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Module 1 – Design Concepts
1.2 Fundamental Tools of space planning, design and analysis:
Anthropometrics, Proxemics, and Ergonomics
Objective:
Topic Data:
Introduction
Types of Interior Programs
• Interior Space Program
• Site Selection Program
• Furniture Program
• Budget Program
Interior Space Program
1. It is an organizing of interior space before planning and design of an
interior project. It is an essential preplanning tool on projects that range
from medium to large scales due to their complexity. The primary purpose
of a space program is to determine the space, furniture, equipment and
special needs for move in and future.
2. The space program is the foundation of the designer's work. It acts as a
guide during the study and the preparation of space layout. It is also a
communication tool between the designer and the client. During the
development of the program, the programmer will solicit detail information
from the client about the company's history, organization, operations,
policies, personnel and group requirements. Much of the programming
effort focuses on quantitative calculations using basic unit takeoff that
derives from revision of existing space standards from the company or
from industry standards.
3. The final program book includes overall space summary for move in,
occupants and space projections for future, building feasibility analysis,
space distribution analysis and planning recommendations for the new
space. Some programmers generate additional company space statistics
by comparing the types and usage of spaces between the company's
organizational units that are meaningful to identify growth patterns and
planning directions. The statistic aims to provide interior planners with
additional information that will influence space layout decisions.

Site Selection Program
When sites are not given, one of the other program responsibility for the
programmer is to assist the client to find an appropriate site. This requires the
comparative analyses of different sites. It may include:
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neighborhood analyses
demolition cost comparisons
cost for land if the intention is to build
analyses of building facilities
analyses of building systems
analyses of future expansion accommodations
lease terms and durations
cost for improvements

Furniture Program
This is a standard program for all interior services. It is the analysis of existing
inventories as well as to identify the need for purchase for the new project.
Responsibilities include:
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collect and analyze existing inventories identifying the size, quantities,
conditions, cost for recondition
collect information on sale to refuge on exisitng inventories
collect information on discount structures from furniture manufacturers
since more purchase will result in higher discount structure
identify new furniture programs based on methods of reuse and budget
allowance and establish budget comparisons between different methods:
buy all new furniture - very rare
25% reuse of old inventories
50% reuse of old inventories
specific types of reuse - eg. reuse only existing files, storages, shelvings
and purchase the rest all new

Budget Program
There are two types of budgets for contract work. The general construction
budget and the FF&E budget. The budget estimate will be establish early on at
the beginning of the project. It will be reviewed and updated as the project
progress and more decisions are made. The realistic budget will not be firmly
established until after the generation of the contract document and the
contractors has been selected.
Initialize Program
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Setting up Planning Team
Establish Program and Management Reviews Schedule
Analyze Information handling Techniques
1. Setting up Planning Team
• At the start of a program, the programmer assists the client or his
representative to set up a planning team to deal with making decisions for
the duration of project. The team represents personnel from both the
company and the program consulting firm. A typical client's group may
include president of the company, the office manager and the office
manager's assistants. In case of a large corporation, this group includes
the facility manager and the manager's staff. The programmer's group
includes the senior director of the consultant firm, the programmer, and
the programmer's assistants. If the program involves building and
demolition evaluations, additional architect, engineers, design or
construction consultants will also be call upon to participate in the team
but not throughout the entire project.
The company group is responsible to collect, filter, verify, approve information
and the administration of the project such as meeting scheduling, program
scheduling, program budgeting, and regular communication with the program
consulting firm.
The planning team will meet regularly to make programming decisions. The initial
meetings involve setting up policy, procedures and methods for collection,
processing, verification, transmission, and approval of all data.
2. Establish Program and Management Reviews Schedule
Based on input from the client, the programmer sets the time schedule for the
duration of the project. The program schedule outlines the program procedure,
the time frame for each item on the list, and the schedules for management
reviews and approvals. Depending on the size of the project, the normal time
frame for program completion ranges from a few weeks to a few months.
Click here to view a Project Schedule
3. Analyze Information Handling Techniques
The planning team and the programmer need to determine the best method to
transmit and process information between the two parties. The planning team
should review and verify all information before sending to the programmer so as
to avoid time loss from receiving irrelevant data.
Define Problem, Scope and Goals
Define Problems and Scope
The first objective of the program is to determine the project requirements and
the scope of the problem. To achieve this, the programmer must meet with the
planning team and define the problem.
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Define company type, business and operations
Define problem whether to renovate existing space, relocate to a new
leasing space or build a new building
Define location of project whether to relocate to specific area, specific
building or explore new sites
Define major operational requirements: size of company, total number of
employees and approximate overall space requirements
Define existing problems such as communications, reorganizations,
productivity, flexibility, and security, storages, environmental or technical
Define physical constraints such as space size and location, proximity
requirements, furniture, materials and equipment’s limitations if any
Define environmental constraints such as lighting, acoustics and humidity
if required in any areas

Define Design Goals
The programmer need to define the client expects to achieve in the new project.
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Define company image to public if any
Define operational goals such as ease of communication, maintenance,
and adaptability to changes
Define aesthetic needs such as client's preference for style, mood,
character and quality
Define company's future planning directions and space projections such
as personnel projections, implementation of new equipment, automations,
new operations and management
Define budget goals at initial move in and future replacements
Define time for project completion

Define Program Goals
The programmer must also document the purposes of the space program and
the expected results of the program. The major goal of the program is to
generate the overall space requirement for the company for both move in and
future. Other goals may include:
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Update company organizational charts
Revise or develop work station standards
Generate space summary of each organizational units and subunits
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Generate overall company space summary
Generate company space statistics
Generate adjacency information and diagrams
Generate distribution summary, blocking and layering diagrams
Generate planning guidelines and recommendations for the new space

Develop Data Base and Collect Data
Before any data collection, the programmer first identifies the data base and
develops the methodologies for data collection. Through interviews and
discussions with the client, the programmer reviews, verifies and filters all data
received and resolves any discrepancies that might arise during the process.
Information to be collected:
The types and the amount of information to be collected vary according to the
need, complexity and history of the company. Information list:
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Collect company background:
Existing company image
nature of business
company historical data from 5 to 20 years if available
company administrative policies
company organization structure
personnel hierarchy
dramatic changes in the past and their influence

• Collect information on all organizational units and subunits
existing organizational units and subunit names
existing organizational units and subunit codes
existing company organization chart showing company structure and
relationships of major units or subunits
existing personnel organization charts of each organizational unit showing the
names of individual users, job categories, hierarchy, and how they relate to each
other within each unit.
• Collect existing personnel information
names of hierarchy levels : executives, managements, mid-managements, lowmanagements, supervisory, non-supervisory, professionals, non-professionals,
non-managements
listing of types of spaces: private, semiprivate, open
listing of all personnel job categories and how they relate to each hierarchy level
listing of existing space standards showing space sizes, furniture sizes, types
and area arrangements with assignment to corresponding job categories
policies regulating selection options of finishes and accessories with
corresponding job categories
• Collect existing operational requirements by unit:
Listing of personnel requirements by organizational unit showing corresponding
job categories and existing space standards assignments
listing of support space requirements for work groups within each organizational
unit: space size, furniture, equipment, area arrangements and any special
conditions
listing of special use area requirements within each organizational unit: space
size, furniture, equipment area arrangement and any special conditions
Listing of common use area requirements that are shared by all organizational
units on the company level: space size, furniture, equipment area arrangement
and special conditions
• Collect communication requirements
Adjacency information between organizational units or subunits
adjacency information between common use spaces and the organizational units
adjacency information between individuals within each organizational units or
subunits
adjacency information between support and special use spaces with individuals
within each organizational unit or subunits
Listing of organizational units and subunits with frequent public contact
Listing of organizational units with heavy paper flow
Listing of organizational units with frequent telephone, fax or computer contacts
• Collect information on existing inventories
Document existing furniture and equipments by types, styles, sizes,
manufacturers
Identify items that are reusable and in good condition
Identify items that are reusable but requires refinishing or reupholstering
Identify items that are salvageable for resale
Identify items that are to be thrown away
• Collect personnel history and forecast
Collect personnel historical data of each organizational unit and subunit and that
of the total company if available
Identify significant data that is used for past personnel projection if available
Collect personnel forecast from Personnel unit or from Administrative unit
Collect personnel forecast from each organizational unit showing specific job
categories if available
Collect group space forecast if available
Identify any issues or use of technology that might affect future personnel and
space forecast
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Identify constrains, existing and/or anticipated problems
Listing of design priorities
Listing of budget priorities
Identify time schedule
Identify quality expectation: expensive, average or economical
Identify building constrains: size, shape, location, building modules, mechanical,
structural, electrical, communication systems and physicial limitations
Identify administrative structure: stable or dynamic
Identify company flexibility requirements in the past and future
Identify employee productivity
Identify new or change of image
Listing of existing problems within the organizational units or within the group
spaces
Data Collection Techniques
Most consulting firms use similar methodologies to collect the client's data. The
common techniques are interviews, questionnaires and observations. Since the
data collection process can be quite tedious and timely, the programmer's
responsibility is to select the best method or methods suited to the project that
allows for speedy completion and interpretation.
1. Observations
The programmer always starts the project with a tour of the client's facility. The
tour allows the programmer to note down essential information regarding the
client's existing environments, function, operational requirements, special
situations and problems. In most cases, it clarifies project requirements and
expectations and enable the programmer to get a feel for the project scope and
budget.
2. Interviews
Interviews provide programmers a way of collecting qualitative information on
users' requirements, clarifies directions, exchange views and resolve
discrepancies. Programmer first develops an interview list identifying the
individuals or groups for the interviews, the time frame for each and the required
information list. The interviews may be repeated many times until the
programmer gets all the necessary information. In the case of a small project, the
interviews and observations are sufficient for data collection.
Major personnel to interview and available information:
Chairperson of the board and Executives
The Chairperson and executives establish company goals, project overview,
company image and mission, company direction, and overall budgets. They are
very knowledgeable on general company history, direction, and overall
administrative policies.
Personnel director
The personnel director keeps up-to-date records of total company personnel
forecasts, personnel policies and administration.
Office or facility director
The facility director and staff manage the needs of the company. They are
familiar with the needs of the organizational units, their functions and the
personnel requirements. They manage on a daily basis all furniture inventories,
yearly replacement budgets, and the building's maintenance requirements.
Organizational units' directors
The director of each organizational unit is knowledgeable on details. They
provide more specific personnel forecasts, personnel space requirements, group
space requirements, personnel proximity, the unit's proximity with other
organizational units and with common shared facilities, and any special
environmental, structural, electrical or security situations within each unit.
Individuals with special needs
These are individuals with special furniture, equipment or space needs.
Examples are equipment operators, laboratory technicians, security officers, mail
carriers, food providers, health care providers and those with physical handicap.
Their furniture, equipment or area arrangement might have impacts on furniture
selections or the planning of their units.
3. Questionnaires
Programmers develop questionnaire forms to collect quantitative and detail
information about the organizational units, the individual users and group spaces.
The technique is most common for large scale projects when interviews with
individual users are time-consuming or not feasible. Many programmers develop
specific questionnaires to collect specific information relating to a company.
Others use standard forms developed for past projects that proved to be effective
or use those developed by leading furniture manufacturers for general purpose
programming.
Office Space Standards Overview
Contents
Overview
Space Standard Features
Overview
In office design, flexibility in planning is essential in order to accommodate
changes of occupancy over time in a cost effective manner. For this reason, and
due to the potential construction cost savings from the application of a repetitive
geometry, it is always desirable to use a modular planning approach.
Most buildings these days work on a building module of 5' or 4'. The size of the
building module in an office building is always defined by the architect. The
factors that affect such module are based on varying factors such as site
conditions, structural systems, spacing of window mullions, columns, ceiling
layout, etc. Interior planner and designer for the project will need to response to
the same modularity in the design of the interior space. If the project consists
mostly of enclosed spaces, the exterior wall and window design will become an
important determinant of the room modules since the location of the interior
partitions are governed by the mullion modularity along the perimeter walls. If the
space is relatively open, then the ceiling module, lighting, telephone and
electrical locations will be more of a determinant factor. Space standards are
repetitive spaces that must be created using the similiar building modularity in
order to gain accessibility to building systems.
To achieve modularity, it is important to simplify the number of different spaces or
standards used within an office. In addition to the personnel standards, the
common group areas such as supporting area, special use areas or the common
use areas can also be easily standardized.

Space Standard Features
A space standard is a study of the space size, furniture requirements and area
arrangement for an area of activity that is responsive to the need of the company.
The activity area may be a personnel space or a shared facility such as files,
storages, conference room, reception area or etc. A typical space study should
include:
An illustration of all furniture requirements
An approximate arrangement of all furniture used in the space
An approximate space size as defined by an area boundary
Furniture clearances and secondary internal circulation for use of the space.
Each open and semi-private space includes part of a secondary isle which
accounts for clearances and entry into the space. This partial isle will form into a
full isle when the spaces are grouped into a work station cluster. This is not true
with private spaces which is only accessible through primary isles.
In order to provide for primary internal circulation to work stations and for access
into various group areas, there is an extra 25% space allocations to all the space
standards. This additional space will be accounted during the department square
footage calculation. The circulation allocation varies with different projects based
on the client's image, budget constrain, geometry of the space plan and etc. but
the 25% average has been proven to be quite effective. In actual planning
application, the distribution of primary circulation varies according to types of
spaces with 30% for private spaces, 25% for semi-private spaces and 15% for
open spaces.
Personnel Space Standards
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personnel private spaces
personnel semi-private spaces
personnel open spaces

Group Space Standards
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support spaces: files, storage cabinets and shelves
support spaces: equipment and miscellenous areas
special use spaces: waiting and conferences
special use spaces: break and mail distribution
special use spaces: file, and storage rooms

Detail Listings of Organizational Units or Sub-Units
After the questionnaires are completed, the designer will process, filter, extract
and summarize all data and put them into a useable form for use in planning and
design.Such effort compiles a detail breakdown of each organizational unit's or
subunit'spersonnel and group requirements.
The programmer tabulates the space requirements of all personnel job
categories and group requirements by using the newly developed or revised
space standards. A circulation factor is assigned to each type of spaces and then
sum together to arrive at the unit's summary.
Many programmer likes to use an average circulation factor of 25% to the entire
organizational unit but others like to use different circulation factors for different
types of spaces. A common practice is to use 30% circulation factor for
personnel private spaces, 25% for personnel semi-private spaces and 15% for
personnel open spaces.
For group requirements, the support spaces usually do not need any circulation
factor because the isles that take people to the workstations are the same for
support areas. If needed, add a 25% circulation factor. Special use areas receive
30 to 35% circulation factor due to traffic density. For large corporations, using
the different circulation factors can be a meaningful space saving technique
because the numbers of personnel with open stations are substantial.
Personnel Information List
Group Requirements List
Total Space Summary
Comparative Summaries and Total Company Summary
The table below illustrates the space summaries of all the organizational units
showing the statistics within the units. In addition to the total personnel and
space requirements within each unit, it also illustrates the space comparisons
between types of space: Private, Semi-private and Open, total Personnel and
group space requirements. From the table, one can see which organization unit
grows the fastest, the type of growth required and whether the unit is relatively
open or closed and how much flexibility is within the unit.
The table also include a section on common Use Spaces which represents the
group facilities shared by all the units within the company. The grand
total of the space requirement is shown on the last row in addition to the sum of
all the statistics.

Building Feasibility Analysis
Purpose
In order to determine whether the building under consideration will be appropriate
to meet the client's operational requirements, the programmer will need to
analyze the building. The factors to consider will include:
• the given building facilities
• the physical layout of the space
• the building systems:hvac, telephone and electrical, communication
• the structural and technical constrains
• its location
• its neighbourhood
• the parking facilities
• the lease terms
• the demolition and improvement costs necessary to update building
• the current building and ADA codes compliances
• the client's budget constrain
if more than one building is considered, then the comparative analysis between
the different sites become necessary
Building Analysis Table
Shown below is a table with two columns to aid in the analysis. On the left
column is a listing of site situations, building services, existing building
constrains, the building and ada codes requirements, lease terms if applicable.
On the right column is the listing of the recommendations to the client on what
needs to be updated or constructed in order to bring the building up-to-date and
meet its intended use.
Shown belows are standards used for Business occupancy type. For other
occupancy types, check the code books.Consider adding additional columns if
more than one building is under consideration and turn it into a comparative table
for multiple sites.

