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Article about Non-verbal Communication and its types and functions

Non verbal communication Article

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NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 
“Action speaks louder than Words” 
It's well known that good communication is the foundation of any successful relationship, be it personal or 
professional. It's important to recognize, though, that it's our nonverbal communication—our facial 
expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice—that speak the loudest. The ability to 
understand and use nonverbal communication, or body language, is a powerful tool that can help you 
connect with others, express what you really mean, and build better relationships. 
What is non-verbal communication 
When we interact with others, we continuously give and receive wordless signals. All of our nonverbal 
behaviours—the gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close we stand, how 
much eye contact we make—send strong messages. These messages don't stop when you stop speaking 
either. Even when you're silent, you're still communicating nonverbally. 
Non-verbal communication is defined as the behaviour and elements of speech aside from the words 
themselves that transmit meaning. It is the transmission of messages by a medium other than speech or 
writing. Or nonverbal communication refer to those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are 
generated by the source (speaker) and his or her use of the environment , that has potential message value 
for the receiver (listener) 
Non-verbal communication includes pitch, speed, tone and volume of voice, gestures and facial expressions, 
body posture, stance, and proximity to the listener, eye movements and contact, and dress and appearance. 
Research suggests that only 5 percent effect is produced by the spoken word, 45 percent by the tone, 
inflexion, and other elements of voice, and 50 percent by body language, movements, eye contact, etc. 
In short, it represents, two third of the all communication. 
Requirement (functions) of Non-verbal Communication : 
The way you listen, look, move, and react tells the other person whether or not you care, if you’re being 
truthful, and how well you’re listening. When your nonverbal signals match up with the words you’re saying, 
they increase trust, clarity, and rapport. When they don’t, they generate tension, mistrust, and confusion. 
 Repeating : It can be used for repeating or emphasizing the verbal messages. For example pointing 
in a certain direction while stating directions. Amount of redundant non- verbal cues also adds to 
verbal message. For Instance If something tastes bad we would express our dislike accompanied 
with a disgusted look on our face. 
 Regulating : Conversation can also be regulated by non-verbal communication by controlling the 
course of Discussion. For Instance Touching someone's arm can send a signal that you wish to speak 
or that you wish to interrupt 
 Substituting : We may also substitute non-verbal cues for verbal messages. For example instead of 
actually saying “hi” or “bye” you might just wave a hand at someone. When we are not able to speak 
to a person we use a nonverbal cue and that is actually called substitution.
 Contradicting : Non-verbal messages can also be used to contradict verbal messages when they 
convey a meaning opposite to what is being said . For Instance if you ask how someone is and they 
say “good” but they roll their eyes or look down at the floor and shrug their shoulders, you know 
they are actually not good and they have just negated the verbal message they were sending. 
 Accenting : Accenting The way we emphasize certain words in order to clarify what we mean. 
Example: “NO!” or “No????” 
Nonverbal communication can convey much meaning when verbal communication isn’t effective because of 
language barriers. Language barriers are present when a person hasn’t yet learned to speak or loses the 
ability to speak. For example, babies who have not yet developed language skills make facial expressions, at 
a few months old, that are similar to those of adults and therefore can generate meaning 
Nonverbal communication is also useful in a quiet situation where verbal communication would be 
disturbing; for example, you may use a gesture to signal to a friend that you’re ready to leave the library. 
Crowded or loud places can also impede verbal communication and lead people to rely more on nonverbal 
messages. Getting a server or bartender’s attention with a hand gesture is definitely more polite than 
yelling, “Hey you!” Finally, there are just times when we know it’s better not to say something aloud. 
Types of non-verbal communication 
There are 7 major types of non-verbal communication that has an abbreviation commonly known as 
KOPPACT 
(1) KINESICS : The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and 
refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements. In other words , it is a way of communicating 
non-verbally through the body movement. 
Body movements can complement the verbal message by reinforcing the main idea. For example, you may 
be providing an orientation presentation to a customer about a software program. As you say, “Click on this 
tab,” you may also initiate that action. 
Body movements can also regulate conversations. Nodding your head to indicate that you are listening may 
encourage the customer to continue asking questions. Holding your hand up, palm out, may signal them to 
stop and provide a pause where you can start to answer. 
