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Pages 94-95
1.
Nouns name persons, places
and things.
There are two types of
nouns:
proper nouns and common
nouns.
1.
Proper nouns name particular
persons, places or things.
They are usually unique and
are capitalized in writing.
1.
For example:
• Dr. Brand
• Ichiro Suzuki
• Sao Paulo
• China
• the Empire State Building
• Harrod’s
1.
Common nouns refer to
people, places or things, but
are not the names of
particular individuals.
1.
For example:
• scientist
• athlete
• city
• country
• department store
2.
There are two types of
common nouns: count nouns
and non-count nouns.
2.
Count nouns refer to things
that you can count
separately. They may be
singular or plural.
2.
For example:
one woman, eight planets.
I’d like a sandwich.
Some vegetables are tasty.
That’s an interesting question.
2.
Non-count nouns refer to
things that you cannot count
separately. They usually have
no plural form.
Do not use “a” or “...
2.
For example:
• You should avoid cholesterol
• Let me give you some advice.
• Come in out of the rain.
2.
The words “a” and “an” really
mean “one.” That is why you
cannot use them with non-
count nouns.
2.
We never say:
**You should avoid a
cholesterol.
**Let me give you an advice.
**Come in out of a rain.
2.
We normally use a singular
verb with a non-count noun.
We use a singular pronoun to
refer to the noun.
2.
For example:
• Rice feeds millions.
• It feeds millions.
3.
Notice the following common
categories and examples of
non-count nouns:
3.
Abstractions
For example:
• luck
• energy
• honesty
• love
3.
Diseases
For example:
• AIDS
• cancer
• influenza = flu
• malaria
3.
Food and Drink:
For example:
• bread
• coffee
• fish
• meat
• tea
• water
3.
Natural phenomena:
For example:
• electricity
• heat
• lightning
• rain
• sun
3.
Particles:
For example:
• dust
• pepper
• salt
• sand
• sugar
3.
Other frequently used non-count
nouns:
• equipment
• furniture
• money
• news
• traffic
4.
Many nouns have both count
and non-count meanings:
4.
Non-Count Count
Experience is a great teacher. College was a wonderful
experience.
We eat fish twice a week. My son cau...
4.
Other nouns that can be both
count and non-count:
• cuisine
• film
• rain
• reading
• work
5.
We can make certain non-
count nouns into countable
nouns by adding a phrase
that gives them a form, a
limit, or a cont...
5.
Non-Count Noun Made Countable
furniture a piece of furniture
lightning a flash of lightning
a bolt of lightning
meat a ...
5.
NOTE: All of these non-count
nouns are commonly used
with some or any.
5.
With an affirmative
statement, use some:
I will have some time this
afternoon.
He has some money in the
bank.
5.
With a negative statement,
use any:
I won’t have any time this
afternoon.
He doesn’t have any money
in the bank.
5.
With a question, you can use any
or some.
Will you have some time this
afternoon?
Will you have any time this afternoon...
5.
NOTE: Plural count nouns
are also used with some or
any.
5.
With an affirmative
statement, use some:
I have some extra papers.
There are some groceries in
the trunk of the car.
5.
With a negative statement,
use any:
There aren’t any papers left.
He didn’t buy any groceries.
5.
With a question, you can use any
or some.
Are there some more papers?
Are there any more papers?
Did he buy some grocer...
5.
BUT
Do not use any or some with a singular
count noun!
**Do you see any cloud in the sky?
Correct: Do you see any cloud...
6.
We can use many non-count
nouns in a countable sense
with a/an to mean kind of or
type of or variety of.
6.
For example:
In Italy, I tasted a new pasta
(= a new kind of pasta).
That shop sells many different teas
(= different k...
6.
Drinks are usually non-count
liquids, but you can use the
noun as a count noun to
mean cups, glasses or cans
of the liq...
6.
For example:
I drank a soda (= a can of soda).
Please bring us two coffees
(= two cups of coffee).
Please bring us two ...
7.
7.
A few non-count nouns end in -
s:
• news: Is there any news
about the tornado?
• mathematics: Mathematics is
required f...
7.
A few count nouns have
irregular plurals because they
come from Latin or Greek:
• criterion/criteria
• stimulus/stimuli...
7.
A few count nouns have
irregular plurals because they
come from Latin or Greek:
• criterion/criteria
• stimulus/stimuli...
7.
For example:
• Thunder is an atmospheric
phenomenon.
• Thunder and lightning are
atmospheric phenomena.
7.
The count nouns people and
police are plural, not singular.
They take a plural verb:
• People are funny.
• The police a...
7.
The singular of people is
person.
• He’s an energetic person.
The singular of police is usually
police officer.
• She’s...
7.
Fish is a crazy example!
7.
A fish swimming in the water is
a singular count noun.
7.
There is a very pretty fish in the
fish tank.
7.
This count noun has an irregular
plural:
one fish, many fish
7.
There are a lot of pretty fish in
the fish tank.
7.
But when you eat fish, it is a
non-count noun!
The fish looks very good.
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Unit 6 grammar notes 6