Site Analysis, Exisiting Building Conditions and International Code Compliance
Requirements
Recommended Revisions and Improvements to Building
Site Analysis
Site Location
building orientation
adjacency to major highway
neighbourhood analysis
major and secodnary streets
ease of turning into property
Parking Facilities
outdoor or covered facility
ability to accommodate future growth
cost per month per employee
secondary parking facilities around the neighbourhood and costs
Surrounding Facilities
restaurants within walking distance
banking facilities
convenient facilities
Existing Building Conditions
Building Systems
building construction type
occupancy type
mechanical systems
telephone and electrical
Spatial Analysis
gross building square footage on typical floor
leasable building square footage on typical floor
net building square footage on typical floor
building and window modules
number of floors
building efficiency factor - net usable sq ft for total building over total building
expressed in a %
ability to accomodate future growth
Existing Building Facilities
cabling and wiring entries
data and communication capability and future growth potential
stairs - total sets of stairs
elevators - locations and numbers and types
freight elevators - location, size and numbers
restroom facilities
rescue assistance
other common building facilities
building janitorial and storage
common building facilities
Building Codes Compliance
Occupancy Load - OL
gross build sq ft divided by occupancy factor 100
Egress Requirements
2 exits between 1-500 occupancy load, 3 for 501-1000, 4 for more than 1000
occupancy load on typical floor
number of exits on each typical floor
arrangement of exits: 50% diagonal rule measure in a straight line
if more than 2 exits, 2 of the exits must meet the 50% diagonal rule
if entire building is sprinkler, the distance between the exits can be 33.3%
travel distance: 200 ft maximum from any interior location or 300 ft maximum if
equipped with a sprinkler system
minimum corridor or aisle width 44"
dead end corridor 20 feet maximum, longer dead may be allowed but must check
with code officials
level exit width requirement:0.2 x OL and for stairs 0.3 x OL or 44 inches for level
exit, 48 inches for stairs which ever is greater
Stairs and Ramps Requirements
stairs exit width requirement relative to OL, 0.2 width variable x occupancy load
or 44" if OL less than 50
stairs landing requirements: intermediate landing required if rise is more than 12
feet
door when fully open will not to reduce landing by more than 7"
landing depth 4 feet minimum or as wide as stairs or ramps
stairs handrails at both sides of stairs must extends 12" beyond the bottom and
last riser
ramps rise relative to run ratio is 1:12 and landing required at the bottom and top
of ramp
ramp intermediate landing required for rise every 30" or horizontal run 30 feet
doors cannot reduce any required landings by more than 7 inches
treads 11" deep and risers not to exceed 7"
minimum ceiling height is 7 feet 6 inches
Plumbing fixtures Requirements
number of waterclosets for each sex on each typical floor - 1 for every 25 for the
first 50 and 1 additional for every 50 to be divided between both sexes
number of lavatories for each sex on each typical floor - 1 per 40 for the first 80
and 1 additional for every 80 and divide equally between 2 sexes
clearances between stalls is 36" from center of center
drinking fountains on each floor 1 for every 100 and not protrude into clear
corridor space
sink on each floor 1 per floor
screening at entrances of all restrooms
Fire and Smoke Protection
smoke isolation required for elevators and shafts
sprinkler system recommended in most commercial buildings
tenant separation walls: 1 hour
stair enclosures: 2 hours
corridor enclosures: 0 hour with sprinkler system
hazardous rooms: 1 to 2 hours
stand pipe and hose requirement at each landing of the exit stairs
ADA Codes Compliance
Access Route
at least one access route connect all exits and accessible spaces
minimum corridor width:3'
5' clearance requirement at T and L connections
minimum clearance at any point 32"
if access route is less than 5' wide then requires minimum 5' turn around every
200 feet
protruding objects not to extend more than 4" inches corridors or aisles
Rescue Assistance
provide area 1 for every 200 occupants
provide 30" x 48" wheel chair parking on each floor at stairway landing, or 1 hour
rate corridor, or1 hour rate room near to the stairs
display signs identifying "Area of Rescue Assistance"
Building facilities
rest room standard stalls size: 48" x 66" forward approach, 48" x 56" left hand
approach, 60" x 56" right hand approach including clear floor space infront of
stalls, door swing do not overlap into clear floor space
multiple stalls with at least one accessible stall. For 6 or more stalls, at least add
an additional 36" x 66" minimum wall mount with outward swinging door
urinals require 18" between centerline of bowl and adjacent partition, 36" clear
from side to side, 30" x 48" clear floor space
lavatories require clear floor space 30 x 48" in front of lavatory
grab bars require at the back and side of stalls: side grab bar requires 42"
minimum and not to exceed 12" from rear corner, rear grab bar requires 36" long,
centered, and not to exceed 6" from adjacent corner
restroom turn around clearance: 5'
accesible water fountain on each floor, hi-low type with water spouts is required if
there is only one on the floor. If more than one available, 50% accessible
elevators minimum size: 80" x 54" center opening, 68" x 51" side opening
Doors Maneuvering Clearances
front approach and swing in direction of travel 12" minimum on latch side, for
forward swing 18" minimum
pull side approach and swing in direction of travel 18", for forward swing 36"
minimum if clearance is 60 and 42" minimum if clearance is 54"
latch side approach 24" minimum
Lease Agreements
cost per square foot
space efficiency, net verses leasable sq ft
tenant work letter and building standard items to finish space and cost for
improvements
length of lease and options to extend
costs on demolition and special work
Program Data Analyses
In order to illustrate the space program data, it is helpful to
use the charting tools from Excel to illustrate the program
summary and the space statistics. It would be easier to
visualize the results in a graphic form and identify any
discrepancies that might occurs on the data generated. The
space statistics will help the programmer to later on make
meaningful recommendations on planning directions.
Based on the complexity of the company, the types and
number of charts may vary. Shown below are some of the
commonly used charts.
• Total company personnel projections
• Comparative departmental personnel projections
• Total company square footage projection
• Comparative departmental square footage projection
• Comparative analysis between types of spaces Private, Semi-private and Open
• Comparative analysis between usage of spaces Personnel and group square footage
• Expansion space analysis
• Building distribution analysis
Total Company Personnel Projection
This chart illustrates the number of employees required in
the company at move-in and future. Usually, the historical
data will be used to forecast future growth.
Departmental Personnel Projections
This chart combines the personnel projections of all the
organizational units and compare which units will grow
faster than the others and which ones will remain stable.

Total Company Square Footage Projection
This chart illustrates the total square footage requirements
for move in and future.
Departmental Square Footage Projections
This chart combines the square footage projections of all
the organizational units and illustrate which unit consume
larger space than the other units, which unit will grow the
fastest and which ones will remain stable.
Comparative Analysis Between Types of Spaces - Private,
Semi-private and Open
This chart illustrates the ratios between private, semiprivate and open spaces through out the company. It
enable the programmer to later on make planning
recommendations on whether is feasible to use traditional
office planning or open office planning.
(image under construction)
Comparative Analysis Between Usage of Spaces Personnel or Group
This chart illustrates the ratios between personnel and
group spaces. It is useful to identify whether the company
has a large quantity of technical or spaces that requires
special constructions. This allow the programmer to predict
how flexible the space will be.
(image under construction)
Building Efficiency Analysis
This is a pie chart that illustrate how space are utitlized in
the building, the percentiles used for the core and technical
facilities, external circulations, common use areas, and how
much space are net usable that can be assigned to the
company. If we are to compare different sites for the new
company, this will be useful in identifying cost savings by
selecting buildings that are more efficient.

Building Utilization Analysis
This chart illustrates how the building is utilized and the
amount of space is left for expansion and whether the
building is adequate to meet 10 year's expansion need. It is
obvious from the example below that the building provides
adequate space for 5 years but will be deficient by 10 years.
Proximity Analysis
Prior to the space distribution of the company using an Excel spread
sheet, the designer will need to analyze the proximity information of the
departments or units. This will be in the form of bubble diagram with
each bubble represent the size of each unit.
If the company is a corporation. There company structure will include
different levels and divisions. In that case, the proximity diagrams should
be broken up into separate proximity diagrams with each diagram
representing each level within the hierarchy structure. There should be
also be separate proximity diagrams to illustrate the interactions
between work groups if the units consists of multiple work groups.
The purposes of proximity diagrams:
• to illustrate the degree of interactions between the organizational
units or subunits or workgroups
o essential interactions
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desirable interactions
o least interactions
• to illustrate the main entrances relative to the organizational units
or subunits
• to illustrate the common shared facilties relative to the
organizational units or subunits
• to illustrate which units have the most frequent interactions and
which ones have the least or none
• to illustrate which units have the most frequent public interactions
• to illustrate which group or shared facilites need to be untilize by
which organizational units
How to set up proximity diagrams
• use different types of lines to illustrate different types of
interactions
o bold lines to represent essential interaction
o outlines to represent desirable interaction
o dash lines to represent least or minimal interaction
• illustrate the relative sizes of the organizational units using
different sizes of bubbles - larger units will be in larger bubbles
• distance between the units should indicate how far each unit
should be away from another unit in question
• centralized facilities or units should be grouped centrally
• interaction links between units should not overlap or cross one
another to avoid confusion
• subunits within a larger unit should be grouped using a separate
bubble to illustrate their organizational structure and to minimize
crossing of links
Example
The illustration below shows a major division with multiple units and their
relationship with each other.
Company Space Distribution Analysis
After the completion of the space program and the site analysis, the programmer
will have adequate information on the over all size of the company and the
availability of the net square footage in the building. The next phase will be to
analysis how the company will be distributed in the building. This information can
be organized in a distribution table.
The importance of the distribution table:
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to illustrate the locations of the organizational units within the building and
their sizes
to illustrate the adjacencies between different organizational units
to illustrate the both the horizontal and vertical distribution of space
to illustrate location of expansion spaces and how they will be consumed
over time
to illustrate the mobility of the organizational units over time
Factors to consider
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to maximize the use of space on each floor and to reduce waste square
footage
identify the organizational units that have special needs and avoid
unnecessary mobility
areas with special constructions such as millwork
technical areas such as cabling and wiring
areas with environmental control or lighting
areas with plumbing requirements
to reduce overhead by grouping expansion spaces together for sublease
or block off until consumption

Example
The illustration below shows the distribution of a company on 3 floors with the
third floor as the street level floor. The company has 4 divisions that are color
coded. The common used areas are located in the building core and are not
included in this distribution.
The strategies used:
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to meet the adjacency requirements of the units
to hold the division and its subunits together as much as possible
to maximize the use of each floor before using another floor
to group expansion space together and reduce overhead by enclosing
these areas until they can be utilize
to reduce unnecessary mobility and keep all units with special
constructions in the same locations
Planning: Office Planning Guides: Planning Approach
The general approach to planning
The flow of planning starts from very general building concept development to
very specific requirements that defines the needs and details of each area. It
involves the following phases of development:
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Blocking and Layering
Schematic
Preliminary
Final

Blocking and Layering
Blocking is a horizontal distribution of space on a given floor plan. Designers will
explore multiple options to study the allocation of organizational units on the
selected building and their adjacencies to each other.
Blocking plans illustrate:
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the total square feet requirement of each unit in the form of rectangular
block
the external circulation from the elevator lobby or entrances of the building
in relationship to the units
the adjacency requirements of each unit with other units in questions
showing
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immediate adjacency
desirable adjacency
least or no adjacency
the relationship of the unit with other building facilities that include
public contact - adjacency of the unit with the elevator lobby or entrances
deliveries of services and goods - storages, equipment, mail and
distribution in relationship of the units
locations of hygience facilities - restrooms
building constrains and limitations
the building code compliances in terms of egress and life safety
the American Disability compliances around the building
how to maximize the use of space and minimize waste on each floor
locations of the expansion space and how best to use it until they are
consumed over time if applicable

Shown below is an examples of blocking plan with the names of each unit
removed.
Layering
Layering or commonly known as stacking is a vertical distribution of space. This
is usually shown as a building section showing all the floors within a building and
the vertical communications in the forms of elevators and stairs.
Layering illustrates:
vertical relationship of the units to each other whether they are vertically above or
below; a few floors away from any other unit in questions or next building
types of physical communications between floors using standard elevators or if it
is a tall building whether high speed elevators will be used, or whether transfer is
necessary between floors, or the use of stairs is feasible
The following drawings illustrate the stacking diagrams of a building with 3 floors.
Each color represents a different unit.
Option 1 maximizes the adjacencies requirements of the units and sub-units that
resulted in having some of the same subunits on different levels
Option 2 maximizes the organization of the major units so that all the sub-units of
the same major units are grouped together as much as possible with a slight
compromise of the adjacencies.
Schematics
Schematics is the breakdown of blockings to illustrate the program requirements
of company within the selected floor plans. These include both personnel group
requirements. At this stage, the designer will explore the space utilizations of the
space using multiple schemes.
Using very loose bubbles that represent the size of the work stations, offices, or
different areas of activities, the schematics drawings illustrate the following:
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the most compatible and efficient circulation around the building from the
elevator or entry to various parts of the building using the external
circulations
the most efficient internal circulations within each department or unit that
include both primary and secondary circulations
the architectural concept of the building using geometries - rectangular,
circular, angular or others
building modularity and how that relates to organization of private spaces
the organizations of personnel within each unit showing the work groups
and their personnel
the personnel and work group adjacencies
the group requirements that include support and special use areas and
their adjacencies with personnel
the organizations of work stations within the space
the light penetration into the interior spaces using types of space dividers
and their orientations to the perimeters of the building

Preliminaries
This is the selection of the best schematic option and develop it into a scaled
preliminary plans. It illustrate the specific furniture requirements of the users and
the group spaces. The operational requirements and the adjacencies internally
will be firmly established at this phase of design. Prior to the start of this
planning,
the work station standards should have been established.
The preliminary plan illustrates:
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the furniture and equipment layout of the users and the group spaces
the implementations of all personnel and group space standards showing
the details of the space dividers, furniture and panel modules, hardware,
components and accessories and whether they are private, semiprivate or
open spaces
the modularity of the private spaces relationship with the window
modularity
and building system
the organization and orientations of work stations and their internal
circulations
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the building electrical and communication entries and they interface with
the furniture requirements by testing their placement and verify their
availability

Final Planning
It is the final furniture layout with careful attention to details and executions that
include the development of the furniture, furnishing and equipment. This
includes:
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furniture and system selections through analyses of planning and
operational needs and budget
all new furniture
partial new and reused furniture
3-dimensional space development using any of the following:
elevations and sections
erspectives
obliques
models
digital walk-through
selections of furnishing, equipment, art and accessories
custom design and casework details

Final Program, Recommendations and Planning Guidelines
Purposes
This is the final phase of the program that will summarize the program space
data and make recommendations to the client on how best to utilize the building
To compare the waste factors between different options, compare and update
the final space requirements between the options
To identify the final leasing space requirements between the options and
compare which option consumed the most sq ft
To compare differences between the blockings and identify how well each
blocking meet the proximity requirements of the organizational units and study
their mobilities over time
To identify a planning direction based on the statistics being generated from the
ratio between private, semi-private or open spaces
To identify the degree of flexibility possible within the company based on ratio of
private in comparison to both semi-private or open spaces
To develop a program on how to handle expansion spaces or contraction in
future until they are consumed
To make final recommendations on the blockings and provide reasons for
selection
To establish planning guidelines as aid to the space planner who will be utilize
the program for planning

Final Space Summary
The final program sq ft is the program summary plus the waste sq ft generated
on each floor. The waste must added into the total program sq ft to arrive at the
adjusted program sq ft.
The programmer will compare the differences between the options and identify
which option is most efficient in usage of space which reduce initial cost and long
term operation cost.
Final Leasing Space
The program summary is based on net sq ft will which is the total company space
requirement in order to accommodate all the organizational units and group
shared facilities.
If the company is leasing a space, then the programmer will need to calculate
how many sq ft the company will need to lease in order to arrive the required net
sq ft for operation.
The leasing sq ft will not include spaces used for mechanical, stairs, utility shaft
cavities and elevators. All the other facilities such as building lobbies, elevator
lobbies, corridors, rest rooms, telephone and electrical closets, janitorials spaces
or other shared building facilities will be utilized by the tenants and therefore they
are part of the leasing space.
The leasing space is what the company will need to pay but part of the space are
not usable and assignable to the company.
Proximity Requirements
The programmer will compare the differences between the blocking options and
identify how each blocking meet the proximity requirements of the organizational
units. The proximity also studies how the organizational units relate to the
building facilities and communication with the public.
The blockings also illustrate how the organizational units will be relocated in the
building over time when there is contractions or expansions. The options that
resulted in a lot of mobilities will incur higher operation and maintenance costs
and may not be the choice.
Planning Direction and flexibility
One of the statistics generated from the data analysis illustrated the ratio
between private, semi-private and open types of spaces. Since the semi-private
and open spaces are installed using system furniture or free standing furniture,
they can be easily relocated within a short period of time.
if the amount of private spaces is high, it indicates conventional planning and
less flexibility
if the ratio of private spaces in high and flexibility is important, the programmer
should recommend reducing the amount of private spaces, or recommend
demountable partitions, or full height panels to increase flexibility
if the amount of semi-private and open spaces are high, it indicates open office
planning where the majority of work stations will be in furniture systems
The statistics will also aid the space planner that utilizes the program to initialize
planning to formulating the planning concept.
Expansion or Contraction
In any space program, the programmer usually forecasts the future space needs
of the company that can be based on revenue projections, personnel projections,
business projections or economy projections. If a company lease a space, the
forecast will be at least five years for a medium size company.
In the case of expansion, programmer will identify where to locate the expansion
spaces within the building and how best to use the expansions before they are
consumed. Programmer usually lists at least a few options and compares the
advantages and disadvantages of each option.
Methods of distributing expansion space:
group all expansion spaces together and sublease it until they will be utilized (this
will reduce overhead)
if the expansion spaces are small, they can be located where they are needed
within the organizational units to reduce mobility of units
the expansion spaces can be grouped between organizational units so they can
be consumed by adjacent departments (this runs the risk that if expansion is not
materialized in those units, it cannot be used by other units)
Methods of contractions:
in place of individualized work stations, use shared stations between employees
within the units or shared by all the employees on the same floor
in place of conventional or open office, consider alternative officing off site
strategies for employees that usually work outside the office and only meet with
his or her team once a week or need to do special tasks or use office equipments
Final Recommendations and Summary
Identify the best selection on blocking and identify the final program summary
identify why the selected blocking is the best option and provide reasons for
selection
make final recommendations to the client on how best to locate the units within
the building and how the selection option meets the proximity requirements
make recommendation on the best approach to handling expansion spaces or
contraction in future

