Unit 16 grammar notes


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Unit 16 grammar notes

  1. 1. Unit 16 Grammar Notes: Gerunds Pages 274-275
  2. 2. 1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb. To form a gerund, add –ing to the base form of a verb.
  3. 3. 1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb. To form a gerund, add –ing to the base form of a verb.
  4. 4. 1. For example: Cooking is my hobby. I like eating, too.
  5. 5. 1. Gerunds and gerund phrases perform the same functions as nouns. Function Example They act as subjects. Talking with friends is enjoyable. They act as objects. I love getting together with friends. They act as complements (phrases that describe or explain the subject or object of a sentence) Our favorite activity is playing cards. (subject complement) She has trouble making friends. (object complement)
  6. 6. 1. Add not before a gerund to make a negative statement.
  7. 7. 1. For example: Not calling her was a big mistake.
  8. 8. 2. Many verbs and verb phrases in English have gerunds as objects. Common examples are avoid, consider, enjoy and mind.
  9. 9. 2. For example: I enjoy meeting new people. You should avoid working late.
  10. 10. 2. We often use go + gerund to talk about recreational activities: go skiing, go swimming, go hiking, go shopping, etc.
  11. 11. 2. For example: We go skiing every weekend in the winter.
  12. 12. 3. Gerunds act as objects of prepositions. .
  13. 13. 3. For example: I made friends by joining a club.
  14. 14. 3. Many preposition combinations are followed by gerunds: a. verb + preposition They insisted on giving us a present. b. Adjective + preposition She’s good at making friends.
  15. 15. 3. Be Careful! The word to can be a preposition or part of an infinitive. to as a preposition: He will adjust to working hard. to as part of an infinitive: He tries to work hard.
  16. 16. 4. In writing and formal speaking, use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund to show possession. .
  17. 17. 4. For example: Pete’s dominating every conversation bothers me. His dominating every conversation bothers me.
  18. 18. 4. Usage note: In conversation, native speakers often use a name or an object pronoun instead of a possessive in this kind of sentence.
  19. 19. 4. For example: Pete dominating every conversation bothers me. Him dominating every conversation bothers me.
  20. 20. 5. Gerunds can occur in simple or past form. We can use a simple gerund (without a past participle) to a make a generalization.
  21. 21. 5. For example: Making friends is a natural thing to do.
  22. 22. 5. We can use a past gerund (having + past participle) to show an action that occurred before the action of the main verb in the sentence.
  23. 23. 5. For example: Having met Jane in my first week of college helped me throughout my college career.
  24. 24. 5. Note: We use a past gerund to emphasize the difference in time between the two actions. The simple gerund is also correct in many situations.
  25. 25. 5. For example: Having gone to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done. or Going to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done.
  26. 26. 5. Gerunds can occur in passive form. In the present, use being + past participle. In the past, use having been + past participle.
  27. 27. 5. For example: She hates being ignored. She is still angry at having been ignored.
  28. 28. 5. Be careful! Many words in English end in –ing Do not confuse gerunds with verbs used in the progressive form or with present participles used as adjectives in adverb phrases.
  29. 29. 5. For example: I’ve been making friends at work. (progressive verb form) Mary is enrolled in a cooking class. (adjective) Walking on the beach, I wondered why she was angry at me. (adverb phrase)