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Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health: EU Regional EHS Regulatory Highlights

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This handout, from the spring 2018 EHSxTech Paris meeting, includes information on the latest EU- and country-specific regulations on industrial hygiene and occupational health.

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Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health: EU Regional EHS Regulatory Highlights

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY ® EU Regional EHS Regulatory Highlights: Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Paris April 5, 2018
  2. 2. Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Required?* Required?* Required?* Required?* Required?* Austria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Belgium Yes Yes/RA Yes No Yes/RA Denmark Yes Yes/RA Yes No Yes Finland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes France Yes Yes Yes No Yes Germany Yes Yes/RA Yes Yes Yes Ireland Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes Yes Israel Yes No Yes Yes Yes Italy Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Netherlands Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes Poland Yes No Yes Yes Yes Spain Yes Yes/RA Yes Yes Yes Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes United Kingdom Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes/RA Yes Yes ® Yes= Required as Prescribed by the Regulation Yes/RA= May be Required if Idetified in a Risk Assessment No= Not Required / No Regulation 1
  3. 3. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Austria Ordinance on noise and vibrations BGBl. II 22/2006 defines limit values and preventive action for impact of noise and vibrations. Ordinance on Limit Values, BGBl. II Nr. 253/2001: contains limit values for different kind of chemical sub- stances (lead, etc). Ordinance on the protection of work- ers from exposure to optical radia- tion, BGBl. II Nr. 221/2010, defines limit values and preventive action. Ordinance on electromagnetic fields, BGBl. II Nr. 179/2016, exposure limits and preventive action. Ordinance on Exposure to Biological Agents, BGBl II 237/1998 Ordinance on needle pricks, BGBl. II Nr. 16/2013, defines working condi- tions in medical area. Workplace Ordinance BGBl. II Nr. 368/1998: defines conditions of work places in production and office (temperature, moisture, ventilation). Obligation of maintaining the pota- ble water in proper conditions can be found in federal building codes. Ordinance on Visual Display Units (BildscharbV), requires a risk assess- ment for computer workstations, in particular with regard to eye sight, physical problems and stress and sets minimum standards for comput- er work. Belgium Codex on Welfare Book III Title 1: Defines the basic requirements for workplaces regarding to structur- al elements, volumes, lighting, ventilation, temperature and social accommodation. Codex on Welfare Book V (envi- ronmental factors and physical agents): Defines requirements, limit values, action values and preventive measures for temperature, noise, vibrations, (optical) radiation and electromagnetic fields. Codex on Welfare Book VI (chemical, carcinogenic, mutagene and repro- toxic agents): Defines requirements, limit values, action values and preventive measures. Codex on Welfare Art. VI.3-4: The employer makes an inventory of all asbestos and all asbestos-containing materials. Codex on Welfare Book VII (biological agents): Defines requirements, limit values, action values and preventive measures. Rcodex on Welfare Book 1 Title 4: Defines which workers or work con- ditions needs medical surveillance. Codex on Welfare Book III Title 1: Defines the basic requirements for workplaces regarding to structur- al elements, volumes, lighting, ventilation, temperature and social accommodation. Only required for publicly accessible places (swimming pools, sports halls, hospitals, fairs, …) Codex on Welfare Art. VIII.2-3: At least every 5 years a risk analysis must be made regarding possible risks to eyesight and problems of physical and mental stress. Codex on Welfare Book VIII Title 3: Concerning the handling of loads that may form a risk, especially back injury. 2
  4. 4. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Denmark Working Environment Act, Article 15 a 1084 of 19 September 2017 Employ- er is required to prepare a written workplace assessment of the health and safety conditions (referred to as “APV”). It must be available in the workplace to all employees and the Work Environment Authority. It must be revised whenever there are changes in work, work process or methods and at least once every 3 years. The assessment should address both physical-, including ergonomic -, and psychological risks. Executive Order on the Conditions at Permanent Places of Work, Article 7 The characteristics of the workplace which must be complied with- these include design of the workplace, work space, lighting, temperature, ventilation, access and egress. Every employee should be able to conduct their task without risk for health and safety. Executive Order 507 17/05/2011 and Work Environment Authority Guide on exposure levels C.0.1 contains the exposure levels for chemicals and so on for the employee. Working Environment Act, Article 15 a 1084 of 19 September 2017 Employ- er is required to prepare a written workplace assessment of the health and safety conditions (referred to as “APV”). It must be available in the workplace to all employees and the Work Environment Authority. It must be revised whenever there are changes in work, work process or methods and at least once every 3 years. The assessment should address both physical-, including ergonomic -, and psychological risks. Work Environment Authority Guide on design of the workplace A.1.9-6 Feb 2016: The ventilation on each work space shall be adequate. N/A Working Environment Act, Article16 1084 of 19 September 2017 The employer shall ensure, that there is effective supervision of work being performed in a safe and healthy manner. Work Environment Authority Guide on Screen Work D.2.3 The work- place and equipment requirements regarding display screen equipment and workstation ergonomics. Work Environment Authoity Guide on design of the work place A.1.9-6 Feb 2016 and A.0.2 April 2003 Guides on how the Work Place shall be designed in order to ensure the health and safety for the employee. 3