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Unit 6 grammar notes 6

  1. 1. Pages 94-95
  2. 2. 1. Nouns name persons, places and things. There are two types of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns.
  3. 3. 1. Proper nouns name particular persons, places or things. They are usually unique and are capitalized in writing.
  4. 4. 1. For example: • Dr. Brand • Ichiro Suzuki • Sao Paulo • China • the Empire State Building • Harrod’s
  5. 5. 1. Common nouns refer to people, places or things, but are not the names of particular individuals.
  6. 6. 1. For example: • scientist • athlete • city • country • department store
  7. 7. 2. There are two types of common nouns: count nouns and non-count nouns.
  8. 8. 2. Count nouns refer to things that you can count separately. They may be singular or plural.
  9. 9. 2. For example: one woman, eight planets. I’d like a sandwich. Some vegetables are tasty. That’s an interesting question.
  10. 10. 2. Non-count nouns refer to things that you cannot count separately. They usually have no plural form. Do not use “a” or “an” before a non-count noun.
  11. 11. 2. For example: • You should avoid cholesterol • Let me give you some advice. • Come in out of the rain.
  12. 12. 2. The words “a” and “an” really mean “one.” That is why you cannot use them with non- count nouns.
  13. 13. 2. We never say: **You should avoid a cholesterol. **Let me give you an advice. **Come in out of a rain.
  14. 14. 2. We normally use a singular verb with a non-count noun. We use a singular pronoun to refer to the noun.
  15. 15. 2. For example: • Rice feeds millions. • It feeds millions.
  16. 16. 3. Notice the following common categories and examples of non-count nouns:
  17. 17. 3. Abstractions For example: • luck • energy • honesty • love
  18. 18. 3. Diseases For example: • AIDS • cancer • influenza = flu • malaria
  19. 19. 3. Food and Drink: For example: • bread • coffee • fish • meat • tea • water
  20. 20. 3. Natural phenomena: For example: • electricity • heat • lightning • rain • sun
  21. 21. 3. Particles: For example: • dust • pepper • salt • sand • sugar
  22. 22. 3. Other frequently used non-count nouns: • equipment • furniture • money • news • traffic
  23. 23. 4. Many nouns have both count and non-count meanings:
  24. 24. 4. Non-Count Count Experience is a great teacher. College was a wonderful experience. We eat fish twice a week. My son caught a fish yesterday. I caught two fish yesterday. I want to be a professor of history. I read a history of the Civil War. Is space really the final frontier? There’s an empty space in that row. People say talk is cheap. We had a good talk last night.
  25. 25. 4. Other nouns that can be both count and non-count: • cuisine • film • rain • reading • work
  26. 26. 5. We can make certain non- count nouns into countable nouns by adding a phrase that gives them a form, a limit, or a container.
  27. 27. 5. Non-Count Noun Made Countable furniture a piece of furniture lightning a flash of lightning a bolt of lightning meat a piece of meat rice, sand a grain of rice, a grain of sand tennis a game of tennis water, rain a drop of water, a drop of rain equipment a piece of equipment
  28. 28. 5. NOTE: All of these non-count nouns are commonly used with some or any.
  29. 29. 5. With an affirmative statement, use some: I will have some time this afternoon. He has some money in the bank.
  30. 30. 5. With a negative statement, use any: I won’t have any time this afternoon. He doesn’t have any money in the bank.
  31. 31. 5. With a question, you can use any or some. Will you have some time this afternoon? Will you have any time this afternoon? Does he have some money in the bank? Does he have any money in the bank?
  32. 32. 5. NOTE: Plural count nouns are also used with some or any.
  33. 33. 5. With an affirmative statement, use some: I have some extra papers. There are some groceries in the trunk of the car.
  34. 34. 5. With a negative statement, use any: There aren’t any papers left. He didn’t buy any groceries.
  35. 35. 5. With a question, you can use any or some. Are there some more papers? Are there any more papers? Did he buy some groceries? Did he buy any groceries?
  36. 36. 5. BUT Do not use any or some with a singular count noun! **Do you see any cloud in the sky? Correct: Do you see any clouds in the sky? Or Do you see a cloud in the sky?
  37. 37. 6. We can use many non-count nouns in a countable sense with a/an to mean kind of or type of or variety of.
  38. 38. 6. For example: In Italy, I tasted a new pasta (= a new kind of pasta). That shop sells many different teas (= different kinds of tea). Many tasty cheeses (=kinds of cheese) are produced in France.
  39. 39. 6. Drinks are usually non-count liquids, but you can use the noun as a count noun to mean cups, glasses or cans of the liquid:
  40. 40. 6. For example: I drank a soda (= a can of soda). Please bring us two coffees (= two cups of coffee). Please bring us two orange juices (= two glasses of orange juice)
  41. 41. 7.
  42. 42. 7. A few non-count nouns end in - s: • news: Is there any news about the tornado? • mathematics: Mathematics is required for college transfer.
  43. 43. 7. A few count nouns have irregular plurals because they come from Latin or Greek: • criterion/criteria • stimulus/stimuli • phenomenon/phenomena
  44. 44. 7. A few count nouns have irregular plurals because they come from Latin or Greek: • criterion/criteria • stimulus/stimuli • phenomenon/phenomena
  45. 45. 7. For example: • Thunder is an atmospheric phenomenon. • Thunder and lightning are atmospheric phenomena.
  46. 46. 7. The count nouns people and police are plural, not singular. They take a plural verb: • People are funny. • The police are coming.
  47. 47. 7. The singular of people is person. • He’s an energetic person. The singular of police is usually police officer. • She’s a police officer.
  48. 48. 7. Fish is a crazy example!
  49. 49. 7. A fish swimming in the water is a singular count noun.
  50. 50. 7. There is a very pretty fish in the fish tank.
  51. 51. 7. This count noun has an irregular plural: one fish, many fish
  52. 52. 7. There are a lot of pretty fish in the fish tank.
  53. 53. 7. But when you eat fish, it is a non-count noun! The fish looks very good.

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