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Motivating Employees


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This is a presentation re-created by E. Medrano regarding employee motivation.

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Motivating Employees

  1. 1. Motivating Employees
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define the motivation process </li></ul><ul><li>Three early theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory X and Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Needs Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing Motivating Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Issues in Motivating Employees </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Motivation Process Un- satisfied need Tension Drives Search behavior Satisfied need Reduction of tension
  4. 4. Individual and Organizational Goals… <ul><li>Should match! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  6. 6. Dislike Work Enjoy Work Avoid Responsibility Little Ambition Theory X Workers Accept Responsibility Self-Directed Theory Y Workers
  7. 7. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Motivators Hygiene Factors Extremely satisfied Neutral Extremely dissatisfied <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Company policy </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with </li></ul><ul><li>supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with </li></ul><ul><li>subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  8. 8. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Traditional View Herzberg’s View Satisfaction No Satisfaction No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Motivators Hygiene Factors
  9. 9. Current Theories of Motivation The Big Picture
  10. 10. The Three Needs Theory Affiliation (nAff) Achievement (aAch) Power (nPow)
  11. 11. What Motivates You? <ul><li>I try very hard to improve on my past performance at work. </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy competition and winning. </li></ul><ul><li>I often find myself talking to those around me about non-work matters </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy a difficult challenge </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy being in charge </li></ul><ul><li>I want to be liked by others </li></ul><ul><li>I want to know how I am progressing as I complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>I confront people who do things I disagree with </li></ul><ul><li>I tend to build close relationships with co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy setting and achieving realistic goals </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy influencing other people to get my way </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy belonging to groups and organizations </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy the satisfaction of completing a difficult task </li></ul><ul><li>I often work to gain more control over the events around me </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy working with others more than working alone </li></ul>
  12. 12. What Motivates Me? Results <ul><li>1, 4, 7, 10, 13 – nAch </li></ul><ul><li>2, 5, 8, 11, 14 – nPow </li></ul><ul><li>3, 6, 9, 12, 15 - nAff </li></ul>
  13. 13. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult but reachable </li></ul><ul><li>Two factors that influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-set </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Reinforcement Theory No Rewards Behavior Rewards Punishment Behavior
  15. 15. Designing Motivating Jobs Number of Tasks Frequency of Tasks Employee Control Feedback Job Enrichment Scope Depth Job Enlargement
  16. 16. Guidelines for Job Redesign Establishing client relationships Vertical loading Opening feedback channels Forming natural work units Combining tasks Suggested Action Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Core Job Dimensions
  17. 17. Equity Theory <ul><li>1) Compute your input/output ratio </li></ul><ul><li>2) Compare your ratio to others’ ratio </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to Motivate Martin? <ul><li>Martin is an advertising copywriter who works in the recorded music division of Mediaplex's marketing department. Martin is a hard worker and his work performance has been very good. His most recent work project involves writing direct mail letters to current and potential customers regarding new music (both live and recorded) being marketed by Mediaplex. He also sends coupons for discounts on the new music along with the direct mail letters. Recently, however, he seems to have lost interest in his work. The number of letters and coupons he mails out in a week is falling. </li></ul><ul><li>As manager of the recorded music marketing division, you have dealt with other instances of declining employee work productivity by using different incentives to motivate employees such as time off, verbal recognition, flexible hours, and free entertainment passes to Mediaplex events. You try these with Martin, but he does not respond. His work productivity continues to be below expectations. Following Mediaplex policy, you also have kept written documentation of your actions to improve this situation. What would you do next? (Keep in mind the culture of Mediaplex and remember that the marketing department is one of the most aggressive and flexible units in the company). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>1) How hard do I have to work? </li></ul><ul><li>2) What are the chances of reaching the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>3) How attractive is the goal? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Workforce Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Pay-for-Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Open-Book Management </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Stock Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>The New Workforce </li></ul>Current Motivational Issues