It mainly includes gestures, postures and the use of face expressions. 
a) Gestures – It is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate 
particular messages, either in place of, or in addition with, speech. They are the movement of hands, arms 
head, face, eyes. For example winking, nodding, rolling one’s eyes, wave hand for ‘hello’ and ‘goodbye etc. 
There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators 
 Adaptors are touching behaviours and movements that indicate internal states typically related to 
arousal or anxiety. Adaptors can be targeted toward the self, objects, or others. Many of us 
subconsciously click pens, shake our legs, or engage in other adaptors during classes, meetings, or 
while waiting as a way to do something with our excess energy. In public speaking situations, people 
most commonly use self- or object-focused adaptors. Common self-touching behaviours like 
scratching, twirling hair, or fidgeting with fingers or hands are considered self-adaptors. Other 
people play with dry-erase markers, their note cards, the change in their pockets, while speaking.
 Emblems are gestures that have a specific agreed-on meaning. Emblems are gestures that have a 
specific agreed-on meaning. Emblems can be still or in motion; for example, circling the index finger 
around at the side of your head says “He or she is crazy,” or rolling your hands over and over in front 
of you says “Move on.” 
 Illustrators are the most common type of gesture and are used to illustrate the verbal message they 
accompany. For example, you might use hand gestures to indicate the size or shape of an object. 
Unlike emblems, illustrators do not typically have meaning on their own and are used more 
subconsciously than emblems. 
b) Postures - The way the body is held is called the posture. It is the type of body positioning. For example 
slouching, sitting with crossed legs, bowing, showing soles of feet. 
There are four general human postures: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying down 
Most of our communication occurs while we are standing or sitting. One interesting standing posture 
involves putting our hands on our hips and is a nonverbal cue that we use subconsciously to make us look 
bigger and show assertiveness. When the elbows are pointed out, this prevents others from getting past us 
as easily and is a sign of attempted dominance or a gesture that says we’re ready for action. 
In terms of sitting, leaning back shows informality and indifference, straddling a chair is a sign of dominance 
(but also some insecurity because the person is protecting the vulnerable front part of his or her body), and 
leaning forward shows interest and attentiveness. 
c) Face Expressions - Our faces are the most expressive part of our body and can communicate an array of 
different emotions. Face expression play a main role in non-verbal communication . For example a simple 
smile may indicate that we are in agreement with a message or approve of the message being heard. 
Meanwhile, a scowl may indicate displeasure or disagreement with the message. 
Facial expressions include such actions as smiling, frowning, eye rolling, eye contact, scowling, and appearing 
bored or interested. Other facial expressions might indicate interest or excitement or even shock, like 
opening one's eyes or mouth widely. Winking might indicate that we are joking about the remark we made, 
or flirting with the person to whom we are speaking! Raising our eyebrows often indicates that we are 
surprised or do not believe the statement we are hearing. 
(2) OCULESICS : This non-verbal communication is how the eyes and eye movement speak in addition 
to the facial expressions. It is defined as the study of eye movement, Eye behaviour, Gaze and Eye related 
non -verbal communication. Oculesics includes the movement of pupils as well as orbital movement of the 
eye ball, blink rate and eyelid movement. The way we look, stare, blink and the pupil reactions can be 
nonverbal forms of communication. 
Interest in a person or thing will result in decrease in blinking rate and dilation of pupils. With something we 
dislike, the pupils will contract. When we take interest in something, our blink ingrate decreases and our 
eyes begin to dilate, if we dislike something our pupil's contract. It includes : 
a) Pupil Dilation: Pupillary response is change in size of pupil 
b) Gaze: Communicating a feeling or intense desire through Eyes, either voluntarily or involuntarily 
c) Eye movement: It includes changing eye direction, changing focus, following objects with eyes. 
d) Eye contact: When two people look at each other at same time. 
3) PARALINGUISTIC : It refers to the study of vocal signal beyond the basic verbal message. This 
includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and pitch. For example tone of voice can have a
powerful effect on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret 
approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a 
lack of interest. It include 
a) Pitch: Highness or lowness of voice. Speakers are seen more competent if they use a higher and more 
varied pitch of voice. We associate low pitch voices with strength, sexiness and maturity. We associate high 
pitches voices with tenseness, helplessness, & nervousness. 
b) Volume: How loudly we speak. Loud people are perceived as aggressive or overbearing. Soft stolen voices 
are perceived as timid or polite. 
c) Vocal Fillers: Words used to fill space. For example, "uh". 
d) Quality: Made up of tempo, resonance, rhythm, and articulation. 
