Unit 17 Grammar Notes
Pages 289-291
1.
An infinitive is to plus the base form of
a verb. Infinitives and infinitive phrases
often perform the same functions a...
1a.
They act as subjects.
To finish what you started is advisable.
1b.
They act as objects.
I’d like to invite you to dinner.
1c.
They act as subject complements
(phrases that describe or explain the
subject of a sentence).
A teacher’s job is to cr...
1.
To make an infinitive negative, place
not before to.
I warned you to not to put this off.
1.
Be careful! Don’t confuse to in an infinitive with to
as a preposition. To in an infinitive is followed by the
base for...
1.
Usage note: To avoid repeating an
infinitive just mentioned, replace the
verb with to. This is called an ellipsis.
Stev...
2.
Certain verbs are followed only by
infinitives.
She offered to help me.
He learned to be efficient.
2.
Other verbs are followed by a required
noun or pronoun + an infinitive.
I warned Stan to make the payments.
**I warned ...
2.
Still other verbs are followed by an
optional noun or pronoun + an
infinitive, depending on the meaning of
the verb.
We...
3.
Certain adjectives can be followed by
infinitives. (Your book says) these adjectives
usually describe people, not thing...
3.
Common adjectives followed
by infinitives include afraid,
amazed, excited, fortunate,
glad, happy, important,
likely, p...
3.
However, your textbook does not
mention a very common kind of
sentence in which an adjective + an
infinitive is used to...
3.
This kind of sentence is very
common with adjectives hard,
easy, difficult, fun.
4.
A noun is often followed by an
infinitive. When this occurs, the
infinitive gives information about the
noun.
Cozumel i...
4.
A noun + infinitive often
expresses advisability or
necessity:
Starting immediately is the thing to do.
Alcohol is some...
5.
Be careful! Remember that
some verbs can be followed
only by infinitives, others only
by gerunds, and others by
either ...
5a.
Examples of verbs and verb phrases that
can be followed only by infinitives:
appear, decide, expect, hope, manage,
nee...
5b.
Examples of verbs and verb phrases
followed only by gerunds: avoid, be
worth, can’t help, consider, enjoy, feel
like, ...
5c.
Examples of verbs and verb phrases
followed by infinitives and gerunds with
no change in meaning: begin, can’t
stand, ...
5d.
Examples of verbs and verb
phrases followed infinitives and
gerunds with significant change
in meaning: forget, go on,...
5d.
I regret to tell you that we have to lay you off.
(I am sorry to tell you that we have to lay you
off. I am sorry abou...
5d.
My grandmother forgot telling me that story. (
= She told me that story in the past, but now
she has no memory of doin...
6.
The words too and enough are often used
before infinitives. Too is used in the
pattern too + adjective/adverb +
infinit...
6.
Enough + infinitive is used after an
adjective/adverb.
Ken is strong enough to lift 175 pounds.
Mia runs fast enough to...
6.
Enough can be used before a noun +
infinitive.
There is not enough money to pay for
the repairs.
6.
Enough can also be used after a noun.
This usage is formal.
There is not money enough to pay for
the repairs.
6.
Note: Add for + a noun or pronoun to
who performs the action of the infinitive:
There is not enough money for Jane to
p...
7.
Infinitives can occur in simple or past
forms. We use a simple infinitive
(without a past participle) to indicate an
ac...
7.
We use a past infinitive (to + have + past
participle) to show an action that
occurred before the action of the main
ve...
7.
The last paragraph in box #7 on page 291
is confusing and does not make much
sense. Don’t worry about trying to
underst...
7.
There is a confusing problem in English with
used to + gerund
I am used to getting up early.
used to + base form
I used...
7.
These two sentences look similar, but the meanings are
completely different!
used to + gerund
I am used to getting up e...
7.
Some more examples of used to + gerund:
used to + gerund Meaning
If you work at night, you have to
get used to sleeping...
7.
Some more examples of used to + base form:
used to + base form Meaning
I used to be scared to drive on the
freeway, but...
7.
Notice the affirmative, negative and question
forms:
Affirmative Negative Question
I’m used to
getting up
early.
I’m no...
7.
The infinitive can be used to mean must or
supposed to:
We are to wait until our names are called =
We must wait until ...
7.
As the textbook mentions, this meaning of the
infinitive can be used in passive sentences:
The work is to be finished b...
