§ HistoryThe Lumière brothers were bornin Besançon, France, in 1862 and 1864, andmoved to Lyon in 1870, where both attended LaMartiniere, the largest technical school in Lyon.It was not until their father retired in 1892 thatthe brothers began to create moving pictures.They patented a number of significantprocesses leading up to their film camera, mostnotably film perforations (originallyimplemented by Emile Reynaud) as a means ofadvancing the film through the camera andprojector. The cinematographer itself waspatented on 13 February 1895 and the firstfootage ever to be recorded using it wasrecorded on March 19, 1895. This first filmshows workers leaving the Lumière factory.Lumiere brothersThe Lumières held their first private screening of projected motionpictures in 1895. Their first public screening of films at which admissionwas charged was held on December 28, 1895, at Salon Indien du GrandCafé in Paris. This history-making presentation featured ten short films,including their first film, Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon (WorkersLeaving the Lumière Factory). Each film is 17 meters long, which, whenhand cranked through a projector, runs approximately 50 seconds.First film screening
§ HistoryDavid Llewelyn Wark "D. W." Griffith (January22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was a premierpioneering American film director. He is bestknown as the director of the epic 1915 film TheBirth of a Nation and the subsequentfilm Intolerance (1916).D.W GriffithFilm careerIn 1907, Griffith, still writing as a playwright, went to New York and attemptedto sell a script to Edison Studios producer Edwin Porter. Porter rejectedGriffiths script, but gave him an acting part in Rescued from an EaglesNest. Finding this attractive, Griffith explored the motion picture business. In1908, Griffith accepted an acting job for the American Mutoscope and BiographCompany, commonly known as Biograph, in New York City. At Biograph,Griffiths career in the film industry would change forever. In 1908, Biographsmain director Wallace McCutcheon grew ill, and his son, Wallace McCutcheon,Jr., took his place. McCutcheon, Jr., however, was not able to bring the studiosuccess. As a result, the Biograph head Henry Marvin decided to give Griffith theposition; and the young man made his first movie for the company, TheAdventures of Dollie.
§ HistorySergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein 23 January 1898– 23 July 1948) was apioneering Soviet Russian film director and filmtheorist, often considered to be the "Father ofMontage". He is noted in particular for his silentfilms Strike (1924),Battleship Potemkin (1925)and October (1927), as well asthe historical epics Alexander Nevsky (1938)and Ivan the Terrible (1944, 1958).Sergei EisensteinFrom theatre to cinemaStrike (1925) was Eisensteins first full-length feature film. The BattleshipPotemkin (1925) was acclaimed critically worldwide. But it was mostly hisinternational critical renown which enabled Eisenstein todirect October (aka Ten Days That Shook The World) as part of a grand tenthanniversary celebration of the October Revolution of 1917, and then TheGeneral Line (aka Old and New). The critics of the outside world praised them,but at home, Eisensteins focus in these films on structural issues such ascamera angles, crowd movements, and montage brought him and like-minded others, such as Vsevolod Pudovkin and Alexander Dovzhenko, underfire from the Soviet film community, forcing him to issue public articles ofself-criticism and commitments to reform his cinematic visions to conform tothe increasingly specific doctrines of socialist realism.
§ HistoryDavid Andrew Leo Fincher (born August 28,1962) is an American film and music videodirector who is known for his dark and stylishthrillers, such as Alien3(1992), Seven (1995), The Game (1997), FightClub (1999), Panic Room (2002),and Zodiac (2007). Fincher received AcademyAward nominations for Best Director for his2008 film The Curious Case of BenjaminButton and his 2010 film The Social Network,which also won him the Golden Globe andthe BAFTA for Best Director. His most recentfilm is 2011s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo,an English-language adaptation of StiegLarssons novel of the same name.David FincherDavid Fincher has directed and filmed several music videos, commercialsand iconic films. He is a well known and hugely successful for directinggreat work in what he does.
§ Here is an example I found fromone of Hitchcocks very ownmovies. In this short sequenceof ‘physco’.Creatingmeaningthroughcollage,tempo andtiming.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WtDmbr9xyY&feature=related
TempoTempo is usually supposed as Music . Tempo can be seen as the rhythm or beatwithin a music field. Within terms of media tempo plays a huge part whenediting. I personally believe that music creates the scene it can make it or breakit. Music can change people views and emotions. Classic examples that arealways being used that you wouldn’t realize first time is sad slow depressingmusic plays when the director wants you to feel sad/guilty in a scene. The tempoof the music is deliberate and done to increase your involvement in the film.
