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Introduction to
DAMS
BY-
ANSHIKA
BSc Hons
INTRODUCTION
WORKING PRINCIPLE
TYPES OF DAMS- GRAVITY DAM,EARTH DAM, ARCH
DAM,BUTTRESS DAM
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGE
DAMS IN INDIA
TOPIC COVERED-
 A Dam is a barrier that impounds underground stream,
constructed at a suitable location across a river to store
flowing water.
Stored water is used in-
 Hydropower
 Irrigation
 Drought and flood control
 For navigational facilities
Hydroelectric power generation
TYPES OF DAMS
GRAVITY DAMS-
These dams are
heavy and massive wall-
like structures of
concrete in which the
whole weight acts
vertically downwards
Reservoir
Force
As the entire load is transmitted on the small area of foundation, such dams are
constructed where rocks are competent and stable.
Earth Dams:
 They are trapezoidal in shape
 Earth dams are constructed
where the foundation or the
underlying material or rocks are
weak to support the masonry
dam or where the suitable
competent rocks are at greater
depth.
 Earthen dams are relatively
smaller in height and broad at
the base
 They are mainly built with clay,
sand and gravel, hence they are
also known as Earth fill dam or
Rock fill dam
 These type of dams are
concrete or masonry dams
which are curved or convex
upstream in plan
 This shape helps to transmit
the major part of the water
load to the abutments
 Arch dams are built across
narrow, deep river gorges, but
now in recent years they have
been considered even for little
wider valleys.
Arch Dams:
Buttress Dam:
 Buttress Dam – Is a
gravity dam reinforced
by structural supports
 Buttress - a support that
transmits a force from a
roof or wall to another
supporting structure
This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation rocks are little weaker
ADVANTAGES
 Cheap Electricity: The operating cost of a hydroelectric dam is
minimal as there is no costly fossil fuel required. Hydroelectric
dams also tend to last longer than thermal power plants.
 Less Emissions: Hydroelectric power plants produces less
green house gas emissions when compared to a thermal power
plant.
DISADVANTAGES
 The physical environment is altered
 Cycles and variation of flow downstream are effected
 Standing water (reservoir) habitats replace flowing water habitats
 Nutrients are unable to move downstream
 Coastal erosion is increased due to loss of sediment transportation
 Productivity and species diversity of estuaries can be reduced due to
the reduction of freshwater flow
 Reduction of biodiversity occurs
 Ocean fish migrations are blocked, most notably the salmon and
steelhead
 Causes relocation
DAMS IN INDIA
 on BHAGIRATHI RIVER
near Tehri in
Uttarakhand, India
 Multi purpose rock and
earth fill embankment
dam
 Highest dam in India and
8th highest dam in the
world
 Second largest concrete
gravity dam on Narmada
river in Gujarat
 Dam has the world’s
third largest spillway
discharging capacity
 World’s largest masonry
dam .
 Built across KRISHNA
river on NAGARJUNA
SAGAR, ANDHRA
PRADESH
 Gravity dam across
Sutlej river near Panjab
and Himachal Pradesh
 Largest dam of India
and highest gravity dam
in the world
THANK YOU

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DAMS-SlideShare

  • 2. INTRODUCTION WORKING PRINCIPLE TYPES OF DAMS- GRAVITY DAM,EARTH DAM, ARCH DAM,BUTTRESS DAM ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE DAMS IN INDIA TOPIC COVERED-
  • 3.  A Dam is a barrier that impounds underground stream, constructed at a suitable location across a river to store flowing water. Stored water is used in-  Hydropower  Irrigation  Drought and flood control  For navigational facilities
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 8. GRAVITY DAMS- These dams are heavy and massive wall- like structures of concrete in which the whole weight acts vertically downwards Reservoir Force As the entire load is transmitted on the small area of foundation, such dams are constructed where rocks are competent and stable.
  • 9. Earth Dams:  They are trapezoidal in shape  Earth dams are constructed where the foundation or the underlying material or rocks are weak to support the masonry dam or where the suitable competent rocks are at greater depth.  Earthen dams are relatively smaller in height and broad at the base  They are mainly built with clay, sand and gravel, hence they are also known as Earth fill dam or Rock fill dam
  • 10.  These type of dams are concrete or masonry dams which are curved or convex upstream in plan  This shape helps to transmit the major part of the water load to the abutments  Arch dams are built across narrow, deep river gorges, but now in recent years they have been considered even for little wider valleys. Arch Dams:
  • 11.
  • 12. Buttress Dam:  Buttress Dam – Is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports  Buttress - a support that transmits a force from a roof or wall to another supporting structure This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation rocks are little weaker
  • 14.  Cheap Electricity: The operating cost of a hydroelectric dam is minimal as there is no costly fossil fuel required. Hydroelectric dams also tend to last longer than thermal power plants.  Less Emissions: Hydroelectric power plants produces less green house gas emissions when compared to a thermal power plant.
  • 16.  The physical environment is altered  Cycles and variation of flow downstream are effected  Standing water (reservoir) habitats replace flowing water habitats  Nutrients are unable to move downstream  Coastal erosion is increased due to loss of sediment transportation  Productivity and species diversity of estuaries can be reduced due to the reduction of freshwater flow  Reduction of biodiversity occurs  Ocean fish migrations are blocked, most notably the salmon and steelhead  Causes relocation
  • 18.  on BHAGIRATHI RIVER near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India  Multi purpose rock and earth fill embankment dam  Highest dam in India and 8th highest dam in the world
  • 19.  Second largest concrete gravity dam on Narmada river in Gujarat  Dam has the world’s third largest spillway discharging capacity
  • 20.  World’s largest masonry dam .  Built across KRISHNA river on NAGARJUNA SAGAR, ANDHRA PRADESH
  • 21.  Gravity dam across Sutlej river near Panjab and Himachal Pradesh  Largest dam of India and highest gravity dam in the world