7.
This meaning in the past tense is formed with to +
have + past participle:
You were to have waited until your name was ...
7.
This kind of sentence can also be passive:
The work was to have been finished before now =
The work should have been fi...
Reference Notes
Textbook Resource Locations
Verbs followed directly by
infinitives
Appendix 13 on page A-7
Overview of Ger...
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Unit 17 grammar notes

  1. 1. Unit 17 Grammar Notes Pages 289-291
  2. 2. 1. An infinitive is to plus the base form of a verb. Infinitives and infinitive phrases often perform the same functions as nouns. To graduate from college is important. I want to do that.
  3. 3. 1a. They act as subjects. To finish what you started is advisable.
  4. 4. 1b. They act as objects. I’d like to invite you to dinner.
  5. 5. 1c. They act as subject complements (phrases that describe or explain the subject of a sentence). A teacher’s job is to create a desire to learn.
  6. 6. 1. To make an infinitive negative, place not before to. I warned you to not to put this off.
  7. 7. 1. Be careful! Don’t confuse to in an infinitive with to as a preposition. To in an infinitive is followed by the base form of the verb. To as a preposition is followed by a gerund, regular noun, or pronoun. I plan to work hard. (infinitive) I’m used to working hard. (gerund)
  8. 8. 1. Usage note: To avoid repeating an infinitive just mentioned, replace the verb with to. This is called an ellipsis. Steve knew he had to go to work, but he didn’t want to.
  9. 9. 2. Certain verbs are followed only by infinitives. She offered to help me. He learned to be efficient.
  10. 10. 2. Other verbs are followed by a required noun or pronoun + an infinitive. I warned Stan to make the payments. **I warned to make the payments.
  11. 11. 2. Still other verbs are followed by an optional noun or pronoun + an infinitive, depending on the meaning of the verb. We expected to finish on time. We expected Jim to finish on time.
  12. 12. 3. Certain adjectives can be followed by infinitives. (Your book says) these adjectives usually describe people, not things. They often express feelings about the action described in the infinitive. George is afraid to make mistakes. Mary is not willing to help us.
  13. 13. 3. Common adjectives followed by infinitives include afraid, amazed, excited, fortunate, glad, happy, important, likely, proud, reluctant, sorry and willing.
  14. 14. 3. However, your textbook does not mention a very common kind of sentence in which an adjective + an infinitive is used to describe a thing: This jar is hard to open = It is hard to open this jar. It’s easy to get lost in San Francisco. A good job is difficult to get.
  15. 15. 3. This kind of sentence is very common with adjectives hard, easy, difficult, fun.
  16. 16. 4. A noun is often followed by an infinitive. When this occurs, the infinitive gives information about the noun. Cozumel is a good place to spend a vacation. Generosity is a good trait to have.
  17. 17. 4. A noun + infinitive often expresses advisability or necessity: Starting immediately is the thing to do. Alcohol is something to be very careful about.
  18. 18. 5. Be careful! Remember that some verbs can be followed only by infinitives, others only by gerunds, and others by either infinitives or gerunds.
  19. 19. 5a. Examples of verbs and verb phrases that can be followed only by infinitives: appear, decide, expect, hope, manage, need, pretend, seem, want and would like. They managed to find new jobs. She pretended to be busy.
  20. 20. 5b. Examples of verbs and verb phrases followed only by gerunds: avoid, be worth, can’t help, consider, enjoy, feel like, have trouble, keep, mind, miss, spend time. We considered hiring him. I don’t feel like working today.
  21. 21. 5c. Examples of verbs and verb phrases followed by infinitives and gerunds with no change in meaning: begin, can’t stand, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start. They began to encourage her. They began encouraging her.
  22. 22. 5d. Examples of verbs and verb phrases followed infinitives and gerunds with significant change in meaning: forget, go on, quit, regret, remember, stop, try.
  23. 23. 5d. I regret to tell you that we have to lay you off. (I am sorry to tell you that we have to lay you off. I am sorry about something that I must do in the present or future.) The boss now regrets laying him off. (The boss is now sorry about laying him off. The boss is sorry for doing something that is now in the past.)
  24. 24. 5d. My grandmother forgot telling me that story. ( = She told me that story in the past, but now she has no memory of doing it.) His mother forgot to tell him to pick up his brother on the way home. ( = His mother intended to tell him to pick up his brother, but she forgot and did not tell him.)