Interior Space Planning: The Design Process
Flow of Interior Project
Program Development
Analyze data gathering technique
Develop criteria on information gathering
Submit to management for approval
Review final program input and revisions
Develop workstation standards
Generate unit and subunits space assignments
Generate unit and subunits summaries and total company summary
Analyze building sites and establish Codes compliances
Develop blocking & Layering
Submit planning guidelines and revised company space summary
Review and finalize recommendations
Space Development
Develop building conceptual concepts using alternative schemes
Review with management
Develop preliminary plans and test concept using typical unit
Present preliminaries
Develop final plans
Present final plan develop 3d using 3d drawings, sketches and models
Make minor revisions
Design Development
Develop design criteria
Review concepts with management
Revise fianl design
Construction Documents
Construction plans
Telephone & electrical plans
REflected ceiling
Finishes plans
Furniture plans
Casework & Millwork
Details
Specifications
Furniture Specifications
Review furniture inventoory
Develop method of reuse
Present new & reuse concepts
Develop furniture specifications & supportive documents
Submit specifications for approval
Order furniture
Construction & Installation
Bid process and contractor selection
Shop drawing approval
Deliveries and Installation
Punch lists
Submit Budget Estimates
Establish work station standards budget
Exclude general constructed items
Develop final cost of all work performed
Consult with Consultants
Accoustical consultant
Lighting consultant
Technology consultant
Special consultants based on project needs
Develop time-in scheduel based on input by consultants
Review Architectural Documents
Management Approval
Planning directions
Preliminary plans
Final plans
Design development
Furntiure specifications
Final consturction documents
Walk through, punch list & Movein

Project Schedule
Inorder to deliver a project within the given time frame and within budget, it is
necessary to plan in a logical sequence the major phases of the design activites
and the time allowance for each completion. Scheduling can be affected by many
factors:
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Condition of the existing building: lease expiring or owned
Size of the new space
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Complexity of the project: highly technical, specialized equipment or
customized space need
• New construction or renovation
• Construction method: normal, fast track or phased construction
The following chart shows a normal time frame for a commercial project which
includes interior space programming through design, development and
production.
web.
Space Planning: Types of Spaces
Contents
Private Spaces
Semi-Private Spaces
Open Spaces
Personnel Spaces
Support Spaces
Special Use Spaces
Common Use Spaces
Types of Spaces
Spaces are classified according to the degree of privacy within the area and the
usage of space.
Degree of Privacy
Private Spaces
Areas with four sided enclosures with or without doors. These are full height
enclosures from floor to ceiling using dry wall, demountable or removable
partitions.
The spaces provide conversational privacy, visual privacy and security of
materials. Application include executive offices, management to midmanagement offices or professionals offices that require frequent visual privacy,
conversational privacy, confidential storage of materials or any combination of
these.
Semi-Private Spaces
Areas with two to three sided enclosures. The enclosures are below ceiling
height between 48 inches to 75 inches using panels from system furniture that
can relocate easily. Such enclosures provide seated or standing privacy and the
higher panels are capable of providing ample storage above work surfaces.
Applications include middle to low-management, supervory or non-supervisory
staff, professional or non-professional staff, or any personnel stations that require
some degree of visual privacy, conversational privacy or a generous amount of
storage capabilities. The stations also provide high degree of flexibility and
reconfiguration within the work spaces by changing components within the work
space. The common panel heights include:
Seated Privacy - 48 inches to 55 inches high panels that provides some degree
of visual privacy when seated. Storage overhead is not possible due low panel
heights.
Standing Privacy - 55 inches to 65 inches high panels that provides stand up
privacy and some conversational privacy. The 60" panels allow users to utilize
the panel heights for additional storage over head and still allow viewing above
stations for higher degree of openings.
Overhead Privacy - over 65 inches high panels that provide maximinum standing
privacy and maximinum consersational privacy. These high panels should only
be used on stations greater than 100 square feet.
Open Spaces
Open spaces have absolutely no enclosures around the station. The only space
dividers are open spaces, plants, or furniture. Applications include low or nonmanagements stations such as junior level professional staff, non-professional
staff, secretaries, clerks, or operators.

Usage of Space
Personnel Spaces
The personnel spaces are individual work stations that include furniture,
equipments and special requirements that allow the users to perform their task
efficiently. Companies organize all personnel spaces into standard work stations
types according to the individuals' hierarchy within the company, job categories
and functional needs.
Group Spaces
Group spaces are share facilities within the company. The share facilities can be
shared by work groups, by departments or units, or by the entire company. They
are grouped according to the frequency of use.
Support Spaces
These are furniture, equipments or spaces required by the work groups within a
department or unit. These shared facilities are located in close proximity to the
individuals that need them on a regular basis. Therefore, these shared areas are
supporting spaces for individuals' work and are active spaces. The spaces are
mostly semi-private or open spaces that can reconfigure easily within the
departmenmt or unit. Examples are:
files
shelvings
storages
equipments
work tables, counters
miscellaneous items such as carts, etc.
Special Use Spaces
The special use spaces are shared areas and equipments within a department or
unit and they are usually treated and planned as organized units due to their
function or special treatments. These spaces are shared by all the individuals
within the same department or unit. The spaces are semi-active and they are
further away from the individuals. Since they require special treatments,
grouping, they are less flexible and many of them are permanent areas.
Examples are:
reception areas
conference rooms
file room
storage rooms
library
mail and distribution
lounges, etc.
Common Use Spaces
Common shared spaces are spaces located outside of the department or unit.
The facilities are shared by all individuals within the company. Since they are
mostly inactive or get occasional uses, these spaces are furthest away from the
individuals. They also require special grouping or treatments and are mostly
permanent private spaces. Examples are:
archives
exhibits or museums
main company reception
auditorium conferences
central file rooms for inactive files
central storage rooms
cafeterias
central duplicating and services
first aid
training center
lockers, etc.
Office Space Standards Overview
Contents
Overview
Space Standard Features
Overview
In office design, flexibility in planning is essential in order to accommodate
changes of occupancy over time in a cost effective manner. For this reason, and
due to the potential construction cost savings from the application of a repetitive
geometry, it is always desirable to use a modular planning approach.
Most buildings these days work on a building module of 5' or 4'. The size of the
building module in an office building is always defined by the architect. The
factors that affect such module are based on varying factors such as site
conditions, structural systems, spacing of window mullions, columns, ceiling
layout, etc. Interior planner and designer for the project will need to response to
the same modularity in the design of the interior space. If the project consists
mostly of enclosed spaces, the exterior wall and window design will become an
important determinant of the room modules since the location of the interior
partitions are governed by the mullion modularity along the perimeter walls. If the
space is relatively open, then the ceiling module, lighting, telephone and
electrical locations will be more of a determinant factor. Space standards are
repetitive spaces that must be created using the similiar building modularity in
order to gain accessibility to building systems.
To achieve modularity, it is important to simplify the number of different spaces or
standards used within an office. In addition to the personnel standards, the
common group areas such as supporting area, special use areas or the common
use areas can also be easily standardized.

Space Standard Features
A space standard is a study of the space size, furniture requirements and area
arrangement for an area of activity that is responsive to the need of the company.
The activity area may be a personnel space or a shared facility such as files,
storages, conference room, reception area or etc. A typical space study should
include:
An illustration of all furniture requirements
An approximate arrangement of all furniture used in the space
An approximate space size as defined by an area boundary
Furniture clearances and secondary internal circulation for use of the space.
Each open and semi-private space includes part of a secondary isle which
accounts for clearances and entry into the space. This partial isle will form into a
full isle when the spaces are grouped into a work station cluster. This is not true
with private spaces which is only accessible through primary isles.
In order to provide for primary internal circulation to work stations and for access
into various group areas, there is an extra 25% space allocations to all the space
standards. This additional space will be accounted during the department square
footage calculation. The circulation allocation varies with different projects based
on the client's image, budget constrain, geometry of the space plan and etc. but
the 25% average has been proven to be quite effective. In actual planning
application, the distribution of primary circulation varies according to types of
spaces with 30% for private spaces, 25% for semi-private spaces and 15% for
open spaces.

Personnel Space Standards
personnel private spaces
personnel semi-private spaces
personnel open spaces
Group Space Standards
support spaces: files, storage cabinets and shelves
support spaces: equipment and miscellenous areas
special use spaces: waiting and conferences
special use spaces: break and mail distribution
special use spaces: file, and storage rooms
Interior Space Planning: Pre-Planning & Codes Compliances
Codes and Compliances
Prior to planning, Interior Designer will evaluate the given building to check for
codes compliance. This is usually as part of the building feasibility study to
examine if the given building facilities are appropriate to accommodate the
client's needs and operations.
The discussion here is based on the International Building Codes that planners
use in the evaluation of building since many states are now adopting this code in
place of Uniform Building Codes.
Types of codes to consider in Pre-planning
Egress and Life Safety
Plumbing Fixtures
Egress Requirements
Factors to consider in Planning for egress
Types of construction
Types of occupancy
Occupancy factor and occupancy load
Types of Construction and Occupancy
Most corporate offices are high rises that are classifed uner Type I or type II
construction. Office is classified as Business under the Occupancy type. If there
are other needs such as assembly, laboratories, etc. will be classifed as Mixed
Occupancy type.
Occupancy factor and Occupancy Load
The occupancy factors is used to calculate the occupancy load for mixed used
office buildings:
Assembly of concentrated use is 7 sq ft net (without fixed seats)
Assembly of less concentrated use is 15 sq ft net (conferences, exhibits,
lounges, etc. with tables and chairs)
The discussion here is based on Business occupancy types such as offices,
banks, etc. and the occupancy factor is 100 sq ft gross
Notes:
The net areas do not include corridors, restrooms, mechanical rooms, utility
closets, stairs, etc. In the case of mixed use, the occupancy load of the floor is
equal to the sum of the occupancy load of each type of occupancy.
Number of Exits
The total number of exits is determined by the occupancy load but the minimum
is 2 exits whether they are for a whole building, or a typical floor or a space within
the building. Occupancy load of a floor is determined by total square feet of that
floor divide by the occupancy factor based on the types of occupancy. If the
occupants exit through that floor, the calculation must add 50% of the floor
directly above or below, and 25% of all other floors beyond served by that floor.
The total number of exits required are:
1-500 will be 2 exits
500-1000 will be 3 exits
0ver 1000 will be 4 exits
Note: The floor with the largest occupant load determines the number of required
exits for all lower floors. If there is mixed occupancies, then the occupancy load
is tabulated by calculating each occupancy type separately and then adding them
together.
Arrangement of Exit
Distance between the stairwells should be no less than 50% of the longest
distance between two point of the building. This is usually the diagonal of the
building. It is measured using a straight line between the center of door to center
of door between the two exits. If this failied the requirements, then use a rated
corridor to connect the two stairwells and the distance will be measured from the
center of one exit to the center of the next exit travel along the center of the
corridor.
If there are more than 2 exits, at least 2 exits must be located using the 50%
diagonal rule and the third one should not be close to any of the exits. If the
building has sprinkler system, the distance can be 1/3 of the total distance
instead of 50%.
Travel Distance
Exit maximum travel distance for Business and Assembly occupancies is 200
feet for non-sprinkler space and 250 feet for sprinkler space. This is measure
from the most remote location in the building and travel along the isles and
corridor until the stariwell door is reached.
The codes allow additional 100 feet to reach the exits if the last portion of the
travel distance is within a one hour rated corridor.
No dead ends shall be more than 20 feet long.
Occupancy Separation
Separation is needed between different occupancy types or between different
uses of the same type of occupancy. Occupancy types occupancy separation
Large or small assembly - 2 hours
Business - 1 hour
Educational - 2 hour
Hazardous check codes of different types
Merchantile - 1 hour
Storage, moderate hazard - 3 hours
Storage, low hazard - 2 hours
residential - 1 hour
Institutional - 2 hours
Rated corridors is required if there are more than 1 tenant on the same floor.
Rated corridor or exit access corridor has a minimum fire rating 1 hour including
surrounding partitions and ceiling.
Walls enclosing exit stairs have 1 hour rating for buildings with 3 stories or less
and 2 hour rating if they are four or more stories.
Boiler rooms, furnace rooms and large storage rooms or hazardous material
storage rooms require 1 hour to 2 hours separations from the rest of the building.
Storage rooms more than 50 sq ft and less than 100 sq ft requires 1 hour rating
otherwise 2 hours.
The walls forming the means of egress must have 3 hours fire rating and selfclosing exit doors must have 1 hour rating.
Exit Width
Corridor is defined as circulation space enclosed by full height walls or partition
over 5’ 9”. Aisle is a circulation space created by furniture or equipment.
Minimum corridor width for egress must be 44” clear and with no obstructions or
projections. In addition, the width of the exit corridors from each office space to
the exit stairs is based on the total occupancy load of that floor multiply by a
width variable.
The total exit width is divided between the total number of exits used on the floor.
Width variable calculation:
Exit stairs is 0.3 without sprinkler and 0.2 with sprinkler
Level exit is 0.2 without sprinkler and 0.15 with sprinkler
To calculate the exit width, first calculate the occupancy load of the floor under
consideration, then multiply the occupancy load with the width requirement as
shown above and divide by the total number of exits. The result should be
compared to the 3'-0" door and round up to the closest numbers of doors.
Travel Direction & Signs
The exit doors must open in the direction of travel. There must be exit signs in
the corridor leading to the exit door. This door must also have an exit sign.
Smoke Isolation
Elevator must be equipped with smoke isolation from the rest of the building in
the case of fire. This may be concealed when not in use. This can be done using:
Manual operable doors and must be kept close at all times
Automatic doors that is activated in case of fire
Fire Suppression
Each floor must have 2 fire extinguishers in the corridors, and they must be
visible to the public.
Exit Accesses
Doors cannot be less than 6 feet 8 inches high. Most minimum door sizes are 36
inches. Swing of door cannot reduce any required landing dimensions by more
than 7 inches when the door is fully open and not more than half of the required
corridor with at any open position. Doors cannot be more than 4 feet or less than
3 feet.
Adjoining or intervening rooms like kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets or
similar spaces or subject to locking are not allowed as an exit access.

Plumbing Requirements
Restrooms
There should be toilet stalls and lavatories for both sexes on each floor with at
least 1 male and female stalls on each floor. Privacy screening is required at the
entrance to the restroom and within the restroom when there are multiple
fixtures.
There should be drinking fountain on each floor. If there is more than 1 floor,
each floor should have its own. Common location is the corridor outside the rest
room area. If only one is used, then it must be a hi-low fountain.
Minimum number of plumbing facilities
Assembly concentrated use:
Male stalls - 1 per 125
Female stalls - 1 per 65
Lavatories - 1 per 200
Drinking Fountains - 1 per 500
Assembly less concentrated:
Male stalls - 1 per 75
Female stalls - 1 per 75
Lavatories - 1 per 200
Drinking Fountains 1 per 500
Business
Male stalls - 1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 additional for every 50 for greater than
50 for both sexes. The total in each male and female will be to divide the total
stalls required by 2 for each sex.
Lavatories - 1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 additional for every 80 for greater than
80
Drinking Fountains - 1 per 100
Drinking Fountain
Assembly concentrated - 1 per 500
Assembly less concentrated - 1 per 500
Business - 1 per 100
Service sink
One on every floor
Interior Space Planning: Office Planning Strategies
Types of Planning strategies
Conventional Office Planning
Open Office Planning
Alternative Officing
Conventional Office Planning
This is the traditional planning where there are distinct separations between
organizational units or departments and the personnel hierarchy are firmly
established. Majority of the workers are placed in free standing furniture with little
or no barriers between them. The upper managements are usually located
around the perimeter of the building with views to the skyline. The windows
become the status symbol for the personnel. These type of offices still exist today
but in a less rigid way.
Characteristics:
Organizational units have total separation from each other using partitions
Personnel in managerial levels are accommodate in private offices along the
permimeter walls with windows. The users have both converational and visual
privacies as well as security of material. The offices are usually quite generous to
reflect their status symbols.
Personnel in low-managerial or professional levels will be located within open
areas with space or storages as separators. The primary type of furniture are free
standing furniture with no considerations for flexibility or growth. Majority of
workers are grouped in vast open areas. If security of material are required,
these users will also located within small private offices.
All supporting personnel in non-managerial levels, or secretarial or clerical levels
are located in secretarial or clerical pools with minimal spacial separations
between work stations. These group of users have reduce spacial clearance and
circulations between the stations.
The typical work stations are configured in free standing desk, tables or credenza
or custom casework. The managerial ranks usually have wood furniture as
oppose to steel or plastic laminate furniture for the secretaries or clerks.
Open Office Planning
This is brought into this country after the war from Germany when there was a
huge business boom. Corporations were springing up every where and the need
for growth and changes were substantial. The purpose is to provide flexibility and
reductions for long term operational cost due to changes in organizational
structures at the expense of privacy.
Characteristics:
There is little or no distinct separations between organizational units. Separations
between the units are loosely defined.
Personnel in managerial levels are still located in private offices and the
hierarchy levels are still distinct between managerial and professional levels.
These users continue to enjoy converational and visual privacies as well as
security of material.
Personnel in low managerial, supervisory or professional levels are located in
semi-private work stations with standing privacies. This group of users no longer
have conversational or visual privacies. Security of material are handled through
locked files or cabinets. The stations are ranges from 75 sq ft to 120 sq ft
depending on ranks. The standing privacies are usually 60" to 65" high.
Personnel in non-managerial, or secretarial or clerical levels are located in open
stations or semi-private stations with seated privacies. Their stations are usually
smaller around 50 sq ft to 65 sq ft depending on need. The seated privacies are
usually 45" to 55" high.
The semi-privacies are established through the use of furniture systems that
consist of panels to provide visual privacy and some degree of conversational
privacy. The first generation of furniture systems are in panel based systems. As
time grows and due to need for higher degree of flexibilities and change in
computer technologies, other systems appeared in the horizon to expand the
need for the electronic office. The furniture systems become stronger and thicker
to hold the vast amount of wiring and cabling, the electrical and cabling systems
become available not only at base line but also at belt line or desk height in the
last decade.
Panel based system with or segmented panels
Frame and tiled system
Post and beam system
Stackable system
Free standing system
Each of this has its advantages and disadvantages. It is important to fully
understand how each of these perform specifying the systems. See the section
on how to select furniture system for details.