  5. 5. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Finland Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002, 39 § Employees’ exposure to thermal conditions, noise, pres- sure, vibration, radiation or other physical agents that cause hazards or risks to safety or health shall be re- duced to such a level that no hazard or risk from these agents is caused to the employees’ safety or health or reproductive health. The risks from electrical equipment, the use of electricity and static elec- tricity shall be as low as possible. 85/2006 Government Decree on the Protection of Workers From the Dangers of Excess Noise. Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002: 40 § Employees’ exposure to biological agents that cause hazards or risks to safety or health shall be reduced to such a level that no hazard or risk from these agents is caused to the employees’ safety or health or reproductive health. Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002, Section 23 Ventilation of workplaces must be appropriate and effective Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002, Section 33 There shall be enough satisfactory air to breathe at workplaces. The ventilation, volume and area of workrooms shall be ad- equate. There must also be enough room for working. Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002: 40 § Employees’ exposure to biological agents that cause hazards or risks to safety or health shall be reduced to such a level that no hazard or risk from these agents is caused to the employees’ safety or health or reproductive health. Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002, Section 24(1) To reduce the risk to employees working with display screen equipment, the employer will make it as safe as possible. Occupational Safety and Health Act 738/2002: 24 §, 26 § The working environment shall be safe, healty and ergonomic for the employees and necessary working aids shall be provided e.g. for lifting. France Labor code, Art. R4431-2 The exposure limit values and the ex- posure values triggering preventive action are set out in the following table: EXPOSURE VALUES - EXPOSURE LEVEL 1° Exposure limit values - Daily noise exposure level of 87 dB (A) or peak sound pressure level of 140 dB (C) 2° Upper exposure values triggering the preventive action provided for in article R. 4434-3, in 2° of article R. 4434-7, and in R. 4435-1 - Daily exposure level to noise of 85 dB (A) or peak sound pressure level of 137 dB (C) 3° Lower exposure values triggering the preventive action provided for in 1° of article R. 4434-7 and in articles R. 4435-2 and R. 4436-1 - Daily noise exposure level of 80 dB (A) or peak sound pressure level of 135 dB (C) Labor code, Art. R4422-1 and follow- ing articles The employer takes preventative measures to eliminate or minimize risks from exposure to biological agents. For any activity that may pose a risk of exposure to biological agents, the employer determines the nature, duration and conditions of worker exposure. When the nature of the activity per- mits, the employer avoids the use of a biological agent that is hazardous to the health of workers, replacing it with a biological agent which, taking into account the conditions of use and the condition knowledge, is not or is less dangerous. Labor code, Art. R4222-4 In offices, ventilation is provided either by mechanical ventilation or by permanent natural ventilation. In the latter case, the premises shall have opening doors directly to the outside and their controls shall be accessible to the occupants. Act of October 10th, 1987, Art. 3 Non-specific pollution premises 1. For premises with non-specific pollution, the reference value dossier referred to in Article 2 (a) shall - contain the following information: - minimum overall fresh air flow rate; - minimum fresh air flow rate per room; - static pressures or air velocities, at characteristic points of the installa- tions, associated with flows; characteristics of the installed filters, efficiency class, initial and maximum permissible pressure drop. Applicable only for ERP - Establish- ment Receiving Public Labor code, Art. R4542 Use of display screen equipment (computer workstations) Labor code, Art. R4222 - R4225 Workplace requirements e.g. ventila- tion, temperature, welfare facilities Labor code Art. L4121-2 The employer shall implement the measures provided for in Article L. 4121-1 on the basis of the following general principles of prevention: (...) Adapt work to the human being, particularly regarding the design of workstations and the choice of work equipment and work and production methods, in such a way as to limit monotonous and time-consuming work and reduce their effects on health;(...) Training: See sheet “Training” 4