4) PROXEMICS : Proxemics refers to the study of how space and distance influence communication. 
For example, when we are content with and attracted to someone, we say we are “close” to him or her. 
When we lose connection with someone, we may say he or she is “distant.” In general, space influences how 
people communicate and behave. It has 4 categories : 
a) Intimate Distance: 0-1.5 feet, For embracing , touching, whispering 
b) Personal Distance: 1.5 feet—4 feet, For interactions among good friends and family members 
c) Public Distance: 12 to line of sight, For public relations 
d) Social Distance: 4-12 feet, For Interaction among acquaintances 
5) ARTIFACTS : Objects having symbolic significance of personal identities and environment. Artifacts 
are forms of decorative ornamentation that are chosen to represent self-concept. They can include rings and 
tattoos, but may also include brand names and logos. From clothes to cars, watches, briefcases, purses, and 
even eyeglasses, what we choose to surround ourselves with communicates something about our sense of 
self. They may project gender, role or position, class or status, personality, and group membership or 
affiliation. 
6) CHRONEMICS: It is the study of the use of time in non-verbal communication. Across cultures, time 
perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, 
willingness to wait, and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyles, daily agendas, speed of speech, 
movements and how long people are willing to listen. Time can also be used as an indicator of status. For 
example, in most companies the boss can interrupt progress to hold an impromptu meeting in the middle of 
the work day, yet the average worker would have to make an appointment to see the boss. Time can be 
classified into several different categories, including biological, personal, physical, and cultural time. 
7) HAPTICS/TACTILICS : It refers to the study of communication by touch. Touch is necessary for 
human social development, and it can be welcoming, threatening, or persuasive. There are several types of 
touch, including 
a) Functional-professional: Medical examination, physical therapy, sports coach, music teacher 
b) Social-polite: Handshake 
c) Friendship-warmth: Hug 
d) Love-intimacy: Kiss between family members or romantic partners 
e) Sexual-arousal: Sexual caressing and intercourse 
Presentation by : 
1. Anshika Chaturvedi : A2305212445 
2. Vishesh Saluja : A2305212456 
3. Jasmeet Singh : A2305212454 
4. Rishab Bhan : A2305211081 
5. Kartik Tara : A2305212451

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Non verbal communication Article

  • 1. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION “Action speaks louder than Words” It's well known that good communication is the foundation of any successful relationship, be it personal or professional. It's important to recognize, though, that it's our nonverbal communication—our facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice—that speak the loudest. The ability to understand and use nonverbal communication, or body language, is a powerful tool that can help you connect with others, express what you really mean, and build better relationships. What is non-verbal communication When we interact with others, we continuously give and receive wordless signals. All of our nonverbal behaviours—the gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close we stand, how much eye contact we make—send strong messages. These messages don't stop when you stop speaking either. Even when you're silent, you're still communicating nonverbally. Non-verbal communication is defined as the behaviour and elements of speech aside from the words themselves that transmit meaning. It is the transmission of messages by a medium other than speech or writing. Or nonverbal communication refer to those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by the source (speaker) and his or her use of the environment , that has potential message value for the receiver (listener) Non-verbal communication includes pitch, speed, tone and volume of voice, gestures and facial expressions, body posture, stance, and proximity to the listener, eye movements and contact, and dress and appearance. Research suggests that only 5 percent effect is produced by the spoken word, 45 percent by the tone, inflexion, and other elements of voice, and 50 percent by body language, movements, eye contact, etc. In short, it represents, two third of the all communication. Requirement (functions) of Non-verbal Communication : The way you listen, look, move, and react tells the other person whether or not you care, if you’re being truthful, and how well you’re listening. When your nonverbal signals match up with the words you’re saying, they increase trust, clarity, and rapport. When they don’t, they generate tension, mistrust, and confusion.  Repeating : It can be used for repeating or emphasizing the verbal messages. For example pointing in a certain direction while stating directions. Amount of redundant non- verbal cues also adds to verbal message. For Instance If something tastes bad we would express our dislike accompanied with a disgusted look on our face.  Regulating : Conversation can also be regulated by non-verbal communication by controlling the course of Discussion. For Instance Touching someone's arm can send a signal that you wish to speak or that you wish to interrupt  Substituting : We may also substitute non-verbal cues for verbal messages. For example instead of actually saying “hi” or “bye” you might just wave a hand at someone. When we are not able to speak to a person we use a nonverbal cue and that is actually called substitution.