Alternative Officing
The newest planning stategy starting to appear due to improvements in
technology in the mid-nineties. There was a need higher productivities and team
work become drivers for productivities. In additional, there are substantial
consolidations within the corporations due to changing life styles and
technologies. Many find themselves able to work beyond the office or work
anywhere.
Driving forces behind the change
Change from domestic to global business to take advantage of cheaper labor
force outside the country
Advancement in technology allows work to be performed faster, use less people
and more productive.
Convergence of voice,data and graphics allow the workers to choose where they
like to work, at home, at the office, in the car, in the airport, at the hotel or
anywhere on the go.
Real estate booms result in higher operatioinal costs that drive the company to
adapt new ways to cut cost by making smaller work stations footprints, allow flex
times, provide shared stations and hire more part time workers
Newer generation of managers are younger, aggressive, free spirit and that
enjoys wearing jeans, t-shirt and bring the informal work atmosphere to the office
that cause collapse of multi-level hierarchy structure, encourage cooperative
team work and satisfaction between individuals. This cut out the mid
management and boost productivity.
Competitions between businesses drive innovations in productions and sale
processes and new technology made all these possible through high speed
computer network or the web. Outsourcing become an end product to lower cost
and gain business effectiveness.
More female enter the work force cause management to rethink how to manage
the new workers due to families involvement
Innovations in equipment that include notebooks, wireless phones and global
position systems allow worker to choose where they want to work, at home, in
the car, in the hotel, or anywhere on the go allows the work to be accountable
and support fast pace work.
Organizational structure - collapse of hierarchy
A normal corporation usually has ten to over twenties levels:
Executive level 1 to 3
Department head level
Sub-Department head levels 1 to 3
Managerial level 1 to 3
Mid-managerial level
Low managerial level
Supervisory level
Non-supervisory level
Professional level 1 & II
Non-Managerial level 1 to 4
The revised hierachy structure are not flatten with a few levels:
Executive level
Management level
Professional level
Non-management or support level
Change in furniture design
The furniture manufacturers also rush into developing new products to support
this type of work styles. The most current systems also take into consideration for
the wireless technology and provided additional support for higher mobilities,
electrifications and cabling.
To achieve high degree of flexibility, the work stations become universal standard
that can support majority job categories. From eight to 10 different work station
standards, the corporations are down sizing to 1 to three standards. This result in
lower inventory, reduction in parts and hardware, increase flexibility and lower
cost. The panel and component sizes become universal, the components are
portable and the sizes are smaller to support team work and mobility. In future,
there will be substantial reductions in group files and storages since the future
lies in converting data into digital format. Corporations will be purchasing less
and less furniture and real estates.
The revised work station types
Private offices for individuals that need conversational and visual privacy or
security of material
Semi-private spaces for individual that need standup privacy for serious work that
can be shared
Open spaces with seated or no privacy for individuals that need to collaborate
and work in teams
Instead of having one work station for individual user, now corporations are
putting a few employees to share the same station to provide for flexible hours to
provide time for family, lower real estate costs, virtual office and off site work.
Alternative work space strategies
Shared stations
Hoteling
Free address
Satellite office
Virtual office

Shared Stations
There is no ownership to individual station, the station is shared by a few or a
small group of users from project to projects or for a specific length of time for a
team. There is need to accommodate personal belongings using removeable
storages or pedestals.
Hoteling
The office is still the home base for these workers but they no longer own any
work stations. The work stations become first come first serve status. The users
will make reservation like at a hotel through a receptionist and define the dates,
length of time and needs for the work station. The personal belongings are
located in removeable storages and pedestals that are stored in lockers or
storage rooms.
Free Address
Through the use of a sign-in computer, the user is able to claim whatever work
station that is available to work for a day or for a short stay. The personnel
belongers are accommodate in portable file liners or mobile pedestal that are
return to their storages after the users finish their work. The work stations do not
have ownship nor employees are able to personalize their stations.
Satellite Office
The employees will work in a temporary office at or close to the clients' site for a
short period of time until the projects are finished. The users will return to their
home office only when they need to meet with the team for conference or use the
facilties.
Virtual Office
The users are able to work anywhere, in the car, on the go, at the airport or hotel
and communicate with the home office using the computers. These users are
always on the go and they will return to the home base only for special needs or
to meet with the team.

Planning: Planning Guides:Master Building Concepts
Overview
In large scale corporate planning, the interior designer first establishes a master
building concept prior to commencing realistic planning in order to achieve
consistency of concept through out multi-level floors of the building. This
technique can also be used as a marketing tool for the design firm to secure
contracts as well as use for tenant development services.
The master building concept should achieve the following:
The most efficient external circulation from the elevator lobby or entrances to the
interior of the building through the defined entrances, to use core facilities and to
provide agress from the typical floor
Compliances to the codes and standards based on the building construction and
occupancy types
The distribution of entrances and exits along the external circulations adjacent to
the core must comply with the egress travel distance
The breakdown of the interior spaces into planning zones based on the most
efficient internal circulation patterns
The general distributions of private, semi-private and open spaces throughout the
building must be efficient so that the departments are able to locate each type of
space based on needs
The planning zones must be of reasonable size so that they will achieve flexibility
on planningand that the space can be utilized efficiently
The architectural impact of the space must be have well defined geometries
whether they are rectilinear, angular, circular or in combinations
After the completion of the master building concept, the designer must test the
concept using a typical floor of the building using one or more departments to
verify that the concept is able to apply efficiently before full scale realistic
planning with all the departments.
Circulations
There are three main types of circulations within a building:
External circulations - circulatons around the building core that house all the
common building facilities shared by all users on each typical floor
Internal primary circulations - circulations that take the users from the entrances
of each department to major work groups or areas internally within a department
or company
Internal secondary circulations - circulations that take the users from the primary
circulations to the individual work station or specific areas of activities within a
department or company

Planning Zones
The planning zones are net areas within the building that accommodate the
personnel and group spaces. These are spaces for planning of personnel work
stations and group spaces and are separated by primary circulations. These
zones include the secondary circulations for entries into the individual work
station or group area.
Planning zones checklist:
They must be large enough to accommodate a large cluster of work stations or
group spaces to reduce unnecessary circulations and to provide adequate
flexibility for rearrangement
The planning zones on private, semi-private and open spaces must be well
distributed through out the building so that regardless of where the departmental
units are located, they can use them easily for different job categories need
The planning zones must be separated from each other using primary circulation
isles
The primary circulatons must be connected to each other and to the entrances
and exits for ease of egress
Planning zones should maintain similar geometric shapes and size as much as
possible in order that the work station standards will be able to implement
efficiently
Irregular zones will generate a lot of waste and reduce flexibility
Avoid dead ends between zones or over size planning zones to provide efficient
circulations
The Process
Establish building concept using planning zones and primary circulations
Testing the planning zones by implementing the personnel work station
standards within the zones and illustrate how they can be utilized efficiently
Testing how departmental boundaries can be achieved using different strategies
Testing the planning zones by using a typical floor or area within the floor using
the realistic needs of a few departments
The chosen department use for testing must consist of a good distribution of
different work station types and group spaces that include support and special
use areas
Testing electrical and telephone locations to make sure there are not a big
number of work stations that miss the power or communications access
Obtain approval from client and implement full scale realistic planning of all
departments
Establish Master Building Concept
Check for codes compliances based on construction type and occupancy types
that include egress requirements, plumbing and ADA requirements
Establish the external circulations around the core:
define how users are able to flow from the elevator lobby to the entrances of the
departments, or tenant spaces using the external circulation around the building
core
define how the users are able to use the core facilities easily from the internal
parts of the building. This is determined by the number of entrances into the
interior spaces from the external circulations
Identify how the entrances are positioned in relationship to the elevator lobby for
ease of wayfinding
From the entrances along the external circulation, break down the interior spaces
into large planning zones by defining the internal primary circulation patterns
The planning zones must be consistent throughout the entire building as much as
possible to achieve consistency in planning
The plan must provide the most efficient internal circulation pattern
All major circulations must be connected to each other to provide ease of flow
and egress
There should be no dead ends exceeding 20 feet
Set up planning rules to define the general locations for personnel spaces within
the planning zones: private, semi-private or open, and the locations for support
and special use areas (open stations provide supports to management and
should be located adjacent to each other)
Develop the architectural impact of the space by the using basic geometries
and/or integrate with the circulation pattern
Testing of Concepts
In order to demonstrate how well the concept perform, the interior designer and
planner should generate a number of tests to verify and demonstrate the
performance of the planning concept. If the tests resulted in a lot of waste in
space, then the planning zones or the work station standards will need to be
adjusted.
Test how the private offices can be implemented within the planning zones using
different sizes offices. Study how well the different offices can adapt to sizes
changes for different job hierarchies
Test how the semi-private or open stations can be implemented within the
planning zones and how easily they can interchange, regroup or rotate
Test the orientations of the semi-private and open stations, there should be at
least 4 basic orientations
Test how the supporting spaces such as files, storages, shelving and equipment
can easily integrate within the planning zones and interchange with the personnel
work stations
Test the general locations of special use areas such as reception, conference
facilities, storages, mail and distribution within the planning zones and how they
work in relationship to the personnel stations
Test how a cluster of 6 or 8 semi-private or open stations can be formed within a
typical zone and irregular zone if applicable
Additional Test on Departmental Boundaries
The planning concept must able to provide the needs for separations between
the departments due to visual privacy and security of the units without affecting
the internal and or external circulations. Some departments need absolute
separations where as other need minimal or no separations. In addition, some
departments that have frequent public contacts may need visual identity for ease
of way finding.
The tests to address the different degrees of departmental separations:
maximum separation between different departments using full height partitions
medium separation between different departments using system panels that can
easily be moved
minimal separation between different departments using storages such as files or
cabinets, plants and space
Examples of Master Building Concept using a Conceptual Approach
Triangular Building Concept - to provide maximize light penetration and flexibility
by locating all private spaces away from the windows and locate them parallel to
the core
Angular Building Concept - to use an open planning approach by grouping all
private spaces in angular clusters and to maximize semi-private personnel work
stations for improvements on light penetrations
Perpendicular Builidng Concept - to group all private spaces perpendicular to the
perimeter of the building and provide some departmental separations to control
acoustics and compromise with reduced flexibility
Rectangular Building Concept - to emphasize on personnel hierarchy by
grouping private spaces along the window areas with occasional light
penetrations
Planning: Planning Guides: Office Planning Basics and Rules
The following information are the planning basics and rules to planning the office
interiors. It includes minimum requirements for clearances between furniture and
spaces, do's and don'ts on furniture arrangements, averages on basic work
stations and group areas.
Circulations, Isles or Corridors
Connect all major corridors or primary circulations for fire safety or egress
Connect secondary isles with primary isles with minimum clearance 3'-0"
Avoid dead ends over 20'-0"
Avoid long corridors with no break or rest stop
Minimum corridor is 44" by building codes but regulated by occupany load.
Calculate width of corridor by taking gross square feet divided by occupancy
factor and multiply by the width variable
Private offices or Enclosed Areas
Avoid random placement of private areas that create chaos and reduce flexibility
and loss in spaces
Group all private areas in clusters and avoid random placement of private areas
to provide higher degree of flexibility
Develop standardize architectural concept using standardize geometries such as
angles, curves and rectilinear forms
Develop standardize door configurations throughout all entries using paired
doors or angular or recess entries
Avoid sharp or acute angles that result in waste
Connect all private or enclosed spaces with primary circulations
Align partitions to mullions using the building grids along the windows and if not
possible align partition along the one half of the building grid and use an offset
partition to meet with the mullions
Avoid running partitions directly to glazing that block views to exterior
Similar rank managerial personnel should be provided with the same size office
and enjoy the same previleges such as having window areas
Consider light penetrations into interior space for the majority of workers
Consider built-in furniture for managerial level personnel if flexibility is not
required in place of free standing furniture
In front of all private and enclosed areas should be a major 4'-0" corridor
Semi-Private Work Stations
Consider space dividers or panels using common panel sizes, the ideal situation
is one size
Panel sizes must be configured using industry standard sizes
The most common panel sizes are 36" or 30"
Avoid using panel sizes that are 24" or 18" since they are usually not electrified
Avoid placing two primary surfaces against each other and share the same
common panels to avoid sudden attacks or impacts from adjacent station
Avoid placing primary work surface against panel used by files, storage or
equipment due to impacts and vibrations
Avoid eye contact with personnel of adjacent stations
Do not intermingle open stations with semi-private that create noise and reduce
privacy for serious work if semi-privacy is a major consideration
Panels and components modules must relate to each other in modularity for
hardware attachments and support
Group semi-stations in a cluster of 6 to 8 stations using a central spline to
consolidate electrical and communication entries and provide flexibility for
reconfigurations between adjacent stations
Locate pedestals and storages away from knee clearances such as the corners
between primary and secondary work surfaces or between two secondary work
surface
Relate work surface depths with files or storages to clean up irregularities such
as using the vertical files adjacent with primary work surfaces in place of laterals
Locate splines or high panels perpendicular to the perimeter windows to take
advantage of natural light penetrations into the interior spaces
Locate storage bins above the secondary work surfaces instead of primary work
surfaces to provide shadows and discomfort as a result of shadows generated
from the bulk units
The ideal placements of storage bins will be along the spline using stand up
height panels and perpendicular to the perimeter wall to allow natural light
penetrations
Consider knock down barriers using transitional height panels for personnel that
need to work together or in teams
Maximimum privacy can be achieved using standing height panels if privacy is a
considerations for personnel that do serious work
The four drawers high files are usually used with semi-private work stations since
panels are usually 60" - 65" high
Stand up panel heights should not exceed 69" otherwise they will be considered
partitions and need 4'-0" isles
Use towers or cabinets in place of credenzas to reduce total footprint and provide
the same features. Many new towers and cabinets also provide box, box, file and
shelving behind doors similar to credenzas
Open Work Stations
Avoid large uninterrupt groups of open work stations, where possible break into
groups of 2, 4 but no more than 6 work stations
Separations between thes stations can be configured using space, files or
storages
Use 3 drawers high files for counter height, 4 drawers high files for standing
privacy in open areas or 5 drawers high files to provide separation between open
departments if security is not a issue
Continuous open spaces requires some degree of separations using space
dividers, panels or partitions to provide accoustical controls between open areas
and act as fire stops
Avoid placing open stations against a wall to avoid eye strain
Avoid direct sight lines with adjacent workers by placing primary work surfaces
facing each other or the typing return facing each other
Avoid joining primary work surfaces side by side to prevent over flow of paper
work into other users' work surfaces for privacy. This group of stations can be
separated by space or storages or panels
Avoid placing open stations facing the window due to glare or distractions
Maintain consistent grouping concepts thoughout the same project except in
special cases such as running into columns or other situations
Avoid slight off set between adjacent stations or corner to corner placement of
furniture which create chaos
If files are needed for open stations, group them together in clusters of 3, 4 or 6.
Support Spaces
These are files, shelving, cabinets, work tables, conference areas, etc. that
needs to be located near to work groups to support their daily work.
Build these furniture against the partitions or walls if possible
If these are needed in open areas, group them in related depths and heights in
banks of 6, 8 or 10 to avoid unsightly irregularities
Locate support spaces near to work groups that needs them and place them in a
centralized location for easy access
Group lateral files in banks that are back to back but avoid exceeding 10 units for
ease of circulations
If density of files is a consideration along a partition or wall, use vertical files in
place of lateral files
Avoid using vertical files back to back in banks at semi-private or open areas due
to the bulk size, lateral files are more appropriate
Use vertical files to maximize file density in file rooms
Enclose untidy units of equipment, work tables or over size storages behind
panels, or locate in enclosed areas to avoid unsightly irregularities
Avoid locating storages, files or shelvings directly in front of windows to avoid
damage to material and wasted the natural light to workers
Use common isles to serve 2 rows of files, storages or shelving to reduce isles
Group odd number of units by turning the last unit ninety degree from the rest to
form an even cluster in place of odd numbers arrangement
Interchange support spaces with semi-private or open stations using the same
modularities
Important Clearances
Corridors and Isles
Corridors or primary isles - 4'-0" minimum
Seconday isles - 3'-0" minimum
Isles with files on both sides - 3'-6" minimum
Isles with shelves on both sides - 3'-0" minimum
Isles with storage cabinets on bothe sides - 3'-6" minimum
Work Stations
Enter two adjacent work stations for 2 is 30" minimum
Enter a single desk is 24" minimum
Clearance between a professional or average desk and a rear unit - 3'-0"
minimum
Clearance between a management desk and a rear unit is 3'-6"
Clearance between an executive desk and a rear unit is 4'-0"
Work station averages: 30" panel modules
non-management - 7'-6" x 7'-6"
professional - 10' x 7'-6'
low management or supervisory - 10' x 10' or 10'-6" x 10'
Work station averages: 3' panel modules
non-management - 6' x 9'
professional - 9' x 9'
low management or supervisory - 12' x 9'
Introduction
This section covers furniture types and how to analyze and select the best
system based on users' operational needs and planning needs as established by
the designers.
Types of Furniture
A listing of different freestanding furniture types and system furniture
classifications.
A process of System Furniture Evaluations and Selections
A detail breakdown of on how to select furniture system from setting up the
criteria list, evaluations of systems, analysis and testing of needs based on
storage quantities and work surface requirements and a weighted rating system
to finalize selection.
Types of System furniture
Comparative summaries of system furniture
Establish mandatory performance criteria
Evaluation of systems
Comparative analyses between systems and testings
Final ratings and selection
Furniture: Types of System Furniture
Recent years, system furniture has gone through a lot of changes with many new
products introduced into the market place due to the changing corporate
structures, changing technology and the gaining popularity of the new office
concept "Alternative Officing".
Classifications of System Furniture
We can classify the systems according to their characteristics, functions and
performances. They all have their advantages and disadvnatages which are
briefly discussed below:
Panel Based System
These are the oldest system on the market and the most widely used in Industry.
It is a conventional system that includes structural panels that are used to
support overhead and under work surface components. Changes in height
requires changing the panels. Free standing components are used to provide
stability of the panels. The first generation systems are thinner panels that wiring
and cabling can be accessible only through the base of the panels. The second
generation panels are usually thicker that provide high capacity for wiring and
cabling as well as flexibility to locate power and cabling along the desk height
which is known as belt line.
Framed and Tiles System
These uses open frames as the underlying structure with add-on tiles that
provide flexibility for opening or closing a system by removing or adding the tiles.
They also provide aesthetic pleasing features by changing color or texture on the
fabrics. The tiles also provide flexibility for mounting accessories or tools. The
frames will accomodate larger capacity for wiring and cabling and provide better
technology support. The height changes are limited to the sizes of the tile.
Segmented System
This is similar to the panel based system and most manufacturer offered this
feature together with the panel based system. It provides the looks of tiles but at
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Module 1 1.2 space planning

