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Differences between direct and reported speech

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Differences between direct and reported speech

  1. 1. Differences Between Direct and Reported Speech This information is also on pages 389-390 of your textbook.
  2. 2. Simple Present  Simple Past: He said, “I know you.” He said (that) he knew me.
  3. 3. Notice that the pronoun also changes (you  me). He said, “I know you.” He said (that) he knew me.
  4. 4. Present Continuous  Past Continuous He said, “I am studying.” He said (that) he was studying.
  5. 5. Past Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous He said, “She was helping me.” He said (that) she had been helping him.
  6. 6. Notice that the pronoun also changes (me  him). He said, “She was helping me.” He said (that) she had been helping him.
  7. 7. Present Perfect  Past Perfect He said, “I have taken the test.” He said (that) he had taken the test.
  8. 8. Past Perfect  Past Perfect (no change): He said, “I had never done that.” He said (that) he had never done that.
  9. 9. New problems with modals  Can, May, Must and Will Change in Reported Speech:
  10. 10. Can  CouldHe said, “I can help you tomorrow.”He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  11. 11. Notice the pronoun change (you  me):He said, “I can help you tomorrow.”He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  12. 12. Also notice the change in timeexpressions (tomorrow  the next day): He said, “I can help you tomorrow.” He said (that) he could help me the next day.
  13. 13. “May” has twomeanings, possibility and permission.The change for reported speech isdifferent for these two meanings!
  14. 14. May  Might when the meaning is possibility: He said, “She may leave early.” He said (that) she might leave early.
  15. 15. May  Could when the meaning is permission: He said, “You may go.” He said (that) I could go.
  16. 16. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You may go.” He said (that) I could go.
  17. 17. Must  had to He said, “I must go.”He said (that) he had to go.
  18. 18. Will  would He said, “I will go.”He said (that) he would go.
  19. 19. Some modals do not change in reported speech: Should, should have and must have:
  20. 20. Should  shouldHe said, “You should leave.”He said (that) I should leave.
  21. 21. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You should leave.” He said (that) I should leave.
  22. 22. Should have  should have(reporting a mistake in the past): He said, “You should have told me.” He said (that) I should have told him.
  23. 23. Notice the pronoun changes: you  I me  him: He said, “You should have told me.” He said (that) I should have told him.
  24. 24. Must  must have (meaning that something probably happened in the past): He said, “You must have known.” He said (that) I must have known.
  25. 25. Notice the pronoun change (you  I): He said, “You must have known.” He said (that) I must have known.

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