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Structure of a Building
The primary function of a
building structure is to
support and transmit the
building loads and for...
Characteristics of a Structure
• Strength
• Stability
• Economic Value
Structural System
• Made up of many smaller structural subsystems that work together to provide a
strong, stable, and cost...
Structural Sub-System
• Made up of many structural elements that
work together to provide a strong, stable,
and cost-effec...
Forces and Loads
• A force is any action that causes a change
in the shape or motion of an object.
• A load is a force tha...
Structural Member Forces
Tension – A force that
stretches or pulls apart a
member, resulting in the
member elongating.

Co...
Beam
• A structural element that carries a load that is
applied transverse (perpendicular) to its length.
• Usually a hori...
Cantilever Beam
• A special type of beam that is supported
only at one end
• The top fibers of the cantilever are in
tensi...
Column
A vertical structural element that carries an
axial force in compression

COLUMN
Truss
• A structural element that is composed of
smaller structural members typically
configured in triangular arrangement...
Arch
• A curved structural
element that spans over
an open space
• In stone arches, the last
stone to be placed at the
top...
Vault
A continuous arch
that forms a ceiling
or roof
Dome
A structural element that is made up of
arches that radiate around a center point
to create a half sphere
Hybrid Forms
• An infinite number of combinations of
these forms exist
Design Process
The same design
process used by
engineers and
designers in other
disciplines can be
used to design
structur...
Architectural Program
• Establishes overall concept and design
philosophy
• Includes
–
–
–
–
–
–

Location of building on ...
Structural Design Process
• An architectural program establishes
preliminary structural systems.
• The structural engineer...
Structural Design Process
Identify Criteria and
Constraints
– Additional criteria needed:
• Types and magnitudes of
applie...
Structural Design Process
Explore Possibilities
– Consider alternate
structural configurations,
materials, and spacing to
...
Structural Design Process
Select an Approach
– Based on structural
performance, compatibility
with the architectural
progr...
Structural Design Process
Develop a Design
Proposal
– Create a preliminary
structural design
incorporating the
selections ...
Structural Design Process
Model or Prototype
– Create a model to
represent your structural
design
• Sketches
• Structural ...
Structural Design Process
Test and Evaluate
– Reanalyze structure based
on element selections
– Structural analysis
softwa...
Structural Design Process
Refine
– Revise the design as
necessary to correct
problems with strength,
stability, and compat...
Structural Design Process
Create or Make
– Based on the final design
after revisions
– Create working drawings
of the stru...
Structural Design Process
Communicate Results
– Distribute the drawings
– Include in bid package
– Include in construction...
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Architecture Presentation 2

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Anoushiravan Ghamsari, known as Anoush Ghamsari is a brilliant architect, the way he uses his creativity to create phenomenal concepts is beyond this world.

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Architecture Presentation 2

  1. 1. Structure of a Building The primary function of a building structure is to support and transmit the building loads and forces to the ground. Photos courtesy Tilt-up Concrete Association
  2. 2. Characteristics of a Structure • Strength • Stability • Economic Value
  3. 3. Structural System • Made up of many smaller structural subsystems that work together to provide a strong, stable, and cost-effective structure. • Examples of these smaller structural subsystems include: Structural engineers design these structural systems.
  4. 4. Structural Sub-System • Made up of many structural elements that work together to provide a strong, stable, and cost-effective system. • Basic structural elements include: Structural engineers design these structural systems.
  5. 5. Forces and Loads • A force is any action that causes a change in the shape or motion of an object. • A load is a force that is supported by a structural element. • The terms force and load are often used interchangeably. WIND SNOW
  6. 6. Structural Member Forces Tension – A force that stretches or pulls apart a member, resulting in the member elongating. Compression – A force that squeezes or presses a member together, resulting in the member shortening. Shear – A force that acts perpendicular to the axis of the member, causing the internal particles of the member to slide against each other.
  7. 7. Beam • A structural element that carries a load that is applied transverse (perpendicular) to its length. • Usually a horizontal member that carries a vertical applied load. • The top fibers of a beam are in compression; the bottom fibers are in tension.
  8. 8. Cantilever Beam • A special type of beam that is supported only at one end • The top fibers of the cantilever are in tension; the bottom fibers are in compression
  9. 9. Column A vertical structural element that carries an axial force in compression COLUMN
  10. 10. Truss • A structural element that is composed of smaller structural members typically configured in triangular arrangements • Some truss members carry a tension force; others carry a compression force
  11. 11. Arch • A curved structural element that spans over an open space • In stone arches, the last stone to be placed at the top is called the keystone KEYSTONE
  12. 12. Vault A continuous arch that forms a ceiling or roof
  13. 13. Dome A structural element that is made up of arches that radiate around a center point to create a half sphere
  14. 14. Hybrid Forms • An infinite number of combinations of these forms exist
  15. 15. Design Process The same design process used by engineers and designers in other disciplines can be used to design structural systems.
  16. 16. Architectural Program • Establishes overall concept and design philosophy • Includes – – – – – – Location of building on site Architectural style Interior space planning Design elements Construction materials Building systems • Encompasses the first four steps of the design process
  17. 17. Structural Design Process • An architectural program establishes preliminary structural systems. • The structural engineer must analyze the structural systems and provide a strong, stable, and cost-effective design.
  18. 18. Structural Design Process Identify Criteria and Constraints – Additional criteria needed: • Types and magnitudes of applied loads • Load path that each load will follow to the ground
  19. 19. Structural Design Process Explore Possibilities – Consider alternate structural configurations, materials, and spacing to improve the design or reduce costs
  20. 20. Structural Design Process Select an Approach – Based on structural performance, compatibility with the architectural program, and cost – Based on the possibilities explored, select the optimal design
  21. 21. Structural Design Process Develop a Design Proposal – Create a preliminary structural design incorporating the selections for all structural elements
  22. 22. Structural Design Process Model or Prototype – Create a model to represent your structural design • Sketches • Structural analysis software • 3D architectural software
  23. 23. Structural Design Process Test and Evaluate – Reanalyze structure based on element selections – Structural analysis software – 3D architectural software
  24. 24. Structural Design Process Refine – Revise the design as necessary to correct problems with strength, stability, and compatibility with other systems
  25. 25. Structural Design Process Create or Make – Based on the final design after revisions – Create working drawings of the structural design
  26. 26. Structural Design Process Communicate Results – Distribute the drawings – Include in bid package – Include in construction drawings

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