  • 1. Module 1 – Design Concepts 1.2 Fundamental Tools of space planning, design and analysis: Anthropometrics, Proxemics, and Ergonomics Objective: Topic Data: Introduction Types of Interior Programs • Interior Space Program • Site Selection Program • Furniture Program • Budget Program Interior Space Program 1. It is an organizing of interior space before planning and design of an interior project. It is an essential preplanning tool on projects that range from medium to large scales due to their complexity. The primary purpose of a space program is to determine the space, furniture, equipment and special needs for move in and future. 2. The space program is the foundation of the designer's work. It acts as a guide during the study and the preparation of space layout. It is also a communication tool between the designer and the client. During the development of the program, the programmer will solicit detail information from the client about the company's history, organization, operations, policies, personnel and group requirements. Much of the programming effort focuses on quantitative calculations using basic unit takeoff that derives from revision of existing space standards from the company or from industry standards. 3. The final program book includes overall space summary for move in, occupants and space projections for future, building feasibility analysis, space distribution analysis and planning recommendations for the new space. Some programmers generate additional company space statistics by comparing the types and usage of spaces between the company's organizational units that are meaningful to identify growth patterns and planning directions. The statistic aims to provide interior planners with additional information that will influence space layout decisions. Site Selection Program
  • 2. When sites are not given, one of the other program responsibility for the programmer is to assist the client to find an appropriate site. This requires the comparative analyses of different sites. It may include: • • • • • • • • neighborhood analyses demolition cost comparisons cost for land if the intention is to build analyses of building facilities analyses of building systems analyses of future expansion accommodations lease terms and durations cost for improvements Furniture Program This is a standard program for all interior services. It is the analysis of existing inventories as well as to identify the need for purchase for the new project. Responsibilities include: • • • • • • • • collect and analyze existing inventories identifying the size, quantities, conditions, cost for recondition collect information on sale to refuge on exisitng inventories collect information on discount structures from furniture manufacturers since more purchase will result in higher discount structure identify new furniture programs based on methods of reuse and budget allowance and establish budget comparisons between different methods: buy all new furniture - very rare 25% reuse of old inventories 50% reuse of old inventories specific types of reuse - eg. reuse only existing files, storages, shelvings and purchase the rest all new Budget Program There are two types of budgets for contract work. The general construction budget and the FF&E budget. The budget estimate will be establish early on at the beginning of the project. It will be reviewed and updated as the project progress and more decisions are made. The realistic budget will not be firmly established until after the generation of the contract document and the contractors has been selected. Initialize Program • • Setting up Planning Team Establish Program and Management Reviews Schedule
  • 3. Analyze Information handling Techniques 1. Setting up Planning Team • At the start of a program, the programmer assists the client or his representative to set up a planning team to deal with making decisions for the duration of project. The team represents personnel from both the company and the program consulting firm. A typical client's group may include president of the company, the office manager and the office manager's assistants. In case of a large corporation, this group includes the facility manager and the manager's staff. The programmer's group includes the senior director of the consultant firm, the programmer, and the programmer's assistants. If the program involves building and demolition evaluations, additional architect, engineers, design or construction consultants will also be call upon to participate in the team but not throughout the entire project. The company group is responsible to collect, filter, verify, approve information and the administration of the project such as meeting scheduling, program scheduling, program budgeting, and regular communication with the program consulting firm. The planning team will meet regularly to make programming decisions. The initial meetings involve setting up policy, procedures and methods for collection, processing, verification, transmission, and approval of all data. 2. Establish Program and Management Reviews Schedule Based on input from the client, the programmer sets the time schedule for the duration of the project. The program schedule outlines the program procedure, the time frame for each item on the list, and the schedules for management reviews and approvals. Depending on the size of the project, the normal time frame for program completion ranges from a few weeks to a few months. Click here to view a Project Schedule 3. Analyze Information Handling Techniques The planning team and the programmer need to determine the best method to transmit and process information between the two parties. The planning team should review and verify all information before sending to the programmer so as to avoid time loss from receiving irrelevant data.
  • 4. Define Problem, Scope and Goals Define Problems and Scope The first objective of the program is to determine the project requirements and the scope of the problem. To achieve this, the programmer must meet with the planning team and define the problem. • • • • • • • Define company type, business and operations Define problem whether to renovate existing space, relocate to a new leasing space or build a new building Define location of project whether to relocate to specific area, specific building or explore new sites Define major operational requirements: size of company, total number of employees and approximate overall space requirements Define existing problems such as communications, reorganizations, productivity, flexibility, and security, storages, environmental or technical Define physical constraints such as space size and location, proximity requirements, furniture, materials and equipment’s limitations if any Define environmental constraints such as lighting, acoustics and humidity if required in any areas Define Design Goals The programmer need to define the client expects to achieve in the new project. • • • • • • Define company image to public if any Define operational goals such as ease of communication, maintenance, and adaptability to changes Define aesthetic needs such as client's preference for style, mood, character and quality Define company's future planning directions and space projections such as personnel projections, implementation of new equipment, automations, new operations and management Define budget goals at initial move in and future replacements Define time for project completion Define Program Goals The programmer must also document the purposes of the space program and the expected results of the program. The major goal of the program is to generate the overall space requirement for the company for both move in and future. Other goals may include: • • • Update company organizational charts Revise or develop work station standards Generate space summary of each organizational units and subunits
  • 5. • • • • • Generate overall company space summary Generate company space statistics Generate adjacency information and diagrams Generate distribution summary, blocking and layering diagrams Generate planning guidelines and recommendations for the new space Develop Data Base and Collect Data Before any data collection, the programmer first identifies the data base and develops the methodologies for data collection. Through interviews and discussions with the client, the programmer reviews, verifies and filters all data received and resolves any discrepancies that might arise during the process. Information to be collected: The types and the amount of information to be collected vary according to the need, complexity and history of the company. Information list: • • • • • • • • Collect company background: Existing company image nature of business company historical data from 5 to 20 years if available company administrative policies company organization structure personnel hierarchy dramatic changes in the past and their influence • Collect information on all organizational units and subunits existing organizational units and subunit names existing organizational units and subunit codes existing company organization chart showing company structure and relationships of major units or subunits existing personnel organization charts of each organizational unit showing the names of individual users, job categories, hierarchy, and how they relate to each other within each unit. • Collect existing personnel information names of hierarchy levels : executives, managements, mid-managements, lowmanagements, supervisory, non-supervisory, professionals, non-professionals, non-managements listing of types of spaces: private, semiprivate, open listing of all personnel job categories and how they relate to each hierarchy level listing of existing space standards showing space sizes, furniture sizes, types and area arrangements with assignment to corresponding job categories
  • 6. policies regulating selection options of finishes and accessories with corresponding job categories • Collect existing operational requirements by unit: Listing of personnel requirements by organizational unit showing corresponding job categories and existing space standards assignments listing of support space requirements for work groups within each organizational unit: space size, furniture, equipment, area arrangements and any special conditions listing of special use area requirements within each organizational unit: space size, furniture, equipment area arrangement and any special conditions Listing of common use area requirements that are shared by all organizational units on the company level: space size, furniture, equipment area arrangement and special conditions • Collect communication requirements Adjacency information between organizational units or subunits adjacency information between common use spaces and the organizational units adjacency information between individuals within each organizational units or subunits adjacency information between support and special use spaces with individuals within each organizational unit or subunits Listing of organizational units and subunits with frequent public contact Listing of organizational units with heavy paper flow Listing of organizational units with frequent telephone, fax or computer contacts • Collect information on existing inventories Document existing furniture and equipments by types, styles, sizes, manufacturers Identify items that are reusable and in good condition Identify items that are reusable but requires refinishing or reupholstering Identify items that are salvageable for resale Identify items that are to be thrown away • Collect personnel history and forecast Collect personnel historical data of each organizational unit and subunit and that of the total company if available Identify significant data that is used for past personnel projection if available Collect personnel forecast from Personnel unit or from Administrative unit Collect personnel forecast from each organizational unit showing specific job categories if available Collect group space forecast if available Identify any issues or use of technology that might affect future personnel and space forecast • Identify constrains, existing and/or anticipated problems
  • 7. Listing of design priorities Listing of budget priorities Identify time schedule Identify quality expectation: expensive, average or economical Identify building constrains: size, shape, location, building modules, mechanical, structural, electrical, communication systems and physicial limitations Identify administrative structure: stable or dynamic Identify company flexibility requirements in the past and future Identify employee productivity Identify new or change of image Listing of existing problems within the organizational units or within the group spaces Data Collection Techniques Most consulting firms use similar methodologies to collect the client's data. The common techniques are interviews, questionnaires and observations. Since the data collection process can be quite tedious and timely, the programmer's responsibility is to select the best method or methods suited to the project that allows for speedy completion and interpretation. 1. Observations The programmer always starts the project with a tour of the client's facility. The tour allows the programmer to note down essential information regarding the client's existing environments, function, operational requirements, special situations and problems. In most cases, it clarifies project requirements and expectations and enable the programmer to get a feel for the project scope and budget. 2. Interviews Interviews provide programmers a way of collecting qualitative information on users' requirements, clarifies directions, exchange views and resolve discrepancies. Programmer first develops an interview list identifying the individuals or groups for the interviews, the time frame for each and the required information list. The interviews may be repeated many times until the programmer gets all the necessary information. In the case of a small project, the interviews and observations are sufficient for data collection. Major personnel to interview and available information: Chairperson of the board and Executives The Chairperson and executives establish company goals, project overview, company image and mission, company direction, and overall budgets. They are very knowledgeable on general company history, direction, and overall administrative policies. Personnel director
  • 8. The personnel director keeps up-to-date records of total company personnel forecasts, personnel policies and administration. Office or facility director The facility director and staff manage the needs of the company. They are familiar with the needs of the organizational units, their functions and the personnel requirements. They manage on a daily basis all furniture inventories, yearly replacement budgets, and the building's maintenance requirements. Organizational units' directors The director of each organizational unit is knowledgeable on details. They provide more specific personnel forecasts, personnel space requirements, group space requirements, personnel proximity, the unit's proximity with other organizational units and with common shared facilities, and any special environmental, structural, electrical or security situations within each unit. Individuals with special needs These are individuals with special furniture, equipment or space needs. Examples are equipment operators, laboratory technicians, security officers, mail carriers, food providers, health care providers and those with physical handicap. Their furniture, equipment or area arrangement might have impacts on furniture selections or the planning of their units. 3. Questionnaires Programmers develop questionnaire forms to collect quantitative and detail information about the organizational units, the individual users and group spaces. The technique is most common for large scale projects when interviews with individual users are time-consuming or not feasible. Many programmers develop specific questionnaires to collect specific information relating to a company. Others use standard forms developed for past projects that proved to be effective or use those developed by leading furniture manufacturers for general purpose programming. Office Space Standards Overview Contents Overview Space Standard Features Overview In office design, flexibility in planning is essential in order to accommodate changes of occupancy over time in a cost effective manner. For this reason, and due to the potential construction cost savings from the application of a repetitive geometry, it is always desirable to use a modular planning approach. Most buildings these days work on a building module of 5' or 4'. The size of the building module in an office building is always defined by the architect. The factors that affect such module are based on varying factors such as site conditions, structural systems, spacing of window mullions, columns, ceiling
  • 9. layout, etc. Interior planner and designer for the project will need to response to the same modularity in the design of the interior space. If the project consists mostly of enclosed spaces, the exterior wall and window design will become an important determinant of the room modules since the location of the interior partitions are governed by the mullion modularity along the perimeter walls. If the space is relatively open, then the ceiling module, lighting, telephone and electrical locations will be more of a determinant factor. Space standards are repetitive spaces that must be created using the similiar building modularity in order to gain accessibility to building systems. To achieve modularity, it is important to simplify the number of different spaces or standards used within an office. In addition to the personnel standards, the common group areas such as supporting area, special use areas or the common use areas can also be easily standardized. Space Standard Features A space standard is a study of the space size, furniture requirements and area arrangement for an area of activity that is responsive to the need of the company. The activity area may be a personnel space or a shared facility such as files, storages, conference room, reception area or etc. A typical space study should include: An illustration of all furniture requirements An approximate arrangement of all furniture used in the space An approximate space size as defined by an area boundary Furniture clearances and secondary internal circulation for use of the space. Each open and semi-private space includes part of a secondary isle which accounts for clearances and entry into the space. This partial isle will form into a full isle when the spaces are grouped into a work station cluster. This is not true with private spaces which is only accessible through primary isles. In order to provide for primary internal circulation to work stations and for access into various group areas, there is an extra 25% space allocations to all the space standards. This additional space will be accounted during the department square footage calculation. The circulation allocation varies with different projects based on the client's image, budget constrain, geometry of the space plan and etc. but the 25% average has been proven to be quite effective. In actual planning application, the distribution of primary circulation varies according to types of spaces with 30% for private spaces, 25% for semi-private spaces and 15% for open spaces.
  • 10. Personnel Space Standards • • • personnel private spaces personnel semi-private spaces personnel open spaces Group Space Standards • • • • • support spaces: files, storage cabinets and shelves support spaces: equipment and miscellenous areas special use spaces: waiting and conferences special use spaces: break and mail distribution special use spaces: file, and storage rooms Detail Listings of Organizational Units or Sub-Units After the questionnaires are completed, the designer will process, filter, extract and summarize all data and put them into a useable form for use in planning and design.Such effort compiles a detail breakdown of each organizational unit's or subunit'spersonnel and group requirements. The programmer tabulates the space requirements of all personnel job categories and group requirements by using the newly developed or revised space standards. A circulation factor is assigned to each type of spaces and then sum together to arrive at the unit's summary. Many programmer likes to use an average circulation factor of 25% to the entire organizational unit but others like to use different circulation factors for different types of spaces. A common practice is to use 30% circulation factor for personnel private spaces, 25% for personnel semi-private spaces and 15% for personnel open spaces. For group requirements, the support spaces usually do not need any circulation factor because the isles that take people to the workstations are the same for support areas. If needed, add a 25% circulation factor. Special use areas receive 30 to 35% circulation factor due to traffic density. For large corporations, using the different circulation factors can be a meaningful space saving technique because the numbers of personnel with open stations are substantial. Personnel Information List Group Requirements List Total Space Summary
  • 11. Comparative Summaries and Total Company Summary The table below illustrates the space summaries of all the organizational units showing the statistics within the units. In addition to the total personnel and space requirements within each unit, it also illustrates the space comparisons between types of space: Private, Semi-private and Open, total Personnel and group space requirements. From the table, one can see which organization unit grows the fastest, the type of growth required and whether the unit is relatively open or closed and how much flexibility is within the unit. The table also include a section on common Use Spaces which represents the group facilities shared by all the units within the company. The grand total of the space requirement is shown on the last row in addition to the sum of all the statistics. Building Feasibility Analysis Purpose
  • 12. In order to determine whether the building under consideration will be appropriate to meet the client's operational requirements, the programmer will need to analyze the building. The factors to consider will include: • the given building facilities • the physical layout of the space • the building systems:hvac, telephone and electrical, communication • the structural and technical constrains • its location • its neighbourhood • the parking facilities • the lease terms • the demolition and improvement costs necessary to update building • the current building and ADA codes compliances • the client's budget constrain if more than one building is considered, then the comparative analysis between the different sites become necessary Building Analysis Table Shown below is a table with two columns to aid in the analysis. On the left column is a listing of site situations, building services, existing building constrains, the building and ada codes requirements, lease terms if applicable. On the right column is the listing of the recommendations to the client on what needs to be updated or constructed in order to bring the building up-to-date and meet its intended use. Shown belows are standards used for Business occupancy type. For other occupancy types, check the code books.Consider adding additional columns if more than one building is under consideration and turn it into a comparative table for multiple sites. Site Analysis, Exisiting Building Conditions and International Code Compliance Requirements Recommended Revisions and Improvements to Building Site Analysis Site Location building orientation adjacency to major highway neighbourhood analysis major and secodnary streets ease of turning into property Parking Facilities
  • 13. outdoor or covered facility ability to accommodate future growth cost per month per employee secondary parking facilities around the neighbourhood and costs Surrounding Facilities restaurants within walking distance banking facilities convenient facilities Existing Building Conditions Building Systems building construction type occupancy type mechanical systems telephone and electrical Spatial Analysis gross building square footage on typical floor leasable building square footage on typical floor net building square footage on typical floor building and window modules number of floors building efficiency factor - net usable sq ft for total building over total building expressed in a % ability to accomodate future growth Existing Building Facilities cabling and wiring entries data and communication capability and future growth potential stairs - total sets of stairs elevators - locations and numbers and types freight elevators - location, size and numbers restroom facilities rescue assistance other common building facilities building janitorial and storage common building facilities Building Codes Compliance Occupancy Load - OL
