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AI	Tutors	
Why	we	need	them		
and	how	they	will	work.	
Anshul	Bhagi	
MIT	‘11	/	‘12	
HBS	‘17	
1
4	takeaways	for	today	
	
1)	1-on-1	tutors	are	great	but	don’t	scale	
2)	Scalable	+	effecHve	AI	tutors	are	within	reach	
	
3...
Why	AI	for	Ed?	
1	on	1	tutor	for	everybody,	any7me,	anywhere	
3	
Source:	Bloom	(1984)	research	on	impact	of	1-on-1	tutorin...
Why	now:	AI	tutors	are	within	reach	
Jill Watson
+
4	AI	Tutors:	tech-talk	@	HBS.	Anshul	Bhagi
What	AI	Tutors	can	do	
Answer	ques7ons	based	on	past	Q&A	
	
“Read”,	“learn”,	and	share	knowledge	
	
Generate	ques7ons	for	...
old	way:		
based	on	text	similarity	
new	way:		
based	on	meanings	
Informa7on	Retrieval	
finding	answers	to	quesHons	
6	AI	...
“Seman7c	Space”	and	word	vectors	
•  Turn	words	into	mulH-dimensional	vectors	
•  SemanHcally	similar		
			words	closer	to...
Emoji	vectors	
8	
Source:	Dango	messaging	app.	Learned	representaHons	of	Emojis	in	2D	space.	
AI	Tutors:	tech-talk	@	HBS.	...
From	word	vectors	to	sentence	vectors	
1)  Use	word	counts	(TF-IDF)	
	
2)  Take	average	of	word	vectors	(pre-trained)	
	
3...
Ques7ons	as	vectors	
finding	closest	past	quesHon	->	answer	
	
10	AI	Tutors:	tech-talk	@	HBS.	Anshul	Bhagi
SochoBot	
Live	Demo	
11	AI	Tutors:	tech-talk	@	HBS.	Anshul	Bhagi	
hips://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azzLNPU17Go
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AI Tutors: Why we need them and How they will work

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A tech talk by Anshul Bhagi at Harvard Business School.

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AI Tutors: Why we need them and How they will work

  1. 1. AI Tutors Why we need them and how they will work. Anshul Bhagi MIT ‘11 / ‘12 HBS ‘17 1
  2. 2. 4 takeaways for today 1) 1-on-1 tutors are great but don’t scale 2) Scalable + effecHve AI tutors are within reach 3) Basic approach to making machines ‘understand’: vector representaHon of words / knowledge 4) Go-to-market strategy for AI tutors: narrow domains, retrieval based, human-first 2 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  3. 3. Why AI for Ed? 1 on 1 tutor for everybody, any7me, anywhere 3 Source: Bloom (1984) research on impact of 1-on-1 tutoring AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  4. 4. Why now: AI tutors are within reach Jill Watson + 4 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  5. 5. What AI Tutors can do Answer ques7ons based on past Q&A “Read”, “learn”, and share knowledge Generate ques7ons for text they see Have long conversa7ons, be personal assistants to students Informa7on Retrieval Neural Ques7on Genera7on Machine Comprehension Intent-classifica7on, Reinforcement Learning, Long-term memory, etc. Retrieval vs. GeneraHve Closed-Domain vs. Open-Domain 5 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  6. 6. old way: based on text similarity new way: based on meanings Informa7on Retrieval finding answers to quesHons 6 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  7. 7. “Seman7c Space” and word vectors •  Turn words into mulH-dimensional vectors •  SemanHcally similar words closer together 7 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  8. 8. Emoji vectors 8 Source: Dango messaging app. Learned representaHons of Emojis in 2D space. AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  9. 9. From word vectors to sentence vectors 1)  Use word counts (TF-IDF) 2)  Take average of word vectors (pre-trained) 3)  Create sentence vectors using neural predicHon approach (Doc2Vec) 9 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  10. 10. Ques7ons as vectors finding closest past quesHon -> answer 10 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi
  11. 11. SochoBot Live Demo 11 AI Tutors: tech-talk @ HBS. Anshul Bhagi hips://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azzLNPU17Go

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