Biomes Regions of our planet distinguished by their climate and vegetation <ul><li>Types of Biomes: </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul>
Biomes are the various regions of our planet which can be distinguished by their climate, fauna and flora.
Polar Ice Cap Always covered with snow and ice; bitterly cold year round with little or no precipitation. Antarctica
Tundra The tundra biome encircles the North Pole. Below a thin layer of tundra soil is its permafrost, a permanently frozen layer of ground.
During the brief summers, the top section of the soil may thaw just long enough to allow plants and microorganisms to grow and reproduce. Mosses and lichens are common vegetation.
Tundra animals <ul><li>Clockwise from above: </li></ul><ul><li>baby harp seal, </li></ul><ul><li>penguins of Antarctica, </li></ul><ul><li>musk oxen </li></ul>
highland climate Sea Level 1,000 ft 3,300 ft 6,600 ft 9,900 ft 13,200 ft 16,500 ft 19,800 ft 81 °F 77 °F 70 °F 57°F 49 °F 34 °F 21°F 9 °F * Guayaquil * Quito Hot Zone Temperate Zone Cold Zone Tundra Snow cap Mountain areas where the air temperature cools as altitude increases.
Alpine tundra Rocky Mountain high The alpine tundra, which is a biome that exists at the tops of high mountains, above the tree line. The growing season is about 180 days, and nighttime temperatures are usually below freezing.
Mountain animals The yellow-pine chipmunk and the torrent salamander are unique to the Olympia Range on the west coast. The Bighorn sheep (right and below) is the Nevada state animal.
Forests <ul><li>Represent the largest and most diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Trees – take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Boreal, Taiga, and Temperate Deciduous </li></ul>
Taiga A biome is characterized by its coniferous forests. In Canada, the term boreal forest is used to refer to the southern part of this biome; the term taiga is used to describe the more barren northern areas south of the Arctic tree-line.
Orographic effect - rain shadow This shows why one side of a mountain range may be a rainforest while the other is a desert.
Marine West Coast An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics.
The mighty Columbia River drains the temperate rain forest of the western United States.
Because rain-bearing storms typically come from the west, east of the Sierran crest the climate is drier. This is effect is known as a "rain shadow" and is reflected in the steppe biomes that develop here.
Alpine tundra The alpine tundra is a biome that exists at the tops of high mountains, above the tree line. The growing season is about 180 days, and nighttime temperatures are usually below freezing. Rocky Mountain high
mountain animals (left) The yellow-pine chipmunk and the torrent salamander are unique to the Olympia Mountain Range on the west coast. The Bighorn sheep (right and below) is the Nevada state animal
Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome . Typically, they occur in warm and rainy climates, sometime with a distinct dry season.
Deciduous trees lose their leaves every fall, but before they do, early frosts produce magnificent colorbursts.
Vast deciduous forest once covered nearly the entire eastern seaboard of North America. This view is from the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia.
Bald eagle raccoon White-tailed deer Deciduous forest animals
Grasslands savanna – tall; prairie – medium and tall; steppe - short
Grasslands <ul><li>Grass is dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie-mostly grass, few trees </li></ul><ul><li>Steppe-dry </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna-hot and dry </li></ul>
Prairie Much of the Great Plains principally supports medium grasses, with few trees, and a generally temperate or moderate climate.
This image shows world’s deserts in yellow. Notice there are none in Europe . Windows Original deserts deserts
The Sonoran Desert is an arid region covering 120,000 sq. mi. in Arizona, California, most of Baja California and the western half of the state of Sonora, Mexico. Desert
Desert animals Clockwise from right: Western Pipistrelle, prairie rattlesnake, collared lizard
Savanna Grassland dotted with trees; occurs in several types of biomes. In savannas, grasses form the predominant vegetation type, usually mixed with herbs and shrubs, with trees scattered individually or in small clumps. Savanna
Green areas locate the world’s most lush rain forests. Tropical rainforests
rain forest Tropical rain forests are mainly the product of climatic interactions, particularly temperature and rainfall. In general, tropical rain forests occur where a mean monthly temperature of between 20 and 28 degrees C is combined with an annual rainfall of between 1.5 and 10 metres, evenly distributed throughout the year.
Bananas visible in the foreground of this picture are planted in the tropical wet-dry forest near San Blas, Mexico in the state of Nayarit. The tall trees of the original forest along with their heavy burden of vines can be seen in the background on these tall trees. Tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest animals While covering less than 6 percent of Earth's surface, rain forests are home to more than 50 percent of the world's plant and animal species. Toucan Mandrill Tree Frog Boa Constrictor
Wetlands Wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living in the soil and on its surface .
Swamp forest poorly drained riverine forested communities which are semi-permanently flooded
Estuary - The part of the wide lower course of a river where its freshwater current is met by the brackish tides Salt Marsh Hummocks, South Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve, Oregon Photograph by Mark Eberle, August 2000
Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits and services.
Salt marsh - a type of wetland subject to occasional or regular flooding by tides
Wetlands animals Clockwise from left: Pelican, Blue Heron, Alligator
Ocean - The Sargasso Sea in the western Atlantic Ocean seaweed growing in it and floating on the surface. The water is very blue, warm, salty and clear with slow-moving currents but surrounded by much faster currents like the Gulf Stream. one of the great bodies of water that covers 70% of the earth’s surface Aris Multimedia Entertainment, Inc. 1994
Aquatic Water covers about three quarters of our planet. From oceans to rivulets, aquatic biomes are host to a wide variety of life-forms, and minerals, from the most common algae to the most mysterious deep-sea creature.