  • 14. gross build sq ft divided by occupancy factor 100 Egress Requirements 2 exits between 1-500 occupancy load, 3 for 501-1000, 4 for more than 1000 occupancy load on typical floor number of exits on each typical floor arrangement of exits: 50% diagonal rule measure in a straight line if more than 2 exits, 2 of the exits must meet the 50% diagonal rule if entire building is sprinkler, the distance between the exits can be 33.3% travel distance: 200 ft maximum from any interior location or 300 ft maximum if equipped with a sprinkler system minimum corridor or aisle width 44" dead end corridor 20 feet maximum, longer dead may be allowed but must check with code officials level exit width requirement:0.2 x OL and for stairs 0.3 x OL or 44 inches for level exit, 48 inches for stairs which ever is greater Stairs and Ramps Requirements stairs exit width requirement relative to OL, 0.2 width variable x occupancy load or 44" if OL less than 50 stairs landing requirements: intermediate landing required if rise is more than 12 feet door when fully open will not to reduce landing by more than 7" landing depth 4 feet minimum or as wide as stairs or ramps stairs handrails at both sides of stairs must extends 12" beyond the bottom and last riser ramps rise relative to run ratio is 1:12 and landing required at the bottom and top of ramp ramp intermediate landing required for rise every 30" or horizontal run 30 feet doors cannot reduce any required landings by more than 7 inches treads 11" deep and risers not to exceed 7" minimum ceiling height is 7 feet 6 inches Plumbing fixtures Requirements number of waterclosets for each sex on each typical floor - 1 for every 25 for the first 50 and 1 additional for every 50 to be divided between both sexes number of lavatories for each sex on each typical floor - 1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 additional for every 80 and divide equally between 2 sexes clearances between stalls is 36" from center of center drinking fountains on each floor 1 for every 100 and not protrude into clear corridor space sink on each floor 1 per floor
  • 15. screening at entrances of all restrooms Fire and Smoke Protection smoke isolation required for elevators and shafts sprinkler system recommended in most commercial buildings tenant separation walls: 1 hour stair enclosures: 2 hours corridor enclosures: 0 hour with sprinkler system hazardous rooms: 1 to 2 hours stand pipe and hose requirement at each landing of the exit stairs ADA Codes Compliance Access Route at least one access route connect all exits and accessible spaces minimum corridor width:3' 5' clearance requirement at T and L connections minimum clearance at any point 32" if access route is less than 5' wide then requires minimum 5' turn around every 200 feet protruding objects not to extend more than 4" inches corridors or aisles Rescue Assistance provide area 1 for every 200 occupants provide 30" x 48" wheel chair parking on each floor at stairway landing, or 1 hour rate corridor, or1 hour rate room near to the stairs display signs identifying "Area of Rescue Assistance" Building facilities rest room standard stalls size: 48" x 66" forward approach, 48" x 56" left hand approach, 60" x 56" right hand approach including clear floor space infront of stalls, door swing do not overlap into clear floor space multiple stalls with at least one accessible stall. For 6 or more stalls, at least add an additional 36" x 66" minimum wall mount with outward swinging door urinals require 18" between centerline of bowl and adjacent partition, 36" clear from side to side, 30" x 48" clear floor space lavatories require clear floor space 30 x 48" in front of lavatory grab bars require at the back and side of stalls: side grab bar requires 42" minimum and not to exceed 12" from rear corner, rear grab bar requires 36" long, centered, and not to exceed 6" from adjacent corner restroom turn around clearance: 5'
  • 16. accesible water fountain on each floor, hi-low type with water spouts is required if there is only one on the floor. If more than one available, 50% accessible elevators minimum size: 80" x 54" center opening, 68" x 51" side opening Doors Maneuvering Clearances front approach and swing in direction of travel 12" minimum on latch side, for forward swing 18" minimum pull side approach and swing in direction of travel 18", for forward swing 36" minimum if clearance is 60 and 42" minimum if clearance is 54" latch side approach 24" minimum Lease Agreements cost per square foot space efficiency, net verses leasable sq ft tenant work letter and building standard items to finish space and cost for improvements length of lease and options to extend costs on demolition and special work Program Data Analyses In order to illustrate the space program data, it is helpful to use the charting tools from Excel to illustrate the program summary and the space statistics. It would be easier to visualize the results in a graphic form and identify any discrepancies that might occurs on the data generated. The space statistics will help the programmer to later on make meaningful recommendations on planning directions. Based on the complexity of the company, the types and number of charts may vary. Shown below are some of the commonly used charts. • Total company personnel projections • Comparative departmental personnel projections • Total company square footage projection • Comparative departmental square footage projection • Comparative analysis between types of spaces Private, Semi-private and Open • Comparative analysis between usage of spaces Personnel and group square footage • Expansion space analysis • Building distribution analysis Total Company Personnel Projection
  • 17. This chart illustrates the number of employees required in the company at move-in and future. Usually, the historical data will be used to forecast future growth. Departmental Personnel Projections This chart combines the personnel projections of all the organizational units and compare which units will grow faster than the others and which ones will remain stable. Total Company Square Footage Projection This chart illustrates the total square footage requirements for move in and future. Departmental Square Footage Projections
  • 18. This chart combines the square footage projections of all the organizational units and illustrate which unit consume larger space than the other units, which unit will grow the fastest and which ones will remain stable. Comparative Analysis Between Types of Spaces - Private, Semi-private and Open This chart illustrates the ratios between private, semiprivate and open spaces through out the company. It enable the programmer to later on make planning recommendations on whether is feasible to use traditional office planning or open office planning. (image under construction) Comparative Analysis Between Usage of Spaces Personnel or Group This chart illustrates the ratios between personnel and group spaces. It is useful to identify whether the company has a large quantity of technical or spaces that requires special constructions. This allow the programmer to predict how flexible the space will be. (image under construction) Building Efficiency Analysis This is a pie chart that illustrate how space are utitlized in the building, the percentiles used for the core and technical facilities, external circulations, common use areas, and how much space are net usable that can be assigned to the company. If we are to compare different sites for the new company, this will be useful in identifying cost savings by selecting buildings that are more efficient. Building Utilization Analysis This chart illustrates how the building is utilized and the amount of space is left for expansion and whether the building is adequate to meet 10 year's expansion need. It is obvious from the example below that the building provides adequate space for 5 years but will be deficient by 10 years.
  • 19. Proximity Analysis Prior to the space distribution of the company using an Excel spread sheet, the designer will need to analyze the proximity information of the departments or units. This will be in the form of bubble diagram with each bubble represent the size of each unit. If the company is a corporation. There company structure will include different levels and divisions. In that case, the proximity diagrams should be broken up into separate proximity diagrams with each diagram representing each level within the hierarchy structure. There should be also be separate proximity diagrams to illustrate the interactions between work groups if the units consists of multiple work groups. The purposes of proximity diagrams: • to illustrate the degree of interactions between the organizational units or subunits or workgroups o essential interactions o desirable interactions o least interactions • to illustrate the main entrances relative to the organizational units or subunits • to illustrate the common shared facilties relative to the organizational units or subunits • to illustrate which units have the most frequent interactions and which ones have the least or none • to illustrate which units have the most frequent public interactions • to illustrate which group or shared facilites need to be untilize by which organizational units How to set up proximity diagrams • use different types of lines to illustrate different types of interactions o bold lines to represent essential interaction o outlines to represent desirable interaction o dash lines to represent least or minimal interaction • illustrate the relative sizes of the organizational units using different sizes of bubbles - larger units will be in larger bubbles • distance between the units should indicate how far each unit should be away from another unit in question • centralized facilities or units should be grouped centrally • interaction links between units should not overlap or cross one another to avoid confusion • subunits within a larger unit should be grouped using a separate bubble to illustrate their organizational structure and to minimize crossing of links Example The illustration below shows a major division with multiple units and their relationship with each other.
  • 20. Company Space Distribution Analysis After the completion of the space program and the site analysis, the programmer will have adequate information on the over all size of the company and the availability of the net square footage in the building. The next phase will be to analysis how the company will be distributed in the building. This information can be organized in a distribution table. The importance of the distribution table: • • • • • to illustrate the locations of the organizational units within the building and their sizes to illustrate the adjacencies between different organizational units to illustrate the both the horizontal and vertical distribution of space to illustrate location of expansion spaces and how they will be consumed over time to illustrate the mobility of the organizational units over time
  • 21. Factors to consider • • • • • • • to maximize the use of space on each floor and to reduce waste square footage identify the organizational units that have special needs and avoid unnecessary mobility areas with special constructions such as millwork technical areas such as cabling and wiring areas with environmental control or lighting areas with plumbing requirements to reduce overhead by grouping expansion spaces together for sublease or block off until consumption Example The illustration below shows the distribution of a company on 3 floors with the third floor as the street level floor. The company has 4 divisions that are color coded. The common used areas are located in the building core and are not included in this distribution. The strategies used: • • • • • to meet the adjacency requirements of the units to hold the division and its subunits together as much as possible to maximize the use of each floor before using another floor to group expansion space together and reduce overhead by enclosing these areas until they can be utilize to reduce unnecessary mobility and keep all units with special constructions in the same locations
  • 22. Planning: Office Planning Guides: Planning Approach The general approach to planning The flow of planning starts from very general building concept development to very specific requirements that defines the needs and details of each area. It involves the following phases of development: • • • • Blocking and Layering Schematic Preliminary Final Blocking and Layering Blocking is a horizontal distribution of space on a given floor plan. Designers will explore multiple options to study the allocation of organizational units on the selected building and their adjacencies to each other. Blocking plans illustrate: • • • the total square feet requirement of each unit in the form of rectangular block the external circulation from the elevator lobby or entrances of the building in relationship to the units the adjacency requirements of each unit with other units in questions showing
  • 23. • • • • • • • • • • • • immediate adjacency desirable adjacency least or no adjacency the relationship of the unit with other building facilities that include public contact - adjacency of the unit with the elevator lobby or entrances deliveries of services and goods - storages, equipment, mail and distribution in relationship of the units locations of hygience facilities - restrooms building constrains and limitations the building code compliances in terms of egress and life safety the American Disability compliances around the building how to maximize the use of space and minimize waste on each floor locations of the expansion space and how best to use it until they are consumed over time if applicable Shown below is an examples of blocking plan with the names of each unit removed. Layering Layering or commonly known as stacking is a vertical distribution of space. This is usually shown as a building section showing all the floors within a building and the vertical communications in the forms of elevators and stairs. Layering illustrates: vertical relationship of the units to each other whether they are vertically above or below; a few floors away from any other unit in questions or next building types of physical communications between floors using standard elevators or if it is a tall building whether high speed elevators will be used, or whether transfer is necessary between floors, or the use of stairs is feasible The following drawings illustrate the stacking diagrams of a building with 3 floors. Each color represents a different unit. Option 1 maximizes the adjacencies requirements of the units and sub-units that resulted in having some of the same subunits on different levels Option 2 maximizes the organization of the major units so that all the sub-units of the same major units are grouped together as much as possible with a slight compromise of the adjacencies. Schematics Schematics is the breakdown of blockings to illustrate the program requirements
  • 24. of company within the selected floor plans. These include both personnel group requirements. At this stage, the designer will explore the space utilizations of the space using multiple schemes. Using very loose bubbles that represent the size of the work stations, offices, or different areas of activities, the schematics drawings illustrate the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • the most compatible and efficient circulation around the building from the elevator or entry to various parts of the building using the external circulations the most efficient internal circulations within each department or unit that include both primary and secondary circulations the architectural concept of the building using geometries - rectangular, circular, angular or others building modularity and how that relates to organization of private spaces the organizations of personnel within each unit showing the work groups and their personnel the personnel and work group adjacencies the group requirements that include support and special use areas and their adjacencies with personnel the organizations of work stations within the space the light penetration into the interior spaces using types of space dividers and their orientations to the perimeters of the building Preliminaries This is the selection of the best schematic option and develop it into a scaled preliminary plans. It illustrate the specific furniture requirements of the users and the group spaces. The operational requirements and the adjacencies internally will be firmly established at this phase of design. Prior to the start of this planning, the work station standards should have been established. The preliminary plan illustrates: • • • • • • • the furniture and equipment layout of the users and the group spaces the implementations of all personnel and group space standards showing the details of the space dividers, furniture and panel modules, hardware, components and accessories and whether they are private, semiprivate or open spaces the modularity of the private spaces relationship with the window modularity and building system the organization and orientations of work stations and their internal circulations
  • 25. • the building electrical and communication entries and they interface with the furniture requirements by testing their placement and verify their availability Final Planning It is the final furniture layout with careful attention to details and executions that include the development of the furniture, furnishing and equipment. This includes: • • • • • • • • • • • furniture and system selections through analyses of planning and operational needs and budget all new furniture partial new and reused furniture 3-dimensional space development using any of the following: elevations and sections erspectives obliques models digital walk-through selections of furnishing, equipment, art and accessories custom design and casework details Final Program, Recommendations and Planning Guidelines Purposes This is the final phase of the program that will summarize the program space data and make recommendations to the client on how best to utilize the building To compare the waste factors between different options, compare and update the final space requirements between the options To identify the final leasing space requirements between the options and compare which option consumed the most sq ft To compare differences between the blockings and identify how well each blocking meet the proximity requirements of the organizational units and study their mobilities over time To identify a planning direction based on the statistics being generated from the ratio between private, semi-private or open spaces To identify the degree of flexibility possible within the company based on ratio of private in comparison to both semi-private or open spaces To develop a program on how to handle expansion spaces or contraction in future until they are consumed To make final recommendations on the blockings and provide reasons for selection
  • 26. To establish planning guidelines as aid to the space planner who will be utilize the program for planning Final Space Summary The final program sq ft is the program summary plus the waste sq ft generated on each floor. The waste must added into the total program sq ft to arrive at the adjusted program sq ft. The programmer will compare the differences between the options and identify which option is most efficient in usage of space which reduce initial cost and long term operation cost. Final Leasing Space The program summary is based on net sq ft will which is the total company space requirement in order to accommodate all the organizational units and group shared facilities. If the company is leasing a space, then the programmer will need to calculate how many sq ft the company will need to lease in order to arrive the required net sq ft for operation. The leasing sq ft will not include spaces used for mechanical, stairs, utility shaft cavities and elevators. All the other facilities such as building lobbies, elevator lobbies, corridors, rest rooms, telephone and electrical closets, janitorials spaces or other shared building facilities will be utilized by the tenants and therefore they are part of the leasing space. The leasing space is what the company will need to pay but part of the space are not usable and assignable to the company. Proximity Requirements The programmer will compare the differences between the blocking options and identify how each blocking meet the proximity requirements of the organizational units. The proximity also studies how the organizational units relate to the building facilities and communication with the public. The blockings also illustrate how the organizational units will be relocated in the building over time when there is contractions or expansions. The options that resulted in a lot of mobilities will incur higher operation and maintenance costs and may not be the choice. Planning Direction and flexibility
  • 27. One of the statistics generated from the data analysis illustrated the ratio between private, semi-private and open types of spaces. Since the semi-private and open spaces are installed using system furniture or free standing furniture, they can be easily relocated within a short period of time. if the amount of private spaces is high, it indicates conventional planning and less flexibility if the ratio of private spaces in high and flexibility is important, the programmer should recommend reducing the amount of private spaces, or recommend demountable partitions, or full height panels to increase flexibility if the amount of semi-private and open spaces are high, it indicates open office planning where the majority of work stations will be in furniture systems The statistics will also aid the space planner that utilizes the program to initialize planning to formulating the planning concept. Expansion or Contraction In any space program, the programmer usually forecasts the future space needs of the company that can be based on revenue projections, personnel projections, business projections or economy projections. If a company lease a space, the forecast will be at least five years for a medium size company. In the case of expansion, programmer will identify where to locate the expansion spaces within the building and how best to use the expansions before they are consumed. Programmer usually lists at least a few options and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each option. Methods of distributing expansion space: group all expansion spaces together and sublease it until they will be utilized (this will reduce overhead) if the expansion spaces are small, they can be located where they are needed within the organizational units to reduce mobility of units the expansion spaces can be grouped between organizational units so they can be consumed by adjacent departments (this runs the risk that if expansion is not materialized in those units, it cannot be used by other units) Methods of contractions: in place of individualized work stations, use shared stations between employees within the units or shared by all the employees on the same floor in place of conventional or open office, consider alternative officing off site strategies for employees that usually work outside the office and only meet with his or her team once a week or need to do special tasks or use office equipments Final Recommendations and Summary Identify the best selection on blocking and identify the final program summary