  6. 6. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers France (continued) Labor code, Art.R 4434-7 Where it is impossible to avoid the risks arising from exposure to noise by other means, appropriate and properly adapted individual hearing protectors shall be made available to workers under the following conditions: 1º When exposure to noise exceeds the lower exposure values defined in Article R. 4431-2 (3º), the employer shall make individual hearing protec- tors available to workers; 2º When exposure to noise equals or exceeds the higher exposure values defined in 2º Article R. 4431- 2, the employer shall ensure that individual hearing protectors are effectively used. Labor code, Art R4434-3 Workplaces where workers are likely to be exposed to noise exceeding the higher exposure values, as defined in 2º of article R. 4431-2, shall be appropriately marked. Such places shall be delimited and access restricted where technically feasible and justified by the risk of exposure. For other occupationnal exposure such as electromagnetic field, chemi- cal exposure, asbestos, temperature, vibration, the labor code indicates exposure limits in the corresponding parts. When exposure of workers to a hazardous biological agent can not be avoided, it is reduced by taking the following measures: 1 ° Limitation to the lowest possible level of the number of workers exposed or likely to be exposed; 2 ° Definition of work processes and technical control or containment measures to avoid or minimize the risk of spread of biological agents in the workplace; (3) Signage, the characteristics and methods of which are fixed by a joint decree of the ministers responsible for labor, agriculture and health; 4 ° Implementation of collective pro- tection measures or, where exposure can not be avoided by other means, individual protection measures; 5 ° Implementation of appropriate hygiene measures to reduce or, where possible, avoid the risk of spreading a biological agent out of the workplace; 6 ° Establishment of plans to be implemented in case of accidents in- volving pathogenic biological agents; 7 ° Detection, if it is technically possible, of the presence, outside the containment, of pathogenic bio- logical agents used at work or, failing that, of any breach of confinement; 8 ° Implementation of procedures and means to safely, where appro- priate, after appropriate treatment, to sort, collect, store, transport and dispose of waste by workers. These means include, in particular, the use of safe and identifiable containers; 9 ° Implementation of measures allowing, during work, to handle and to transport without risk biological agents pathogens. 2. At least once a year, the following operations shall be carried out and their results reported on the mainte- nance file referred to in Article 2 (b): - Checking the overall minimum fresh air flow rate of the system; - Examination of the state of the installation elements (input and ex- haust system, ducts, fans) and more particularly of the presence and conformity of the replacement filters with the initial supply (characteris- tics, efficiency class), their dimen- sions and their pressure drop; - Examination of the condition of the air treatment systems (humidifier, exchanger battery); - Check static pressures or air veloc- ities at the characteristic points of the system when the reference value record is created. 5
  7. 7. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Germany Potential exposure and exposure limits have to be assessed (in general during the workplace risk assessment) by the employer. The obligation is set forth in different laws and regulations listed below for the different topics. Based on the re- sults gained in the risk assessments, related protection measures have to be implemented. Regulatory citations: 1. §3 & 5 Law on the performance of occupational safety and health measures to encourage improve- ments in the safety and health of workers at work (Arbeitsschutzge- setz - ArbSchG) of August 7, 1996, last amended August 31, 2015 2. §3 Accident Prevention Rule DGUV Vorschrift 1 - Principles of Accident Prevention (Grundsätze der Prävention) of November 2013 3. §3 Ordinance on Workplaces (Arbeitsstättenverordnung - Arb- StättV) of August 12, 2004, last amended October 18, 2017 4. §3 Ordinance on Noise and Vibration Protection (Lärm- und Vibrations-Arbeitsschutzverord- nung - LärmVibrationsArbSchV) of March 6, 2007; last amended on October 18, 2017 5. §6 Ordinance on Hazardous Ma- terials (Gefahrstoffverordnung - GefStoffV) of November 26, 2010; last amended March 29, 2017. European Law and the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act (ArbSchG) are implemented based on the Ordinance on Health and Safety during Activities with Biological Agents (in short: Biological Agents Ordinance; Biostoffver- ordnung - BioStoffV). An overview of other legal texts that are of relevance to biological industrial agents is following: • Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work • Council directive 2010/32/EU of 10 May 2010 implementing the Framework Agreement on prevention from sharp injuries in the hospital and healthcare sector concluded by HOSPEEM and EPSU • Genetic Engineering Act (GenTG) • Ordinance on the Security Levels and Safety Measures for Genetic Engineer- ing Operations in Genetic Engineering Facilities (GenTSV) • Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases (IfSG) • Ordinance on Work with Epizootic Diseases (TierSeuchErV) • Law on the protection of crops (PflSchG) According to §3 BioStoffV and §5 ArbSchG, the employer shall evaluate the risk for his/her employees resulting from activities involving biological agents prior to the start of such activities. Overall, in Germany there is no obligatory vaccination. The Ordinance on Occupational Health Care (Verordnung zur arbeitsmediz- inischen Vorsorge, ArbMedVV) and the medical rule AMR6.5 Impfungen als Bestandteil der arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorge bei Tätigkeiten mit biologischen Arbeitsstoffen includes details on manda- tory health care and