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The english subjunctive

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The english subjunctive

  1. 1. THE ENGLISH (old SUBJUNCTIVE
  2. 2. YOU HAVE LEARNED A LOT OF VERB TENSES SO FAR: SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT PAST CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT ETC. ETC. ETC.
  3. 3. THE SUBJUNCTIVE IS ONE MORE!
  4. 4. LANGUAGE CHANGES OVER TIME.
  5. 5. 500 YEARS AGO, IN SHAKESPEARE’S TIME, AND THE TIME THE BIBLE WAS TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH, THERE WAS A LOT OF SUBJUNCTIVE
  6. 6. FOR EXAMPLE, FROM THE BIBLE: BLESSED BE THE PEACEMAKERS. (= THE PEACEMAKERS SHOULD BE BLESSED.)
  7. 7. FOR EXAMPLE, FROM SHAKESPEARE: WOULD THAT HE WERE HERE (= I WISH THAT HE WAS HERE)
  8. 8. NOW, THE SUBJUNCTIVE IS SLOWLY DISAPPEARING FROM ENGLISH, BUT SOMETIMES WE STILL USE IT.
  9. 9. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE IS THE BASE FORM OF THE VERB:
  10. 10. I BE, YOU BE, HE BE, SHE BE, THEY BE, YOU BE, WE BE I GO, YOU GO, HE GO, SHE GO, THEY GO, YOU GO, WE GO
  11. 11. WE USE THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER CERTAIN VERBS AND ADJECTIVES THAT “TAKE” THE SUBJUNCTIVE. THESE ARE WORDS THAT COMMUNICATE ADVICE, NECESSITY AND URGENCY:
  12. 12. HIS TEACHER SUGGESTED THAT HE TAKE A GRAMMAR CLASS. MY HUSBAND’S BOSS DEMANDS THAT HE WORK ON SUNDAYS. IT IS URGENT THAT SHE SEE A DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY.
  13. 13. FOR MOST USES OF THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE, THERE ARE OTHER WAYS TO EXPRESS THE SAME IDEA: HIS TEACHER SUGGESTED THAT HE TAKE A GRAMMAR CLASS = HIS TEACHER SUGGESTED TAKING A GRAMMAR CLASS. MY HUSBAND’S BOSS REQUIRES THAT HE WORK ON SUNDAYS = MY HUSBAND’S BOSS REQUIRES HIM TO WORK ON SUNDAYS. IT IS URGENT THAT SHE SEE A DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY = IT IS URGENT FOR HER TO SEE A DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY.
  14. 14. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU BE POLITE TO YOUR UNCLE = IT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO BE POLITE TO YOUR UNCLE.
  15. 15. PAST SUBJUNCTIVE LOOKS LIKE THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE FOR MOST VERBS: IF I HAD IF YOU KNEW IF HE DIDN’T WORK HARD
  16. 16. PAST SUBJUNCTIVE OF THE VERB TO BE IS DIFFERENT: IF I WERE IF YOU WERE IF HE WEREN’T A HARD WORKER
  17. 17. OUR MOST COMMON USE OF THE PAST SUBJUNCTIVE IS IN TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES: I WOULD STAY HOME AND STUDY THIS WEEKEND IF I WERE YOU. IF HE WERE HERE, HE COULD HELP US.
  18. 18. WE ALSO USE THE PAST CONDITIONAL AFTER THE VERB WISH: I WISH MY FAMILY WERE HERE. I WISH I HAD A CAR.
  19. 19. NOTE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WISH AND HOPE: I WISH I HAD A CAR (= THIS IS A DREAM, AND I DON’T THINK I CAN GET ONE.) I HOPE (THAT) I WILL GET A CAR = I HOPE TO GET A CAR (= I EXPECT THAT IT WILL BE POSSIBLE IN THE FUTURE.)
  20. 20. COMPARE TENSES: SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT TENSE SUBJUNCTIVE I go I go You go You go He/she/it goes He/she/it go We go They go We go They go
  21. 21. COMPARE VERB TO BE: PRESENT TENSE I am You are He/she/it is PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE I be You be He/she/it be We are They are We be They be
  22. 22. COMPARE TENSES: SIMPLE PAST TENSE I went You went He/she/it went PAST SUBJUNCTIVE I went You went He/she/it went We went They went We went They went
  23. 23. COMPARE VERB TO BE: PAST TENSE I was You were He/she/it was PAST SUBJUNCTIVE I were You were He/she/it were We were They were We were They were

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