  25. 25. 6. The words too and enough are often used before infinitives. Too is used in the pattern too + adjective/adverb + infinitive. It implies a negative result. We’re too tired to do any work today. Sam started too late to finish on time.
  26. 26. 6. Enough + infinitive is used after an adjective/adverb. Ken is strong enough to lift 175 pounds. Mia runs fast enough to be first.
  27. 27. 6. Enough can be used before a noun + infinitive. There is not enough money to pay for the repairs.
  28. 28. 6. Enough can also be used after a noun. This usage is formal. There is not money enough to pay for the repairs.
  29. 29. 6. Note: Add for + a noun or pronoun to who performs the action of the infinitive: There is not enough money for Jane to pay for the repairs.
  30. 30. 7. Infinitives can occur in simple or past forms. We use a simple infinitive (without a past participle) to indicate an action in the same general time frame as the action in the main verb. I expect him to call. I expected you to call.
  31. 31. 7. We use a past infinitive (to + have + past participle) to show an action that occurred before the action of the main verb in the sentence. I expected him to have called before he arrived. You seem to have forgotten the report that was due today.
  32. 32. 7. The last paragraph in box #7 on page 291 is confusing and does not make much sense. Don’t worry about trying to understand it. Instead, study the following explanations:
  33. 33. 7. There is a confusing problem in English with used to + gerund I am used to getting up early. used to + base form I used to get up early.
  34. 34. 7. These two sentences look similar, but the meanings are completely different! used to + gerund I am used to getting up early = I am accustomed to getting up early. It is my habit. The sentence is in the present tense. used to + base form I used to get up early = I often got up early in the past, but I don’t get up early any more. This sentences is in the past tense.
  35. 35. 7. Some more examples of used to + gerund: used to + gerund Meaning If you work at night, you have to get used to sleeping during the day. If you work at night, you have to get into the habit of sleeping during the day. I studied British English in Hong Kong, so I’m not used to hearing American pronunciation. I studied British English in Hong Kong, so I’m not accustomed to hearing American pronunciation. (American pronunciation is new to me.) When I came to the U.S., I was not used to living away from my family. When I came to the U.S., I did not have the experience of living away from my family. (Note that this sentence is in the past tense, but “used to” means “accustomed to.”
  36. 36. 7. Some more examples of used to + base form: used to + base form Meaning I used to be scared to drive on the freeway, but now it’s no problem. In the past, I was scared to drive on the freeway, but it’s no problem now. Laney college used to be a vocational school that was part of the Oakland public school system. In the past, Laney was a vocational school that was part of the Oakland public school system. (It is not part of the Oakland public school system now.) I used to work in San Leandro. I worked in San Leandro in the past (but I do not work in San Leandro any more).
  37. 37. 7. Notice the affirmative, negative and question forms: Affirmative Negative Question I’m used to getting up early. I’m not used to getting up early. Are you used to getting up early? He used to have a car. He didn’t use to have a car. Did he use to have a car?
  38. 38. 7. The infinitive can be used to mean must or supposed to: We are to wait until our names are called = We must wait until our names are called = We are supposed to wait until our names are called.
  39. 39. 7. As the textbook mentions, this meaning of the infinitive can be used in passive sentences: The work is to be finished by tomorrow = The work must be finished by tomorrow = The work is supposed to be finished by tomorrow .
  40. 40. 7. This meaning in the past tense is formed with to + have + past participle: You were to have waited until your name was called = You should have waited until your name was called = You were supposed to have waited until you name was called (but you did not wait, which was a mistake.)
  41. 41. 7. This kind of sentence can also be passive: The work was to have been finished before now = The work should have been finished before now = The work was supposed to have been finished before now. (But the work was not finished on time, and that is a problem.)
  42. 42. Reference Notes Textbook Resource Locations Verbs followed directly by infinitives Appendix 13 on page A-7 Overview of Gerunds and Infinitives, Group 1 Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives Unit 16 and Appendices 14 and 15 on page A-7 Overview of Gerunds and Infinitives, Groups 6 and 7 Verbs followed by noun/pronoun + infinitives Appendix 17 on page A-8 Overview of Gerunds and Infinitives, Group 2 Adjectives followed by infinitives Appendix 18 on page A-8

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