  • 2.  Contradicting : Non-verbal messages can also be used to contradict verbal messages when they convey a meaning opposite to what is being said . For Instance if you ask how someone is and they say “good” but they roll their eyes or look down at the floor and shrug their shoulders, you know they are actually not good and they have just negated the verbal message they were sending.  Accenting : Accenting The way we emphasize certain words in order to clarify what we mean. Example: “NO!” or “No????” Nonverbal communication can convey much meaning when verbal communication isn’t effective because of language barriers. Language barriers are present when a person hasn’t yet learned to speak or loses the ability to speak. For example, babies who have not yet developed language skills make facial expressions, at a few months old, that are similar to those of adults and therefore can generate meaning Nonverbal communication is also useful in a quiet situation where verbal communication would be disturbing; for example, you may use a gesture to signal to a friend that you’re ready to leave the library. Crowded or loud places can also impede verbal communication and lead people to rely more on nonverbal messages. Getting a server or bartender’s attention with a hand gesture is definitely more polite than yelling, “Hey you!” Finally, there are just times when we know it’s better not to say something aloud. Types of non-verbal communication There are 7 major types of non-verbal communication that has an abbreviation commonly known as KOPPACT (1) KINESICS : The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements. In other words , it is a way of communicating non-verbally through the body movement. Body movements can complement the verbal message by reinforcing the main idea. For example, you may be providing an orientation presentation to a customer about a software program. As you say, “Click on this tab,” you may also initiate that action. Body movements can also regulate conversations. Nodding your head to indicate that you are listening may encourage the customer to continue asking questions. Holding your hand up, palm out, may signal them to stop and provide a pause where you can start to answer. It mainly includes gestures, postures and the use of face expressions. a) Gestures – It is a form of non-verbal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in addition with, speech. They are the movement of hands, arms head, face, eyes. For example winking, nodding, rolling one’s eyes, wave hand for ‘hello’ and ‘goodbye etc. There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators  Adaptors are touching behaviours and movements that indicate internal states typically related to arousal or anxiety. Adaptors can be targeted toward the self, objects, or others. Many of us subconsciously click pens, shake our legs, or engage in other adaptors during classes, meetings, or while waiting as a way to do something with our excess energy. In public speaking situations, people most commonly use self- or object-focused adaptors. Common self-touching behaviours like scratching, twirling hair, or fidgeting with fingers or hands are considered self-adaptors. Other people play with dry-erase markers, their note cards, the change in their pockets, while speaking.