optional health care; as well as how vaccines are handled. Occupational Safety and Health Act (ArbSchG) §4 General Duties. The employer must ensure that the workplace is designed in such a man- ner, that hazards for the health and safety of the workers are prevented and the remaining hazards are kept as low as possible. Technical Rules for the ventilation of workplaces (ASR A3.6) 4.1 (1). In enclosed working areas, there must be a sufficient amount of respiratory air in the workplace. As a rule, this corresponds to the outdoor air qual- ity. Should the outside air be unduly burdened or visibly impaired for the purposes of immission control leg- islation, e.g. Exhaust air taken from extraction or RLT systems, heavy traffic, poorly ventilated areas, spe- cial measures must be taken as part of the risk assessment (for example, elimination of sources, installation of the intake opening for air condition- ing systems). Drinking Water Ordinance (Trink- wasserverordnung - TrinkwV) § 14ff. Drinking water has to comply with the thresholds for legionella listed in annex 1. The drinking water must be checked for legionella in intervals of maximum 3 years, if the boiler has a capacity of more than 400 l, and/ or > 3 liters of water are contained in the pipe between the boiler and the outlet, showers or other installa- tions where nebulization can be generated. The TrinkwV 2001 sets quality requirements for water intended for human consumption in terms of microbiological standards (water intended for human consumption must not contain Escherichia coli), chemical standards (the limit values set in Annex 2 to TrinkwV, such as for cyanide, plant protection products/ biocides, and mercury must not be exceeded), indicator parameters (the values listed in Annex 3 to TrinkwV 2001, such as for chloride and sodi- um must not be exceeded). Where these requirements are not met, the authorities can decide, if the water supply must be stopped or can be continued, depending on the risk for human health in the particular case. According to §§ 3-4 Ordinance on Work- places (ArbStättV), the company applies the general protection goals of health and safety at the workplace to ergonomic re- quirements. The Ordinance on Workplaces (Arbeitsstättenverordnung - ArbStättV) does not set specific requirements on equipment of workplaces with seating facilities. Instead, the general protection goals of health and safety at the work- place, including ergonomic issues, apply. The general protection goals of health and safety at the workplace include, for example, a risk assessment for workplaces considering ergonomic requirement, and implementing corresponding protection measures. According to § 3ff Ordinance on Work- places (ArbStättV) and DGUV Information 215-410 Visual Display Units and Office Work Places (DGUV Information 215-410), the employer assesses the safety and health conditions at VDUs, in particular, with regard to possible risks to sight. It shall be ensured that the work at VDUs is regularly interrupted with other tasks or regular breaks. The employer shall offer eye examination for the employees concerned prior to commencing work and regularly thereafter. If, as a result of the eye examination, employees working at VDUs require special corrective lenses for work at VDUs, the company provides the employees with such corrective lenses. If employees are working at visual display units (VDUs), the company provides VDUs that meet the technical and ergonomic requirements established in the Annex no. 6 of the ArbStättV in relation to the equipment, the environment at work and the operator interface. According to §3 Labour Protection Act (ArbSchG) and Ordinance on Health and Safety Protection when Handling Manual Loads (LasthandhabV), the employer car- ries out a risk assessment of the operating conditions with load, in which it takes into account weight, centre of gravity, personal protective equipment etc. as listed in the Annex to the Ordinance on Manual Handling of Loads. 6
  8. 8. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Germany (continued) In Germany, if vaccines are recom- mended, the employee can refuse to get the vaccination. If rejected, the vaccine hast to be re-offered during the next medical care. The employee can be carried out even if the employee refused the vaccine offer. If the doctor considers a change of activity due to a lack of immune pro- tection to be appropriate, this com- munication to the employer requires the consent of the employee. According to §8 ArbSchG, where workers of several employers are working at one place of work, the employers shall be obliged to coop- erate when it comes to implement- ing safety and health protection regulations. The employer takes all measures to avoid any manual handling of loads which would involve any risk for the safety and health of employees. All employees involved in the manual handling of loads are trained on the appropriate handling of loads and in- formed of the risks to which they are exposed, in particular, if the activity is no carried out adequately. Ireland Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 6 & 7 - Workplace temperature and ventilation require- ments. Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 19 - Requires em- ployers to risk assess work activities and potential risks to employees including exposure to chemicals tak- ing into account Workplace Exposure Limits. Health/Medical Surveillance requirements would be determined from risk assessment. Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 124 - Requires employers to conduct noise assess- ments if noise levels likely above lower action level (80dB(A)) and if noise levels are recorded above the action levels in the regulations to im- plement control measures following the principles of prevention set out in Schedule 3 of the Regulations. Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 19 - Requires em- ployers to risk assess work activities and potential risks to employees including exposure to blood born pathogens or contagious diseases. When the risk is known, you need to take suitable precautions to protect their health. You must also give employees adequate information, instruction and training on any risks to their health which they may face at work. Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 19 - Requires em- ployers to risk assess work activities and potential risks to employees including potential Indoor Air Quality issues relating to chemicals and workplace exposure limits. Addition- al monitoring requirements would be determined from risk assessment. Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 7 - Workplace venti- lation requirements. Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 - Under the Act, every employer must prepare a safety statement which is based on an identification of the hazards and an assessment of the risks to the Safety, Health and Welfare of his / her employees. In carrying out the risk assessment, consideration must be given to the risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria. Where a risk is identified, the safety statement must specify the control measures in place to control or mi- nimise the risk of exposure. The Act also requires those who have control to any extent of a place of work, for example, a management company which looks after water services, to carry out a risk assessment in relation to their duty to persons other than their employees. In doing so, they must consider the risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria. The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regu- lations 2007. Regulations 68 & 69 Manual Handling of Loads Requirement to carry out a man- ual handling risk assessment and training, for safe handling of loads, where handling cannot be avoided. Take account of Schedule 3 which takes account of factors to consider; task, load, working environment and individual capability. The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007. Regulation 72 covers the use of display screen equipment (computer workstations) and requires employers to perform an analysis of the workstation in order to evaluate the safety and health conditions to which it gives rise for the employees, particularly as regards possible risks to eyesight, physical problems and problems of mental stress, and, on the basis of that evaluation, take appropriate measures to remedy any risks found. 7
  9. 9. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Ireland (continued) Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 Regulation 136 - where employees are or are likely to be exposed to risks to their safety or health arising from exposure to mechanical vibration during their work, make a suitable and appropriate assessment of the risk arising from such exposure. Israel Hazardous Waste: Work Safety Regula- tions (Workers with Pesticides), 1964. Ministry of Environment, Hazardous Sub- stances, Hazardous Substances law, 1993. Ministry of Environment, Hazardous Sub- stances, Hazardous Substances law, 1993. Hazardous Substances: Licensing of Businesses Regulations (Disposal of Haz- ardous Wastes), 1990. Abatement of Nuisances Regulations (Air Quality), 1992. Hazardous Substances: Hazardous Sub- stances Regulations (Classification and Exemption), 1996 Labor Laws: Work Safety Ordinance (New Version) 5730-1970, Article Eight: Danger- ous Fumes. Montreal protocol: Hazardous Sub- stances Regulations (Implementation of Provisions of the Montreal Protocol), (Amendment) 2009. Ministry of Environmental Protection, Air Quality, “Abatement of Nuisances Regula- tions (Air Quality). Work Safety Ordinance (New Version) 5730 – 1970, Reg 120 - 128. Workplace Safety Regulations (Personal Protective Equipment) 1997. N/A Occupational Health Ordinance, 1945, Article 3 Ministry of Industry Trade and Labor, Labor Laws, “Work Safety Ordinance (New Version) 5730-1970”. Ministry of Environmental Protection water law, 1959. Occupational Health Ordinance, 1945, Article 3. 8
  10. 10. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Italy Decree 81/2008, Article 17 The Risk Assessment includes the evaluation of all the potential specific risk exposures, based on the activities performed by the workers, for example: • physical agents exposure (noise, vibrations); • electromagnetic field exposure; • optical artificial radiations expo- sure; • carcinogens and mutagens agents exposure; • asbestos exposure. Based on the results of the assess- ment, the Occupational Doctor pre- pares the Medical Protocol, including the periodic exams to be performed. Decree 81/2008, Article 17 Blood Born Pathegons and Conta- gious Diseases risks are evaluated as Biological risk in the Risk Assessment Document (DVR). Decree 81/2008, Article 17 In-Door Air Quality risks are evaluat- ed as Workplace microclimate risks in the Risk Assessment Document (DVR). Decree 81/2008, Article 17 Legionella is evaluated as Biological risk in the Risk Assessment Docu- ment (DVR). According to the “Guidelines for the prevention and control of legio- nellosis”, published in 2015, the Legionellosis Risk Control Protocol must be applied in every structure (both civil and industrial) where there are plants potentially at risk of legionellosis. Decree 81/2008, Article 17 Ergonomics risks are evaluated as Manual Load Handling and use of VDU risks in the Risk Assessment Document (DVR). The employer has to provide adequate equipment (chair, mouse, keyboard) and environmental condi- tion (such as desk position, sufficient artificial/natural