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26 jun06 incose_osvards


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26 jun06 incose_osvards

  1. 1. Use of Architecture for Engineering Systems; The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Gundars Osvalds Technology Fellow Red Arch Solutions July 12, 2006
  2. 2. Agenda          Architecture Perspectives Use of Architecture The Good; The Bad; The Ugly Architecture Development Issues The Curse of PowerPoint Use and Misuse of Tools Contractor Responsibilities Customer Participation Conclusion
  3. 3. Architecture Perspectives The Emperor’s New Architecture by Gundars Osvalds Its progressing nicely. I will create you a great architecture ! I do not recognize the architecture, but I can’t let on. Emperor It will show everyone my greatness! Emperor I am using the best of breed frameworks . I need more gold to finish. Look at my great architecture! Emperor But its not an architecture! Contractor FRAMEWORKS: FEAF, DoDAF, TOGAF, Zachman Contractor Architect It is incomparable ! Manager I am determine d to see this through, after all I am the Emperor. © I love architecture. Can you create me a new one?
  4. 4. Use of Architecture Emperor       To represent the needs of the Stakeholders Provides information on which decisions can be made Models business concepts Basis for effort cost and schedule estimates Supports definition of objectives Create component specifications used in implementation
  5. 5. The Good   It is generally recognized that one must develop an architecture to provide a description of how the needs of the stakeholder will be met Before a Federal program is approved an architecture is required • The Department of Defense Architecture Framework DoDAF is mandated for DoD programs • Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework and Consolidated Reference Models are required by the Office of Management and Budget  Industry has developed architecture frameworks to be used as architecture development references • The Zachman Framework, referenced by DoDAF, FEAF, and tool vendors • The Open Group Framework, supported and used by industry consortium
  6. 6. The Bad   Focus is on delivery of products not results It’s a paper exercise not focused on addressing • The needs of the Stakeholder, Owners, Users, Developers, Managers. • The use of the architecture: Portfolio Management, IT Investments, Identify Duplication and Gaps, Evaluate Business Functions Support, Develop Systems Specifications, Support System Design.   An architecture process in itself does not necessarily result in a useable architecture What matters is how one uses it and what results come from it
  7. 7. The Ugly     Many times engineering principles are not followed Frequently architecture processes are ignored or not understood If architecture doesn't produce results it will be “de-funded” There is a lack of: • Planning and vision of what architecture products and processes are needed, • Management support, • Technical oversight and control, • Understanding of goals and requirements of system.  Focus is on products, not what architecture goals they support
  8. 8. Manager  Architecture Development Issues Architect Products are defined by management without understanding or consultation with engineers • Political needs mandate deliverables • Products become stylized PowerPoint presentations that may not be traceable to the engineered architecture • Need to conform to a specified framework that is not fully defined (i.e., DoDAF, FEA, ZF, TOGAF)  Consensus does not always provide the desired solution • A Chief Architect must be empowered to validate and verify the results  There needs to be a process for product sign-off • Products are delivered on whose authority?
  9. 9. The Curse of PowerPoint   Reduces all subjects to a series of bullets Watering down of engineering issues reduces ability of management to make educated decisions • The Columbia space shuttle Accident Board concluded that “At NASA endemic use of PowerPoint has been substituted for rigorous analysis”  Two recommended approaches in developing PowerPoint presentations that are based on the engineered architecture • Develop conceptual presentation slides and verify against the architectural products • Develop architectural products and then use them or illustrate for presentation  Make sure that story told is consistent with the engineered products
  10. 10. Use and Misuse of Tools   A tool operator is not an architect The architect can use a tool operator to develop the products under their guidance • It is the responsibility of the architect for the product deliverable    It is not the tool vendor’s responsibility to define the process Diagrams may be incompatible because they are based on different methodologies Each tool may have custom implementation of industry specified diagrams • Thus diagram interchange between tools may not be possible
  11. 11. Contractor Responsibilities Contractor  The Contractor is the Doctor; the Customer is the Patient • Listen to the customer; Educate the customer; Propose solutions, • Contractors must state their concerns to the customer, • Satisfying the customer is a delicate balance.  Work with customer to determine their customer architectural viewpoint • Such as: Contextual, Conceptual, Business, Logical, Physical  Customize framework models to address customer needs
  12. 12. Customer Participation Emperor   Should be knowledgeable in architectural concepts Must have an engineering process that defines: • • • •  Which Framework will be used, Product description, Relationships between products, Purpose and user of each product. Should define project “gates” • Intermediate results can be evaluated • Effort should be redone if not satisfied
  13. 13. Conclusion Emperor    Contractor Manager Architect Systems Engineers performing the duties of the Architect must be responsible for the engineering integrity of the architecture products The architect should educate the customers in the development and use of architecture products It must be the goal of all that the developed architectural description is usable for • • • • Tradeoffs, Planning, Costing, Implementation. The architecture must be useful to all of its Stakeholders