds). The power of context in language teaching and learning (pp.249-266). Heinle:Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Paltridge, B. (2001) . Genre and the Language Learning Classroom (pp. 2-15). </li></ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson, B. (2005). English as a foreign language: Matching procedures to the context of learning. N E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.137-153). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>(Study Guide, Unit 14, pp. 193-216) </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  4. 4. The teacher student relationship is not equal – you cannot get away from it! <ul><li>The premise: </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation suggests that all teacher student settings have explicit and implicit asymmetrical power relations that need to be considered when teaching second language students (Arndt, Harvey & Nuttall, 2000). </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  5. 5. Asymmetrical discourse between teacher and student “ Inequality exists within any culture (Brown, 2007. pp-201)”. The question for language tutors is what is lost by not identify and addressing power imbalances that may hinder second language acquisition (SLA)? Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  6. 6. Potential reasons for 1 on 1 power imbalances – the causes are many and varied <ul><li>1. Refugees will have pre-determined expectations, as to how they will be taught, that may not be met (Tomlinson, 2005.; Oxford, Massey & Anand, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Refugees are subjected to unfamiliar cultural differences and context as well as the omnipresence of English. They can find themselves between two cultures (Crystal, 1997.; Brown, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>3. As English dominates, spreads and develops variants teachers may increasingly ignore the need to adapt to local contexts (Matsuda, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teachers, fearful of losing power, are adverse to the possibilities of technology in the classroom as a means of facilitating an advantage to refugee learning (Casanave, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Refugees focus on text without an explicit explanation of the genre required for successful communication thereby limiting their understanding CN p410 (Paltridge, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Teachers trained in the West incorrectly assume constructs such as critical thinking apply to all refugee cultures and teach accordingly (Casanave, 2004) </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  7. 7. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>1. Refugees will have pre-determined expectations, as to how they will be taught, that may not be met (Tomlinson, 2005.; Oxford, Massey & Anand, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>The refugee student will come to the tutoring setting with unspoken expectations of the tutor ( Auerbach, 1995). . </li></ul><ul><li>The tutor cannot assume that a student used to an autocratic teaching-style will learn in a contrasting laisse-faire setting that may be the tutors preferred approach (Brown, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors must adapt and give full consideration to student expectations (Brown, 2007) </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  8. 8. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>2. Refugees are subjected to unfamiliar cultural differences and context as well as the omnipresence of English. They can find themselves between two cultures (Crystal, 1997.; Brown, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware that English is a widespread sort-after written and spoken language. As such it has a power of its own. “English has been closely linked with imperialism and elitism ( Arndt et al.,2000 pp-195). </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers will need to address the power imbalance inherent in the learners need to understand a new cultural setting in order to develop contextual language skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply teaching language skills without reference to the cultural setting will not suffice because relating to the new cultural setting is important to English acquisition (Brown, 2007) </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  9. 9. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>3. As English dominates, spreads and develops variants teachers may increasingly ignore the need to adapt to local contexts (Matsuda, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t fall into the trap of imposing a one size fits all curriculum (Matsuda, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct local needs assessments and develop local materials that are fit for purpose (Matsuda, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Are your generic textbooks fit for purpose (Harmer, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Imposing a curriculum without a local needs assessment can be regarded as a detrimental abuse of power (Matsuda, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>A bilingual teaching approach may be employed to address power imbalance within a local context ( Auerbach, 1995, Harmer, 2007). </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  10. 10. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>4. Teachers, fearful of losing power, are adverse to the possibilities of technology in the classroom as a means of facilitating an advantage to refugee learning (Casanave, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>It’s time to be the guide on the side (Brown, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Power comes from student progress through facilitation, there is no need to take total control (Harmer, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Selected computer applications can provide a source of motivation and student empowerment (Arndt et al., 2000., Harmer, 2007). </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  11. 11. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>5. Refugees focus on text without an explicit explanation of the genre required for successful communication thereby limiting their understanding CN p410 (Paltridge, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Language relates to genre, refugee learners need to understand the intent behind the words, not just the words themselves (Paltridge, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees will gain power and SLA by gaining insight into the norms and values of their adopted community (Brown, 2007.; Norton & Toohey, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on a single text can be disempowering ( Auerbach, 1995). </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  12. 12. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>6. Teachers trained in the West incorrectly assume constructs such as critical thinking apply to all refugee cultures and teach accordingly (Casanave, 2004). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and be aware of your implied constructs ( Auerbach, 1995). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the teaching and learning implications of those constructs </li></ul></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  13. 13. Restoring the 1 on 1 power imbalance <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Those wishing to acquire a second language need to adapt. Second language teachers should consider power imbalances inherent in their practices and adapt their approaches in order that the balance be restored. </li></ul>Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038
  14. 14. Nick McMaster 272.701 Assignment 6 ID 07206038

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