lighting). Netherlands Chapter 6 (Physical factors) Working conditions Decree. Chapter 6 Section 9 Working Condi- tions Decree; Biological agents, cell cultures and micro organisms. Chapter 6 section 1 Working Con- ditions Decree; Temperature and ventilation. Working conditions Decree, Article 4.87 a+b (section 9). Chapter 5 Section 1 Working Condi- tions Decree; Physical load Unless this cannot reasonably be required, workplaces must be organ- ised in accordance with ergonomic principles. Chapter 5 section 2 Working Condi- tions Decree; Computer screen work Work on a computer workstation should be organised so that work is alternated with other work or by a break after not more than two consecutive hours to the extent that the load of performing the work on a computer is lightened. Chapter 7 Section 4 Working Condi- tions Decree; Provisions for specific work equipment and activities (like lifting). 9
  11. 11. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Poland Permissible concentrations of onerous factors at work (eg. chem- ical agents), including the highest allowable instantaneous concentra- tions are contained in the Regulation of the Minister of Labor and Social Policy of June 6, 2014 on the highest allowable concentrations and inten- sities of harmful factors in the work environment, as amended, (Journal of Laws of 2014, item 817). The employer, in accordance with the Regulation of the Minister of Health of February 2, 2011 on the testing and measurement of agents harmful to health in the work environment (Journal of Laws No. 33, item 166) is required to identify factors harmful to health in the work environment, and then ensure the execution of tests and measure- ments of their concentration or intensity. The employer, not later than within 30 days from the start of the plant’s operation, is obliged to perform the above tests and measurements of concentrations or intensities of harmful factors occurring in the work environment. The employer commissions tests to an authorized (accredited) laboratory. N/A Regulation of Minister of Infrastruc- ture dated 12 April 2002 on Technical requirements to be met by buildings and their locations (Official Journal of Laws of 2015, No. 1422). Article 147. Ventilation and air conditioning should provide an adequate indoor environment including air volume, cleanliness, temperature and relative humidity, speed of air movement in the room, subject to separate regulations and requirements of the Polish Norms on ventilation as well as fire safety and acoustic requirements specified in the Regulation. Mechanical or gravitational ventila- tion should be provided in rooms in- tended for human occupancy, rooms without open windows, and other spaces where health, technological or safety issues require air exchange. Regulation of Minister of Infrastruc- ture dated 12 April 2002 on Technical requirements to be met by buildings and their locations (Official Journal of Laws of 2015, No. 1422). Article 45. A building with rooms intended for human occupancy shall be provided with at least water for human consumption and for fire-fighting purposes, as required by separate provisions. In other buildings, the water supply should be based on their use and the need for fire protection. Articles 315-322. The building should be designed and constructed in such a way that atmospheric precipita- tion, water in the ground and its surface, water used in the building and water vapor in the air in this building do not endanger health and hygiene. Ordinance of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 1 December 1998 on Labour Safety and Hygiene at Workplaces Equipped with Display Monitors [Dz. U. 1998, No.148, Item 973]. Art. 4. An employer shall organize workstations with display screens in such a way as to meet the minimum requirements of health and safety and ergonomics set out in the Annex to this regulation. Art. 7.2. An employer shall provide at least a 5 minute break (included in the work time) after each hour of work at the screen monitor or to mix the work at the computer with the work that does not put a strain on vision and can be performed in other body positions. 10
  12. 12. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Spain 1) Royal Decree 486/1997 on the Minimum safety and health require- ments in the workplace, Annex III Workplace requirements e.g. tem- perature, ventilation, cleanliness, welfare facilities 2) Royal Decree 286/2006 of March 10, on protection of workers against risks related to exposure to noise Article 6 The facility must conduct a noise evaluation of workers to determine if noise limits have been exceeded which must consist of the following : – An evaluation of existing work- places; – Additional evaluations of any newly-created work position, or of any existing position that is affected by modifications that could cause a significant variation in the noise exposure for any workers; and – Periodic evaluation conducted annually (as a minimum) in any workplaces where the daily equiva- lent level or the peak level exceeds 85 dBA or 137 dBA, respectively; or every three years if in areas where these limits are not exceeded but the daily equivalent level or the peak level exceeds 80 dBA or 135 dBA, respectively. This evaluation must include noise monitoring, conducted in accordance with the criteria set forth in Appen- dix 15-C. Article 9 If the noise evaluation indicates that the daily equivalent level of a workplace exceeds 80 dBA, workers must be provided with information and training relating to the following: – The nature of the noise exposure risk; 1) Act 31/1995 on Prevention of Occupational Risks, Article 22 The facility must conduct period- ic medical surveillance exams to determine the health status of workers. Medical surveillance exams are based on the risk assessment and can only be conducted with the consent of the workers concerned or when specifically required by law and the results of all monitoring must remain confidential. Access to medical information is restricted to the concerned worker, medical personnel and health authorities. 