Deforestation and its impact onhealth: An Indonesian case study Annisa Rahmalia Module 217: Global Environmental Changes and Health Homework Assignment December 2010
Indonesia Source: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/idnewz.gif• More than 17,000 islands, size 1.9 million square km1• 48% of its land area are forests2
Deforestation in Indonesia Source: http://e360.yale.edu/images/digest/deforestation-wwf-large.jpgAnnual deforestation rate: -2.0%2Main reasons for land clearing: timber industry, palm oil plantation,mining industry, agricultural expansion
lead to malnutrition and related ailments. Deforestation may lead to local establishment of transmission. When may alter disease patterns as well as local and regional these events combine with human activities related to climates, potentially affecting disease vector distributions globalization (such as international trade and travel) MA Conceptual Framework3 over time. Processes stemming from disruption of global pandemics can arise, as illustrated already by the ecosystems may lead to the emergence or resurgence of development and spread of HIV/AIDS and, potentially, disease, while local factors such as poverty, poor by the appearance in human populations of other new prevention and treatment and heightened susceptibility infectious disease strains, e.g. avian influenza. Figure 1.1 MA: conceptual frameworkDrivers that indirectlyaffect ecosystemsinﬂuences drivers thatdirectly affectecosystems.Changes can crossscales: Global timbermarket >>> regionaldeforestation >>>local proneness tonatural disasters Changes in drivers that indirectly affect ecosystems, such as population, technology and lifestyle (upper right corner of Figure 1.1 ) can lead to changes in drivers that directly affect ecosystems, such as fisheries catches or fertilizer applications to increase food production (lower right corner). The resulting changes in the ecosystem (lower left corner) cause ecosystem services to change and thereby affect human well-being. These interactions can take place at more than one scale and can cross scales. For example, a global timber market may lead to regional loss of forest cover
Health-related impacts of deforestation* Loss of plants with potential Loss of biodiversity4 pharmacological beneﬁts Emerging infectious disease Ecosystem degradation ex. Nipah/Hendra virus Local and regional respiratory Air pollution diseasesDeforestation Change in dynamics of infectious Ex. Malaria, Leishmaniasis, disease transmission Chagas disease Physical and psychosocial injuries, Natural disasters communicable diseases related to (landslide, ﬂoods) displacement, etc. Disruption of cultural and spiritual Mental health problems connection with the forest*Not limited to those observed in Indonesian setting
Illustrations• Hendra virus in Australia (horse/human) and Nipah virus in Malaysia (pig/human) are viruses of the same origin, philogenetically an ‘old virus,’ with ﬂying foxes (pteropid bats) as common reservoir. Dissemination of both diseases to domesticated animals/human population are linked to bats’ habitat loss due to deforestation.5• During and after the 1997 Indonesia forest ﬁres, a signiﬁcant increase in respiratory diseases (particularly acute respiratory illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma) observed in nearby provinces of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore compared to the time period before the forest ﬁres (1995-1996). 6,7,8• So far there are no studies on mental health status of forest communities, but sociological studies have shown that the forest has cultural and spiritual importance for them, such as the indigenous Dayak ethnic group of Tonyooi in Indonesian Borneo. 9,10
Most vulnerable groupsIn Indonesia, the adverse healthimpact of deforestation is morelikely to hit the poorercommunity in rural areasbecause they:• Live in the ecosystem degraded environments prone to infectious diseases and disasters 23.6 million rural Indonesians are living below the national poverty line• Lack of resources to (20% of rural population; 11% of total prevention/treatment - there population). Thirty percent of is no universal health population above the line are at risk of coverage sliding into poverty. 11
Strategy for actions and challenges• Indonesia is the 3rd largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world, and the government have committed to take a step through reducing deforestation. 12• REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) are investment programs aimed at reducing deforestation while encouraging sustainable development.• In Indonesia, it has started in several provinces in Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan) in collaboration with the global ﬁnancial ﬁrm Merrill Lynch (Bank of America), an Australian investment outﬁt, and the government of Norway.• Transparency is the key of success of REDD (as any program), and it is a big challenge in Indonesian highly corrupt government, with a long history of graft in forestry sector. 13• At the public health side, not much has been done by the government. Many Indonesians still do not have health insurance. Various non-governmental organizations are providing services for forest communities and displaced people due to natural disasters, but it is rather sporadic.
Concluding remarks• Deforestation in Indonesia has signiﬁcant health impact - immediate as well as remote - within the country and surrounding region• Reducing deforestation will be beneﬁcial for the ecosystems at the local as well as global level• Efforts to reduce deforestation should be conducted simultaneously with reducing vulnerability of certain populations and improving ‘good governance’
References1. Central Intelligence Agency (2010). CIA - The World 9. Colfer, CJP et al (2006). “Forest and human health in Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ the tropics: some important connections.” Unasylva the-world-factbook/geos/id.html [Accessed 224(57): 3-10. December 26th, 2010] 10.Nanang M (2003). “Forest values and livelihood2. Butler, RA (2006). “Indonesia: Environmental uncertainty in two indigenous communities of Proﬁle.” Mongabay.com / A Place Out of Time: Indonesian Borneo.” In M. Inoue and H. Isozaki Tropical Rainforests and the Perils They Face. (eds.), People and Forest--Policy and Local Reality in Southeast Asia, the Russian Far East and Japan,3. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Team (2005). 215-229. Kluwer Academic Publishers. “Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis”. World Health Organization. 11.International Fund for Agricultural Development (2010). “Rural Poverty in Indonesia.” http://4. Herndon, CN and Butler, RA (2010). “Signiﬁcance of www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/guest/country/ Biodiversity to Health.” Biotropica 42(5): 558-560 home/tags/indonesia [Accessed December 26th, 2010]5. Field H et al (2001). “The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses.” Microbe and Infection 3(4): 12.Butler, RA (2010). “Indonesia is the 3rd largest GHG 307-314. emitter but reducing deforestation offers big opportunity, says government.” http://6. Aditama, TY (2000). “Impact of haze from forest ﬁre news.mongabay.com/2010/0927- to respiratory health: Indonesian experience.” indonesia_abatement.html [Accessed December Respirology 5(2): 169-174. 26th, 2010]7. Mott, JA et al (2005). “Cardiorespiratory 13.Butler, RA (2010). “Indonesia’s Corruption Legacy hospitalizations associated with smoke exposure Clouds a Forest Protection Plan.” Yale Environment during the 1997 Southeast Asian forest ﬁres.” 360 http://e360.yale.edu/feature/ International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental indonesias_corruption_legacy_clouds_a_forest_prote Health, 208(1-2): 75-85. ction_plan/2353/ [Accessed December 27th, 2010]8. Emmanuel SC (2000). “Impact to lung health of haze from forest ﬁres: The Singapore experience.” Respirology 5(2): 175-182.