ShottransitionsThere are several ways editors can change the tempo of anysequence. One of which can be done by shot transitions which canhelp create an effect on the audience.Soft transitions are used quite a lot in reality TV programmes aswell as soap operas. These shot transitions make the scene runmore smoothly as it changes. This is sometimes known as a cutfrom A to B. example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1qo2aREmHOc
§ Definition of MontageThe technique of combining in a single composition pictorial elementsfrom various sources, as parts of different photographs or fragments ofprinting, either to give the illusion that the elements belonged togetheroriginally or to allow each element to retain its separate identity as ameans of adding interest or meaning to the composition.
My example clipfrom Rocky.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP3MFBzMH2o
This is a short clipof the trailer‘taken’ the tempoof the music isconsistentlychanging andmakes theaudience feel somany emotions inthe short durationof the sequence.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCbDUREBwUg
§ a synchronizing of the various parts of a production fortheatrical effect.§ Timing creates dramatic effect for the audiences pureentertainment and benefit.§ Timing is one of the most important parts of editing. Thescene of shot wont fit right with voiceovers or SFX if it notall synchronized in time. It will look unprofessionalotherwise.Timing
‘The panic room’Throughout thisclip the timing ofthe music is spoton. It createstension betweencharcters andaudiencebetweencharacters. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkII_JShveI
Story: Centred editing and the constructionof meaning
Editing andspacesIn editing and camera techniques editing and spaces causes an effect of theaudiences perception of the film. One example you tend to see in every filmis cross cutting between this technique.For example; If two people were stranded on a desert island having aconversation we would see ELS and establishing shots almost every second.This is done so the audience know where they are how far they are. Thismakes the audience make up their mind on the matter, whereas if there twopeople having a conversation in a café the camera man would most probablyuse shorter shots using ECU mid shots and over shoulder shots mostly. Toemphasise that theyre in a small crowded place. This also links with locationof setting.
§ Shot reverse shot is a shot type particularly used when aconversation is happening. You see this in almost every soapopera! It is good for TV series such as soap operas as during thelength of the show the audience understands the character a lotmore just from seeing shots of them over and over again.§ In romantic films shot reverse shot is used between partners as itallows the audience to see both emotions from the charactersexpressing themselves.§§ This is an example of shot reverse shothttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qipsShot reverse shot
§ Linear storyline§ 500 days of summer§ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qipsNon linearstorylinelimitlesshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPjc-JIBhF4
Arranging theorder of eventsTraditionally the arrangements of any film sequence is; intro,beginning, middle, end.In some movies these arrangements are slightly altered that aredone to help the audience understand the film script.They are called linear and non linear narratives.
§ An eye line match is a camera shotused to make the audience seewhat the characters are seeing.It’s good to use in action films,and example of this could be ifsomeone was drunk. The camerawould change shot to exactlywhat the character is seeing.During post production editorsmay alter the contrast and digitaleffect to blurry.Eye line match
§ A great example of a cut awaywould be from the film ‘U turn’by ‘Oliver Stone’.§ A cutway changes the shot typeswithout loosing hold of a currentsituation, which could be aconversation. A cutaway couldbe used when two or morepeople are doing somethingcompletely different but thecamera keep repeating eachscene.Cutaways
§Continuity is the method of trimmingunnecesary footage from whatwould be a very long shot and onlyusing the most key parts to keep themovement of the film engaging andthrilling . This also involves keepingthe visuals of the sequenceconsistent at all times this mayinclude things such as; lighting,props, wardrobe etc.Continuity
§ According to wikipedia infilmmaking the 180° rule is abasic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationshipbetween a character andanother character or objectwithin a scene. An imaginary linecalled the axis connects thecharacters and by keeping thecamera on one side of this axisfor every shot in the scene, thefirst character will always beframe right of the secondcharacter, who is then alwaysframe left of the first. If thecamera passes over the axis, it iscalled crossing the line orjumping the line.180 degree rule
§ Soviet montage theory is anapproach to understanding andcreating cinema that reliesheavily upon editing§ Eisensteins view that "montage isan idea that arises from thecollision of independentthoughts" wherein "eachsequential element is perceivednot next to the other, but on topof the other" has become mostwidely acceptedSoviet montage