2) Royal Decree 664/1997 of May 12, on the Protection of Workers Against Risks Related to the Exposure of Bio- logical Agents in the Workplace. Article 4 establishes that if any biological agents are used at the facility, the facility must conduct an evaluation of any workers affected by such exposure. This evaluation must determine the nature, degree and duration of the exposure to the workers. This evaluation must be repeated periodically (not further defined), as well as any time a change in conditions occurs that could affect the exposure of workers to biological agents, or in any case when an infection or illness detected for any worker is suspected of being caused by an exposure to any biolog- ical agent at the facility. Biological agents are classified by the risk of infection they pose (Article 3 and Annex II, as amended). Further actions are required depend- ing on the results of the evaluation. Royal Decree 486/1997 on the Minimum safety and health require- ments in the workplace. Establishes the workplace requirements e.g. temperature, ventilation, cleanliness, welfare facilities, lightning, etc. 1) Royal Decree 865/2003 of July 4, Establishing Sanitary Criteria for the Prevention and Control of Legionella. The Regulation identifies systems or installations according to the risk of proliferanting of Legionella. Based on the classification, maintenance and desinfectation processes are required including registration pro- cesses and training needs. 2) Royal Decree 140/2003 of 7 February 2003, on Drinking Water Quality (as amended through Order SAS/1915/2009 of 8 July 2009]. This Royal Decree implements EU Directive 98/83/EC on drinking water quality, setting forth the criteria on the quality of water for human consumption. Royal Decree 486/1997, Establishing the Minimum Health and Safety Re- quirements in the Workplace, Annex. Annex I A Workplaces must comply with the requirements relating to room dimensions and space (Annex I, A1 and 2), ramps and fixed stairs (Annex I, A7), fixed ladders (Annex I, A8), floors, openings, uneven surfaces and railings (Annex I, A3), partitions, windows and wall open- ings (Annex I, A4), circulation routes (Annexo I, A5), and doors and gates (Annex I, A6) established in Annex IA. Ergonomics (Manual Handling, Lifting, etc...) Art. 3 Risk assessment of manual handling activities. The facility must ensure the following: – It evaluates the risk of any such handling taking into consideration the factors listed in Annex, including their possible combined effects; and – If manual handling cannot be avoided to complete the work, the following must be implemented: – Adequate organizational measures; – Other appropriate measures; and/ or – The provision of measures to reduce the risk caused by such handling. Training and consultatipon process are regulated in Articles 4 and 5. 11
  13. 13. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Spain (continued) – The preventive and corrective measures to be adopted to eliminate or minimize noise exposure risks; – The daily equivalent levels and the peak levels, according to the requirements established in Article 5 of Royal Decree 286/2006 ; – The results of their noise evaluation exposure and their potential hearing risks; – The proper use and maintenance of hearing protection devices; – Information on how to detect possible deteriorations in hearing capabilities; – The circumstances for which a specific health surveillance is required; and – The safe working practices to minimize exposure to noise. Article 10 The facility must provide to the members of the in-house health and safety personnel and to any worker representatives the following information: – Permission to be present when any noise evaluation is conducted; – Information pertaining to the results of any noise evalu- ation and permission to obtain any clarifications necessary for understanding the significance of the results; and – Information pertaining to preventive measures to be adopted, based on the results of the evaluation. 3) Others regulating activities when the risk of exposure is identified, for example: Carcinogens: Royal Decree 665/1997 of December 5, on the Protection of Workers from the Risks to Exposure to Carcinogens at Work and Royal Decree 349/2003, Sole Article, Section Three. Asbestos: Royal Decree 396/2006 of 31 March 2006, Estab- lishing Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risk of Exposure to Asbestos Chemicals: Royal Decree 374/2001, of April 6, 2001 on Workers Protection against Chemical Agents. Radiation: Royal Decree 783/2001, of July 6, approving the Regulation on health protection against ionizing radiation, Royal Decree 486/2010, of 23 April, on the protection of the health and safety of workers against the risks related to exposure to artificial optical radiation and Royal Decree 299/2016, of July 22, on the protection of the health and safety of workers against the risks related to exposure to electromagnetic fields. 12