  • 28. identify why the selected blocking is the best option and provide reasons for selection make final recommendations to the client on how best to locate the units within the building and how the selection option meets the proximity requirements make recommendation on the best approach to handling expansion spaces or contraction in future Interior Space Planning: The Design Process Flow of Interior Project Program Development Analyze data gathering technique Develop criteria on information gathering Submit to management for approval Review final program input and revisions Develop workstation standards Generate unit and subunits space assignments Generate unit and subunits summaries and total company summary Analyze building sites and establish Codes compliances Develop blocking & Layering Submit planning guidelines and revised company space summary Review and finalize recommendations Space Development Develop building conceptual concepts using alternative schemes Review with management Develop preliminary plans and test concept using typical unit Present preliminaries Develop final plans Present final plan develop 3d using 3d drawings, sketches and models Make minor revisions Design Development Develop design criteria Review concepts with management Revise fianl design Construction Documents Construction plans Telephone & electrical plans REflected ceiling Finishes plans Furniture plans Casework & Millwork
  • 29. Details Specifications Furniture Specifications Review furniture inventoory Develop method of reuse Present new & reuse concepts Develop furniture specifications & supportive documents Submit specifications for approval Order furniture Construction & Installation Bid process and contractor selection Shop drawing approval Deliveries and Installation Punch lists Submit Budget Estimates Establish work station standards budget Exclude general constructed items Develop final cost of all work performed Consult with Consultants Accoustical consultant Lighting consultant Technology consultant Special consultants based on project needs Develop time-in scheduel based on input by consultants Review Architectural Documents Management Approval Planning directions Preliminary plans Final plans Design development Furntiure specifications Final consturction documents Walk through, punch list & Movein Project Schedule Inorder to deliver a project within the given time frame and within budget, it is necessary to plan in a logical sequence the major phases of the design activites and the time allowance for each completion. Scheduling can be affected by many factors: • • Condition of the existing building: lease expiring or owned Size of the new space
  • 30. • Complexity of the project: highly technical, specialized equipment or customized space need • New construction or renovation • Construction method: normal, fast track or phased construction The following chart shows a normal time frame for a commercial project which includes interior space programming through design, development and production. web.
  • 31.
  • 32. Space Planning: Types of Spaces Contents Private Spaces Semi-Private Spaces Open Spaces Personnel Spaces Support Spaces Special Use Spaces Common Use Spaces Types of Spaces Spaces are classified according to the degree of privacy within the area and the usage of space. Degree of Privacy Private Spaces Areas with four sided enclosures with or without doors. These are full height enclosures from floor to ceiling using dry wall, demountable or removable partitions. The spaces provide conversational privacy, visual privacy and security of materials. Application include executive offices, management to midmanagement offices or professionals offices that require frequent visual privacy, conversational privacy, confidential storage of materials or any combination of these. Semi-Private Spaces Areas with two to three sided enclosures. The enclosures are below ceiling height between 48 inches to 75 inches using panels from system furniture that can relocate easily. Such enclosures provide seated or standing privacy and the higher panels are capable of providing ample storage above work surfaces. Applications include middle to low-management, supervory or non-supervisory staff, professional or non-professional staff, or any personnel stations that require some degree of visual privacy, conversational privacy or a generous amount of storage capabilities. The stations also provide high degree of flexibility and reconfiguration within the work spaces by changing components within the work space. The common panel heights include: Seated Privacy - 48 inches to 55 inches high panels that provides some degree of visual privacy when seated. Storage overhead is not possible due low panel heights.
  • 33. Standing Privacy - 55 inches to 65 inches high panels that provides stand up privacy and some conversational privacy. The 60" panels allow users to utilize the panel heights for additional storage over head and still allow viewing above stations for higher degree of openings. Overhead Privacy - over 65 inches high panels that provide maximinum standing privacy and maximinum consersational privacy. These high panels should only be used on stations greater than 100 square feet. Open Spaces Open spaces have absolutely no enclosures around the station. The only space dividers are open spaces, plants, or furniture. Applications include low or nonmanagements stations such as junior level professional staff, non-professional staff, secretaries, clerks, or operators. Usage of Space Personnel Spaces The personnel spaces are individual work stations that include furniture, equipments and special requirements that allow the users to perform their task efficiently. Companies organize all personnel spaces into standard work stations types according to the individuals' hierarchy within the company, job categories and functional needs. Group Spaces Group spaces are share facilities within the company. The share facilities can be shared by work groups, by departments or units, or by the entire company. They are grouped according to the frequency of use. Support Spaces These are furniture, equipments or spaces required by the work groups within a department or unit. These shared facilities are located in close proximity to the individuals that need them on a regular basis. Therefore, these shared areas are supporting spaces for individuals' work and are active spaces. The spaces are mostly semi-private or open spaces that can reconfigure easily within the departmenmt or unit. Examples are: files shelvings storages equipments work tables, counters miscellaneous items such as carts, etc. Special Use Spaces
  • 34. The special use spaces are shared areas and equipments within a department or unit and they are usually treated and planned as organized units due to their function or special treatments. These spaces are shared by all the individuals within the same department or unit. The spaces are semi-active and they are further away from the individuals. Since they require special treatments, grouping, they are less flexible and many of them are permanent areas. Examples are: reception areas conference rooms file room storage rooms library mail and distribution lounges, etc. Common Use Spaces Common shared spaces are spaces located outside of the department or unit. The facilities are shared by all individuals within the company. Since they are mostly inactive or get occasional uses, these spaces are furthest away from the individuals. They also require special grouping or treatments and are mostly permanent private spaces. Examples are: archives exhibits or museums main company reception auditorium conferences central file rooms for inactive files central storage rooms cafeterias central duplicating and services first aid training center lockers, etc. Office Space Standards Overview Contents Overview Space Standard Features Overview In office design, flexibility in planning is essential in order to accommodate changes of occupancy over time in a cost effective manner. For this reason, and
  • 35. due to the potential construction cost savings from the application of a repetitive geometry, it is always desirable to use a modular planning approach. Most buildings these days work on a building module of 5' or 4'. The size of the building module in an office building is always defined by the architect. The factors that affect such module are based on varying factors such as site conditions, structural systems, spacing of window mullions, columns, ceiling layout, etc. Interior planner and designer for the project will need to response to the same modularity in the design of the interior space. If the project consists mostly of enclosed spaces, the exterior wall and window design will become an important determinant of the room modules since the location of the interior partitions are governed by the mullion modularity along the perimeter walls. If the space is relatively open, then the ceiling module, lighting, telephone and electrical locations will be more of a determinant factor. Space standards are repetitive spaces that must be created using the similiar building modularity in order to gain accessibility to building systems. To achieve modularity, it is important to simplify the number of different spaces or standards used within an office. In addition to the personnel standards, the common group areas such as supporting area, special use areas or the common use areas can also be easily standardized. Space Standard Features A space standard is a study of the space size, furniture requirements and area arrangement for an area of activity that is responsive to the need of the company. The activity area may be a personnel space or a shared facility such as files, storages, conference room, reception area or etc. A typical space study should include: An illustration of all furniture requirements An approximate arrangement of all furniture used in the space An approximate space size as defined by an area boundary Furniture clearances and secondary internal circulation for use of the space. Each open and semi-private space includes part of a secondary isle which accounts for clearances and entry into the space. This partial isle will form into a full isle when the spaces are grouped into a work station cluster. This is not true with private spaces which is only accessible through primary isles. In order to provide for primary internal circulation to work stations and for access into various group areas, there is an extra 25% space allocations to all the space standards. This additional space will be accounted during the department square footage calculation. The circulation allocation varies with different projects based on the client's image, budget constrain, geometry of the space plan and etc. but
  • 36. the 25% average has been proven to be quite effective. In actual planning application, the distribution of primary circulation varies according to types of spaces with 30% for private spaces, 25% for semi-private spaces and 15% for open spaces. Personnel Space Standards personnel private spaces personnel semi-private spaces personnel open spaces Group Space Standards support spaces: files, storage cabinets and shelves support spaces: equipment and miscellenous areas special use spaces: waiting and conferences special use spaces: break and mail distribution special use spaces: file, and storage rooms Interior Space Planning: Pre-Planning & Codes Compliances Codes and Compliances Prior to planning, Interior Designer will evaluate the given building to check for codes compliance. This is usually as part of the building feasibility study to examine if the given building facilities are appropriate to accommodate the client's needs and operations. The discussion here is based on the International Building Codes that planners use in the evaluation of building since many states are now adopting this code in place of Uniform Building Codes. Types of codes to consider in Pre-planning Egress and Life Safety Plumbing Fixtures Egress Requirements Factors to consider in Planning for egress Types of construction Types of occupancy Occupancy factor and occupancy load Types of Construction and Occupancy
  • 37. Most corporate offices are high rises that are classifed uner Type I or type II construction. Office is classified as Business under the Occupancy type. If there are other needs such as assembly, laboratories, etc. will be classifed as Mixed Occupancy type. Occupancy factor and Occupancy Load The occupancy factors is used to calculate the occupancy load for mixed used office buildings: Assembly of concentrated use is 7 sq ft net (without fixed seats) Assembly of less concentrated use is 15 sq ft net (conferences, exhibits, lounges, etc. with tables and chairs) The discussion here is based on Business occupancy types such as offices, banks, etc. and the occupancy factor is 100 sq ft gross Notes: The net areas do not include corridors, restrooms, mechanical rooms, utility closets, stairs, etc. In the case of mixed use, the occupancy load of the floor is equal to the sum of the occupancy load of each type of occupancy. Number of Exits The total number of exits is determined by the occupancy load but the minimum is 2 exits whether they are for a whole building, or a typical floor or a space within the building. Occupancy load of a floor is determined by total square feet of that floor divide by the occupancy factor based on the types of occupancy. If the occupants exit through that floor, the calculation must add 50% of the floor directly above or below, and 25% of all other floors beyond served by that floor. The total number of exits required are: 1-500 will be 2 exits 500-1000 will be 3 exits 0ver 1000 will be 4 exits Note: The floor with the largest occupant load determines the number of required exits for all lower floors. If there is mixed occupancies, then the occupancy load is tabulated by calculating each occupancy type separately and then adding them together. Arrangement of Exit Distance between the stairwells should be no less than 50% of the longest distance between two point of the building. This is usually the diagonal of the building. It is measured using a straight line between the center of door to center of door between the two exits. If this failied the requirements, then use a rated corridor to connect the two stairwells and the distance will be measured from the center of one exit to the center of the next exit travel along the center of the corridor.
  • 38. If there are more than 2 exits, at least 2 exits must be located using the 50% diagonal rule and the third one should not be close to any of the exits. If the building has sprinkler system, the distance can be 1/3 of the total distance instead of 50%. Travel Distance Exit maximum travel distance for Business and Assembly occupancies is 200 feet for non-sprinkler space and 250 feet for sprinkler space. This is measure from the most remote location in the building and travel along the isles and corridor until the stariwell door is reached. The codes allow additional 100 feet to reach the exits if the last portion of the travel distance is within a one hour rated corridor. No dead ends shall be more than 20 feet long. Occupancy Separation Separation is needed between different occupancy types or between different uses of the same type of occupancy. Occupancy types occupancy separation Large or small assembly - 2 hours Business - 1 hour Educational - 2 hour Hazardous check codes of different types Merchantile - 1 hour Storage, moderate hazard - 3 hours Storage, low hazard - 2 hours residential - 1 hour Institutional - 2 hours Rated corridors is required if there are more than 1 tenant on the same floor. Rated corridor or exit access corridor has a minimum fire rating 1 hour including surrounding partitions and ceiling. Walls enclosing exit stairs have 1 hour rating for buildings with 3 stories or less and 2 hour rating if they are four or more stories. Boiler rooms, furnace rooms and large storage rooms or hazardous material storage rooms require 1 hour to 2 hours separations from the rest of the building. Storage rooms more than 50 sq ft and less than 100 sq ft requires 1 hour rating otherwise 2 hours. The walls forming the means of egress must have 3 hours fire rating and selfclosing exit doors must have 1 hour rating.
  • 39. Exit Width Corridor is defined as circulation space enclosed by full height walls or partition over 5’ 9”. Aisle is a circulation space created by furniture or equipment. Minimum corridor width for egress must be 44” clear and with no obstructions or projections. In addition, the width of the exit corridors from each office space to the exit stairs is based on the total occupancy load of that floor multiply by a width variable. The total exit width is divided between the total number of exits used on the floor. Width variable calculation: Exit stairs is 0.3 without sprinkler and 0.2 with sprinkler Level exit is 0.2 without sprinkler and 0.15 with sprinkler To calculate the exit width, first calculate the occupancy load of the floor under consideration, then multiply the occupancy load with the width requirement as shown above and divide by the total number of exits. The result should be compared to the 3'-0" door and round up to the closest numbers of doors. Travel Direction & Signs The exit doors must open in the direction of travel. There must be exit signs in the corridor leading to the exit door. This door must also have an exit sign. Smoke Isolation Elevator must be equipped with smoke isolation from the rest of the building in the case of fire. This may be concealed when not in use. This can be done using: Manual operable doors and must be kept close at all times Automatic doors that is activated in case of fire Fire Suppression Each floor must have 2 fire extinguishers in the corridors, and they must be visible to the public. Exit Accesses Doors cannot be less than 6 feet 8 inches high. Most minimum door sizes are 36 inches. Swing of door cannot reduce any required landing dimensions by more than 7 inches when the door is fully open and not more than half of the required corridor with at any open position. Doors cannot be more than 4 feet or less than 3 feet. Adjoining or intervening rooms like kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets or similar spaces or subject to locking are not allowed as an exit access. Plumbing Requirements
  • 40. Restrooms There should be toilet stalls and lavatories for both sexes on each floor with at least 1 male and female stalls on each floor. Privacy screening is required at the entrance to the restroom and within the restroom when there are multiple fixtures. There should be drinking fountain on each floor. If there is more than 1 floor, each floor should have its own. Common location is the corridor outside the rest room area. If only one is used, then it must be a hi-low fountain. Minimum number of plumbing facilities Assembly concentrated use: Male stalls - 1 per 125 Female stalls - 1 per 65 Lavatories - 1 per 200 Drinking Fountains - 1 per 500 Assembly less concentrated: Male stalls - 1 per 75 Female stalls - 1 per 75 Lavatories - 1 per 200 Drinking Fountains 1 per 500 Business Male stalls - 1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 additional for every 50 for greater than 50 for both sexes. The total in each male and female will be to divide the total stalls required by 2 for each sex. Lavatories - 1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 additional for every 80 for greater than 80 Drinking Fountains - 1 per 100 Drinking Fountain Assembly concentrated - 1 per 500 Assembly less concentrated - 1 per 500 Business - 1 per 100 Service sink One on every floor Interior Space Planning: Office Planning Strategies Types of Planning strategies Conventional Office Planning Open Office Planning
  • 41. Alternative Officing Conventional Office Planning This is the traditional planning where there are distinct separations between organizational units or departments and the personnel hierarchy are firmly established. Majority of the workers are placed in free standing furniture with little or no barriers between them. The upper managements are usually located around the perimeter of the building with views to the skyline. The windows become the status symbol for the personnel. These type of offices still exist today but in a less rigid way. Characteristics: Organizational units have total separation from each other using partitions Personnel in managerial levels are accommodate in private offices along the permimeter walls with windows. The users have both converational and visual privacies as well as security of material. The offices are usually quite generous to reflect their status symbols. Personnel in low-managerial or professional levels will be located within open areas with space or storages as separators. The primary type of furniture are free standing furniture with no considerations for flexibility or growth. Majority of workers are grouped in vast open areas. If security of material are required, these users will also located within small private offices. All supporting personnel in non-managerial levels, or secretarial or clerical levels are located in secretarial or clerical pools with minimal spacial separations between work stations. These group of users have reduce spacial clearance and circulations between the stations. The typical work stations are configured in free standing desk, tables or credenza or custom casework. The managerial ranks usually have wood furniture as oppose to steel or plastic laminate furniture for the secretaries or clerks. Open Office Planning This is brought into this country after the war from Germany when there was a huge business boom. Corporations were springing up every where and the need for growth and changes were substantial. The purpose is to provide flexibility and reductions for long term operational cost due to changes in organizational structures at the expense of privacy. Characteristics: There is little or no distinct separations between organizational units. Separations between the units are loosely defined. Personnel in managerial levels are still located in private offices and the hierarchy levels are still distinct between managerial and professional levels. These users continue to enjoy converational and visual privacies as well as security of material.
  • 42. Personnel in low managerial, supervisory or professional levels are located in semi-private work stations with standing privacies. This group of users no longer have conversational or visual privacies. Security of material are handled through locked files or cabinets. The stations are ranges from 75 sq ft to 120 sq ft depending on ranks. The standing privacies are usually 60" to 65" high. Personnel in non-managerial, or secretarial or clerical levels are located in open stations or semi-private stations with seated privacies. Their stations are usually smaller around 50 sq ft to 65 sq ft depending on need. The seated privacies are usually 45" to 55" high. The semi-privacies are established through the use of furniture systems that consist of panels to provide visual privacy and some degree of conversational privacy. The first generation of furniture systems are in panel based systems. As time grows and due to need for higher degree of flexibilities and change in computer technologies, other systems appeared in the horizon to expand the need for the electronic office. The furniture systems become stronger and thicker to hold the vast amount of wiring and cabling, the electrical and cabling systems become available not only at base line but also at belt line or desk height in the last decade. Panel based system with or segmented panels Frame and tiled system Post and beam system Stackable system Free standing system Each of this has its advantages and disadvantages. It is important to fully understand how each of these perform specifying the systems. See the section on how to select furniture system for details. Alternative Officing The newest planning stategy starting to appear due to improvements in technology in the mid-nineties. There was a need higher productivities and team work become drivers for productivities. In additional, there are substantial consolidations within the corporations due to changing life styles and technologies. Many find themselves able to work beyond the office or work anywhere. Driving forces behind the change Change from domestic to global business to take advantage of cheaper labor force outside the country Advancement in technology allows work to be performed faster, use less people and more productive.