  • 3.  Emblems are gestures that have a specific agreed-on meaning. Emblems are gestures that have a specific agreed-on meaning. Emblems can be still or in motion; for example, circling the index finger around at the side of your head says “He or she is crazy,” or rolling your hands over and over in front of you says “Move on.”  Illustrators are the most common type of gesture and are used to illustrate the verbal message they accompany. For example, you might use hand gestures to indicate the size or shape of an object. Unlike emblems, illustrators do not typically have meaning on their own and are used more subconsciously than emblems. b) Postures - The way the body is held is called the posture. It is the type of body positioning. For example slouching, sitting with crossed legs, bowing, showing soles of feet. There are four general human postures: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying down Most of our communication occurs while we are standing or sitting. One interesting standing posture involves putting our hands on our hips and is a nonverbal cue that we use subconsciously to make us look bigger and show assertiveness. When the elbows are pointed out, this prevents others from getting past us as easily and is a sign of attempted dominance or a gesture that says we’re ready for action. In terms of sitting, leaning back shows informality and indifference, straddling a chair is a sign of dominance (but also some insecurity because the person is protecting the vulnerable front part of his or her body), and leaning forward shows interest and attentiveness. c) Face Expressions - Our faces are the most expressive part of our body and can communicate an array of different emotions. Face expression play a main role in non-verbal communication . For example a simple smile may indicate that we are in agreement with a message or approve of the message being heard. Meanwhile, a scowl may indicate displeasure or disagreement with the message. Facial expressions include such actions as smiling, frowning, eye rolling, eye contact, scowling, and appearing bored or interested. Other facial expressions might indicate interest or excitement or even shock, like opening one's eyes or mouth widely. Winking might indicate that we are joking about the remark we made, or flirting with the person to whom we are speaking! Raising our eyebrows often indicates that we are surprised or do not believe the statement we are hearing. (2) OCULESICS : This non-verbal communication is how the eyes and eye movement speak in addition to the facial expressions. It is defined as the study of eye movement, Eye behaviour, Gaze and Eye related non -verbal communication. Oculesics includes the movement of pupils as well as orbital movement of the eye ball, blink rate and eyelid movement. The way we look, stare, blink and the pupil reactions can be nonverbal forms of communication. Interest in a person or thing will result in decrease in blinking rate and dilation of pupils. With something we dislike, the pupils will contract. When we take interest in something, our blink ingrate decreases and our eyes begin to dilate, if we dislike something our pupil's contract. It includes : a) Pupil Dilation: Pupillary response is change in size of pupil b) Gaze: Communicating a feeling or intense desire through Eyes, either voluntarily or involuntarily c) Eye movement: It includes changing eye direction, changing focus, following objects with eyes. d) Eye contact: When two people look at each other at same time. 3) PARALINGUISTIC : It refers to the study of vocal signal beyond the basic verbal message. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and pitch. For example tone of voice can have a
  • 4. powerful effect on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. It include a) Pitch: Highness or lowness of voice. Speakers are seen more competent if they use a higher and more varied pitch of voice. We associate low pitch voices with strength, sexiness and maturity. We associate high pitches voices with tenseness, helplessness, & nervousness. b) Volume: How loudly we speak. Loud people are perceived as aggressive or overbearing. Soft stolen voices are perceived as timid or polite. c) Vocal Fillers: Words used to fill space. For example, "uh". d) Quality: Made up of tempo, resonance, rhythm, and articulation. 4) PROXEMICS : Proxemics refers to the study of how space and distance influence communication. For example, when we are content with and attracted to someone, we say we are “close” to him or her. When we lose connection with someone, we may say he or she is “distant.” In general, space influences how people communicate and behave. It has 4 categories : a) Intimate Distance: 0-1.5 feet, For embracing , touching, whispering b) Personal Distance: 1.5 feet—4 feet, For interactions among good friends and family members c) Public Distance: 12 to line of sight, For public relations d) Social Distance: 4-12 feet, For Interaction among acquaintances 5) ARTIFACTS : Objects having symbolic significance of personal identities and environment. Artifacts are forms of decorative ornamentation that are chosen to represent self-concept. They can include rings and tattoos, but may also include brand names and logos. From clothes to cars, watches, briefcases, purses, and even eyeglasses, what we choose to surround ourselves with communicates something about our sense of self. They may project gender, role or position, class or status, personality, and group membership or affiliation. 6) CHRONEMICS: It is the study of the use of time in non-verbal communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyles, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements and how long people are willing to listen. Time can also be used as an indicator of status. For example, in most companies the boss can interrupt progress to hold an impromptu meeting in the middle of the work day, yet the average worker would have to make an appointment to see the boss. Time can be classified into several different categories, including biological, personal, physical, and cultural time. 7) HAPTICS/TACTILICS : It refers to the study of communication by touch. Touch is necessary for human social development, and it can be welcoming, threatening, or persuasive. There are several types of touch, including a) Functional-professional: Medical examination, physical therapy, sports coach, music teacher b) Social-polite: Handshake c) Friendship-warmth: Hug d) Love-intimacy: Kiss between family members or romantic partners e) Sexual-arousal: Sexual caressing and intercourse Presentation by : 1. Anshika Chaturvedi : A2305212445 2. Vishesh Saluja : A2305212456 3. Jasmeet Singh : A2305212454 4. Rishab Bhan : A2305211081 5. Kartik Tara : A2305212451