  14. 14. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Sweden Noise AFS 2005:16 Work must be planned, conduct- ed and monitored so that noise exposure is reduced by eliminating the noise at source or reduced to a minimum. Account shall be taken of technical developments and possibil- ities to limit noise. Risk assessment The employer must investigate work- ing conditions and assess the risks resulting from exposure to noise at work. Noise measurements should be done when necessary. Docu- mented risk assessments should be carried out periodically and revised for changes in the operation or when required. Assessments should be documented. Microbiological Occupational Safety Hazards - Infection, Toxin Impact, Sensitivity (AFS 2005: 1) Section 11 Handling and delivery of waste and other contaminated materials shall be carried out in accordance with pre-established procedures to avoid health risks. Contaminated waste should be pack- aged safely so that nothing can leak. Blood and others non-contaminated body fluids must be transported safely and so that spillage or leakage does not occur. Sharp objects used on humans or animals should be handled and handed over so that they do not cause damage or risk transmitting infections. Containers for sharp and cutting waste should be safe against break- throughs of sharp subject. Such containers may not be reused. Anyone who carries or carries out waste and contaminated materials must receive the necessary informa- tion about the material as well as the risks of its handling and the need for protective measures. The Swedish Work Environment Authority’s Regulation (AFS 2009:2) on Workplace Design Includes requirements regarding all parameters of the workplace design: climate, ventilation and air quality, lighting, including natural daylight, sanitary provisions, installations for drinking water, wastewater, heating and cooling, rest areas, kitchens and dressing rooms, noise and acoustics, electricity, equipment, floors, walls and ceilings, windows and doors, aisles and stairs, incident protection and emergency equipment, opera- tion and maintenance Section 18 of the Swedish Work Environment Authority’s regulations on the design of the workplace (AFS 2009: 2) “One should also take into account where the cooling tower is located, since there is a risk of spreading legionella bacteria if aerosol from the cooling tower is spreaf to venti- alation” The Swedish Work Environment Authority’s Regulation (AFS 1998:5) on Work at Visual Display Units Computer monitors and keyboard shall be easily readable and shall be designed in such a way as to facilitate use. The workstation shall be dimen- sioned, designed and equipped so that the operator can find comfort- able work postures and vary work postures and working movements. 13
  15. 15. ® Country Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Personal Exposure Limits Bloodborne Pathogens/ Contagious Diseases Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Potable Water (Legionella) Ergonomics Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers Regulation Name Brief Summary Regulatory Triggers United Kingdom Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992, Regulation 6 & 7 - set workplace temperature and ventilation requirements. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, Regulations 6 & 7 requires employers to risk as- sess handling and potential exposure to chemicals taking into account Workplace Exposure Limits. Control measures including Health/Medical Surveillance requirements would be determined from risk assessment. Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 Regulation 5 & 6 requires employers to conduct noise assess- ments if noise levels likely above lower action level (80dB(A)) and if noise levels are recorded above the action levels in the regulations to im- plement control measures following the principles of prevention. Control of Vibration at Work Regu- lation 2005 Regulation 5 & 6 states that where employees are or are likely to be exposed to risks to their safety or health arising from expo- sure to mechanical vibration during their work, employers must make a suitable and appropriate assess- ment of the risk arising from such exposure and implement control measures following the principles of prevention. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (as amended) - Under COSHH you have a legal duty to assess the risk of infection for employees and others affected by your work if working with blood born pathogens or contagious diseases. When the risk is known, you need to take suitable precautions to protect their health. You must also give employees adequate information, instruction and training on any risks to their health which they may face at work. Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013 (RIDDOR) requires employers to report certain incidents and dan- gerous occurrences to your relevant enforcing authority. Incidents such as a puncture wound from a needle known to contain blood contami- nated with a Blood Born Pathogen should be reported as a dangerous occurrence. Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992, Regulation 6 Ventilation requirements Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, Regulation 5,6 & 10 requires employers to risk assess work activities and poten- tial risks to employees including potential Indoor Air Quality issues relating to chemicals and workplace exposure limits. Control measures must be introduced including indoor air quality monitoring as determined from risk assessment. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, Regula- tion 3, COSHH Regulations 2002, Regulation 6 and ACOP L8 Legio- nella includes the requirement to conduct Legionella Risk Assessment and where applicable complete a management plan and implement required control measures. The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992, Reg 6 & 7 Training employees on correct use of computer workstations and provision of information regarding the risks associated with screen work and the results of risk assessment. Manual Handling Operations Regula- tions 1992, Regulation 4 Manual handling risk assessment and training - safe handling of loads. 14

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