  • 43. Convergence of voice,data and graphics allow the workers to choose where they like to work, at home, at the office, in the car, in the airport, at the hotel or anywhere on the go. Real estate booms result in higher operatioinal costs that drive the company to adapt new ways to cut cost by making smaller work stations footprints, allow flex times, provide shared stations and hire more part time workers Newer generation of managers are younger, aggressive, free spirit and that enjoys wearing jeans, t-shirt and bring the informal work atmosphere to the office that cause collapse of multi-level hierarchy structure, encourage cooperative team work and satisfaction between individuals. This cut out the mid management and boost productivity. Competitions between businesses drive innovations in productions and sale processes and new technology made all these possible through high speed computer network or the web. Outsourcing become an end product to lower cost and gain business effectiveness. More female enter the work force cause management to rethink how to manage the new workers due to families involvement Innovations in equipment that include notebooks, wireless phones and global position systems allow worker to choose where they want to work, at home, in the car, in the hotel, or anywhere on the go allows the work to be accountable and support fast pace work. Organizational structure - collapse of hierarchy A normal corporation usually has ten to over twenties levels: Executive level 1 to 3 Department head level Sub-Department head levels 1 to 3 Managerial level 1 to 3 Mid-managerial level Low managerial level Supervisory level Non-supervisory level Professional level 1 & II Non-Managerial level 1 to 4 The revised hierachy structure are not flatten with a few levels: Executive level Management level Professional level Non-management or support level Change in furniture design The furniture manufacturers also rush into developing new products to support this type of work styles. The most current systems also take into consideration for
  • 44. the wireless technology and provided additional support for higher mobilities, electrifications and cabling. To achieve high degree of flexibility, the work stations become universal standard that can support majority job categories. From eight to 10 different work station standards, the corporations are down sizing to 1 to three standards. This result in lower inventory, reduction in parts and hardware, increase flexibility and lower cost. The panel and component sizes become universal, the components are portable and the sizes are smaller to support team work and mobility. In future, there will be substantial reductions in group files and storages since the future lies in converting data into digital format. Corporations will be purchasing less and less furniture and real estates. The revised work station types Private offices for individuals that need conversational and visual privacy or security of material Semi-private spaces for individual that need standup privacy for serious work that can be shared Open spaces with seated or no privacy for individuals that need to collaborate and work in teams Instead of having one work station for individual user, now corporations are putting a few employees to share the same station to provide for flexible hours to provide time for family, lower real estate costs, virtual office and off site work. Alternative work space strategies Shared stations Hoteling Free address Satellite office Virtual office Shared Stations There is no ownership to individual station, the station is shared by a few or a small group of users from project to projects or for a specific length of time for a team. There is need to accommodate personal belongings using removeable storages or pedestals. Hoteling The office is still the home base for these workers but they no longer own any work stations. The work stations become first come first serve status. The users will make reservation like at a hotel through a receptionist and define the dates, length of time and needs for the work station. The personal belongings are
  • 45. located in removeable storages and pedestals that are stored in lockers or storage rooms. Free Address Through the use of a sign-in computer, the user is able to claim whatever work station that is available to work for a day or for a short stay. The personnel belongers are accommodate in portable file liners or mobile pedestal that are return to their storages after the users finish their work. The work stations do not have ownship nor employees are able to personalize their stations. Satellite Office The employees will work in a temporary office at or close to the clients' site for a short period of time until the projects are finished. The users will return to their home office only when they need to meet with the team for conference or use the facilties. Virtual Office The users are able to work anywhere, in the car, on the go, at the airport or hotel and communicate with the home office using the computers. These users are always on the go and they will return to the home base only for special needs or to meet with the team. Planning: Planning Guides:Master Building Concepts Overview In large scale corporate planning, the interior designer first establishes a master building concept prior to commencing realistic planning in order to achieve consistency of concept through out multi-level floors of the building. This technique can also be used as a marketing tool for the design firm to secure contracts as well as use for tenant development services. The master building concept should achieve the following: The most efficient external circulation from the elevator lobby or entrances to the interior of the building through the defined entrances, to use core facilities and to provide agress from the typical floor Compliances to the codes and standards based on the building construction and occupancy types The distribution of entrances and exits along the external circulations adjacent to the core must comply with the egress travel distance The breakdown of the interior spaces into planning zones based on the most efficient internal circulation patterns
  • 46. The general distributions of private, semi-private and open spaces throughout the building must be efficient so that the departments are able to locate each type of space based on needs The planning zones must be of reasonable size so that they will achieve flexibility on planningand that the space can be utilized efficiently The architectural impact of the space must be have well defined geometries whether they are rectilinear, angular, circular or in combinations After the completion of the master building concept, the designer must test the concept using a typical floor of the building using one or more departments to verify that the concept is able to apply efficiently before full scale realistic planning with all the departments. Circulations There are three main types of circulations within a building: External circulations - circulatons around the building core that house all the common building facilities shared by all users on each typical floor Internal primary circulations - circulations that take the users from the entrances of each department to major work groups or areas internally within a department or company Internal secondary circulations - circulations that take the users from the primary circulations to the individual work station or specific areas of activities within a department or company Planning Zones The planning zones are net areas within the building that accommodate the personnel and group spaces. These are spaces for planning of personnel work stations and group spaces and are separated by primary circulations. These zones include the secondary circulations for entries into the individual work station or group area. Planning zones checklist: They must be large enough to accommodate a large cluster of work stations or group spaces to reduce unnecessary circulations and to provide adequate flexibility for rearrangement The planning zones on private, semi-private and open spaces must be well distributed through out the building so that regardless of where the departmental units are located, they can use them easily for different job categories need The planning zones must be separated from each other using primary circulation isles The primary circulatons must be connected to each other and to the entrances and exits for ease of egress
  • 47. Planning zones should maintain similar geometric shapes and size as much as possible in order that the work station standards will be able to implement efficiently Irregular zones will generate a lot of waste and reduce flexibility Avoid dead ends between zones or over size planning zones to provide efficient circulations The Process Establish building concept using planning zones and primary circulations Testing the planning zones by implementing the personnel work station standards within the zones and illustrate how they can be utilized efficiently Testing how departmental boundaries can be achieved using different strategies Testing the planning zones by using a typical floor or area within the floor using the realistic needs of a few departments The chosen department use for testing must consist of a good distribution of different work station types and group spaces that include support and special use areas Testing electrical and telephone locations to make sure there are not a big number of work stations that miss the power or communications access Obtain approval from client and implement full scale realistic planning of all departments Establish Master Building Concept Check for codes compliances based on construction type and occupancy types that include egress requirements, plumbing and ADA requirements Establish the external circulations around the core: define how users are able to flow from the elevator lobby to the entrances of the departments, or tenant spaces using the external circulation around the building core define how the users are able to use the core facilities easily from the internal parts of the building. This is determined by the number of entrances into the interior spaces from the external circulations Identify how the entrances are positioned in relationship to the elevator lobby for ease of wayfinding From the entrances along the external circulation, break down the interior spaces into large planning zones by defining the internal primary circulation patterns The planning zones must be consistent throughout the entire building as much as possible to achieve consistency in planning The plan must provide the most efficient internal circulation pattern All major circulations must be connected to each other to provide ease of flow and egress There should be no dead ends exceeding 20 feet Set up planning rules to define the general locations for personnel spaces within the planning zones: private, semi-private or open, and the locations for support
  • 48. and special use areas (open stations provide supports to management and should be located adjacent to each other) Develop the architectural impact of the space by the using basic geometries and/or integrate with the circulation pattern Testing of Concepts In order to demonstrate how well the concept perform, the interior designer and planner should generate a number of tests to verify and demonstrate the performance of the planning concept. If the tests resulted in a lot of waste in space, then the planning zones or the work station standards will need to be adjusted. Test how the private offices can be implemented within the planning zones using different sizes offices. Study how well the different offices can adapt to sizes changes for different job hierarchies Test how the semi-private or open stations can be implemented within the planning zones and how easily they can interchange, regroup or rotate Test the orientations of the semi-private and open stations, there should be at least 4 basic orientations Test how the supporting spaces such as files, storages, shelving and equipment can easily integrate within the planning zones and interchange with the personnel work stations Test the general locations of special use areas such as reception, conference facilities, storages, mail and distribution within the planning zones and how they work in relationship to the personnel stations Test how a cluster of 6 or 8 semi-private or open stations can be formed within a typical zone and irregular zone if applicable Additional Test on Departmental Boundaries The planning concept must able to provide the needs for separations between the departments due to visual privacy and security of the units without affecting the internal and or external circulations. Some departments need absolute separations where as other need minimal or no separations. In addition, some departments that have frequent public contacts may need visual identity for ease of way finding. The tests to address the different degrees of departmental separations: maximum separation between different departments using full height partitions medium separation between different departments using system panels that can easily be moved minimal separation between different departments using storages such as files or cabinets, plants and space Examples of Master Building Concept using a Conceptual Approach
  • 49. Triangular Building Concept - to provide maximize light penetration and flexibility by locating all private spaces away from the windows and locate them parallel to the core Angular Building Concept - to use an open planning approach by grouping all private spaces in angular clusters and to maximize semi-private personnel work stations for improvements on light penetrations Perpendicular Builidng Concept - to group all private spaces perpendicular to the perimeter of the building and provide some departmental separations to control acoustics and compromise with reduced flexibility Rectangular Building Concept - to emphasize on personnel hierarchy by grouping private spaces along the window areas with occasional light penetrations Planning: Planning Guides: Office Planning Basics and Rules The following information are the planning basics and rules to planning the office interiors. It includes minimum requirements for clearances between furniture and spaces, do's and don'ts on furniture arrangements, averages on basic work stations and group areas. Circulations, Isles or Corridors Connect all major corridors or primary circulations for fire safety or egress Connect secondary isles with primary isles with minimum clearance 3'-0" Avoid dead ends over 20'-0" Avoid long corridors with no break or rest stop Minimum corridor is 44" by building codes but regulated by occupany load. Calculate width of corridor by taking gross square feet divided by occupancy factor and multiply by the width variable Private offices or Enclosed Areas Avoid random placement of private areas that create chaos and reduce flexibility and loss in spaces Group all private areas in clusters and avoid random placement of private areas to provide higher degree of flexibility Develop standardize architectural concept using standardize geometries such as angles, curves and rectilinear forms Develop standardize door configurations throughout all entries using paired doors or angular or recess entries Avoid sharp or acute angles that result in waste Connect all private or enclosed spaces with primary circulations Align partitions to mullions using the building grids along the windows and if not possible align partition along the one half of the building grid and use an offset partition to meet with the mullions Avoid running partitions directly to glazing that block views to exterior
  • 50. Similar rank managerial personnel should be provided with the same size office and enjoy the same previleges such as having window areas Consider light penetrations into interior space for the majority of workers Consider built-in furniture for managerial level personnel if flexibility is not required in place of free standing furniture In front of all private and enclosed areas should be a major 4'-0" corridor Semi-Private Work Stations Consider space dividers or panels using common panel sizes, the ideal situation is one size Panel sizes must be configured using industry standard sizes The most common panel sizes are 36" or 30" Avoid using panel sizes that are 24" or 18" since they are usually not electrified Avoid placing two primary surfaces against each other and share the same common panels to avoid sudden attacks or impacts from adjacent station Avoid placing primary work surface against panel used by files, storage or equipment due to impacts and vibrations Avoid eye contact with personnel of adjacent stations Do not intermingle open stations with semi-private that create noise and reduce privacy for serious work if semi-privacy is a major consideration Panels and components modules must relate to each other in modularity for hardware attachments and support Group semi-stations in a cluster of 6 to 8 stations using a central spline to consolidate electrical and communication entries and provide flexibility for reconfigurations between adjacent stations Locate pedestals and storages away from knee clearances such as the corners between primary and secondary work surfaces or between two secondary work surface Relate work surface depths with files or storages to clean up irregularities such as using the vertical files adjacent with primary work surfaces in place of laterals Locate splines or high panels perpendicular to the perimeter windows to take advantage of natural light penetrations into the interior spaces Locate storage bins above the secondary work surfaces instead of primary work surfaces to provide shadows and discomfort as a result of shadows generated from the bulk units The ideal placements of storage bins will be along the spline using stand up height panels and perpendicular to the perimeter wall to allow natural light penetrations Consider knock down barriers using transitional height panels for personnel that need to work together or in teams Maximimum privacy can be achieved using standing height panels if privacy is a considerations for personnel that do serious work The four drawers high files are usually used with semi-private work stations since panels are usually 60" - 65" high Stand up panel heights should not exceed 69" otherwise they will be considered partitions and need 4'-0" isles
  • 51. Use towers or cabinets in place of credenzas to reduce total footprint and provide the same features. Many new towers and cabinets also provide box, box, file and shelving behind doors similar to credenzas Open Work Stations Avoid large uninterrupt groups of open work stations, where possible break into groups of 2, 4 but no more than 6 work stations Separations between thes stations can be configured using space, files or storages Use 3 drawers high files for counter height, 4 drawers high files for standing privacy in open areas or 5 drawers high files to provide separation between open departments if security is not a issue Continuous open spaces requires some degree of separations using space dividers, panels or partitions to provide accoustical controls between open areas and act as fire stops Avoid placing open stations against a wall to avoid eye strain Avoid direct sight lines with adjacent workers by placing primary work surfaces facing each other or the typing return facing each other Avoid joining primary work surfaces side by side to prevent over flow of paper work into other users' work surfaces for privacy. This group of stations can be separated by space or storages or panels Avoid placing open stations facing the window due to glare or distractions Maintain consistent grouping concepts thoughout the same project except in special cases such as running into columns or other situations Avoid slight off set between adjacent stations or corner to corner placement of furniture which create chaos If files are needed for open stations, group them together in clusters of 3, 4 or 6. Support Spaces These are files, shelving, cabinets, work tables, conference areas, etc. that needs to be located near to work groups to support their daily work. Build these furniture against the partitions or walls if possible If these are needed in open areas, group them in related depths and heights in banks of 6, 8 or 10 to avoid unsightly irregularities Locate support spaces near to work groups that needs them and place them in a centralized location for easy access Group lateral files in banks that are back to back but avoid exceeding 10 units for ease of circulations If density of files is a consideration along a partition or wall, use vertical files in place of lateral files Avoid using vertical files back to back in banks at semi-private or open areas due to the bulk size, lateral files are more appropriate Use vertical files to maximize file density in file rooms Enclose untidy units of equipment, work tables or over size storages behind panels, or locate in enclosed areas to avoid unsightly irregularities
  • 52. Avoid locating storages, files or shelvings directly in front of windows to avoid damage to material and wasted the natural light to workers Use common isles to serve 2 rows of files, storages or shelving to reduce isles Group odd number of units by turning the last unit ninety degree from the rest to form an even cluster in place of odd numbers arrangement Interchange support spaces with semi-private or open stations using the same modularities Important Clearances Corridors and Isles Corridors or primary isles - 4'-0" minimum Seconday isles - 3'-0" minimum Isles with files on both sides - 3'-6" minimum Isles with shelves on both sides - 3'-0" minimum Isles with storage cabinets on bothe sides - 3'-6" minimum Work Stations Enter two adjacent work stations for 2 is 30" minimum Enter a single desk is 24" minimum Clearance between a professional or average desk and a rear unit - 3'-0" minimum Clearance between a management desk and a rear unit is 3'-6" Clearance between an executive desk and a rear unit is 4'-0" Work station averages: 30" panel modules non-management - 7'-6" x 7'-6" professional - 10' x 7'-6' low management or supervisory - 10' x 10' or 10'-6" x 10' Work station averages: 3' panel modules non-management - 6' x 9' professional - 9' x 9' low management or supervisory - 12' x 9' Introduction This section covers furniture types and how to analyze and select the best system based on users' operational needs and planning needs as established by the designers. Types of Furniture A listing of different freestanding furniture types and system furniture classifications. A process of System Furniture Evaluations and Selections A detail breakdown of on how to select furniture system from setting up the criteria list, evaluations of systems, analysis and testing of needs based on
  • 53. storage quantities and work surface requirements and a weighted rating system to finalize selection. Types of System furniture Comparative summaries of system furniture Establish mandatory performance criteria Evaluation of systems Comparative analyses between systems and testings Final ratings and selection Furniture: Types of System Furniture Recent years, system furniture has gone through a lot of changes with many new products introduced into the market place due to the changing corporate structures, changing technology and the gaining popularity of the new office concept "Alternative Officing". Classifications of System Furniture We can classify the systems according to their characteristics, functions and performances. They all have their advantages and disadvnatages which are briefly discussed below: Panel Based System These are the oldest system on the market and the most widely used in Industry. It is a conventional system that includes structural panels that are used to support overhead and under work surface components. Changes in height requires changing the panels. Free standing components are used to provide stability of the panels. The first generation systems are thinner panels that wiring and cabling can be accessible only through the base of the panels. The second generation panels are usually thicker that provide high capacity for wiring and cabling as well as flexibility to locate power and cabling along the desk height which is known as belt line. Framed and Tiles System These uses open frames as the underlying structure with add-on tiles that provide flexibility for opening or closing a system by removing or adding the tiles. They also provide aesthetic pleasing features by changing color or texture on the fabrics. The tiles also provide flexibility for mounting accessories or tools. The frames will accomodate larger capacity for wiring and cabling and provide better technology support. The height changes are limited to the sizes of the tile. Segmented System This is similar to the panel based system and most manufacturer offered this feature together with the panel based system. It provides the looks of tiles but at