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Conditionals and the subjunctive

  1. 1. Conditionals and the Subjunctive Based on the Grammar Presentation on Pages 408-409
  2. 2. Present and Future Real Conditionals Present Real Conditional = Future Real Conditional = Type 0 Type 1 If Clause Result Clause If Clause Result Clause If it is hot, I drink iced If rains, we will close tea. the windows. If it isn’t hot, I don’t drink If it doesn’t we won’t iced tea rain, close the windows. If you have we can have finished your dinner. homework,
  3. 3. Present Unreal Conditionals (Type 2) Actual Situations Conditionals If Clause Result Clause It is rarely hot in Antarctica. If it were hot in Antarctica, It is actually hot in Egypt. If it weren’t hot in Egypt, that would be very It rarely rains in the Sahara. If it rained in the strange. Sahara, It usually rains the jungle. If it didn’t rain in the jungle,
  4. 4. Past Unreal Conditionals (Type 3) Actual Situations Conditionals If Clause They stopped, so they were late. If they hadn’t they wouldn’t have stopped, been late. They didn’t drive past the old man, so If they had driven Donna would have Donna didn’t buy the chest of drawers. past the old man, bought the chest of drawers. They helped the man, so he sent them a If they hadn’t he wouldn’t have gift. helped the old sent them a gift. man, They didn’t drive past the old man, so he If they had driven he would have didn’t go into shock. past the old man, gone into shock.
  5. 5. Mixed Conditionals Actual Situations Conditionals If Clause Result Clause He didn’t have children, so he is alone. If he had had he wouldn’t be children, alone. His memory is not good, so he didn’t buy If his memory were he would have his medicine. good, bought his medicine.
  6. 6. Conditional with Wish Actual Situations Conditionals Statement with Wish She will miss the sale. She wishes (that) she wouldn’t miss the sale. They can’t buy the chest of drawers. They wish (that) they could buy the chest of drawers. They arrived late They wish (that) they hadn’t arrived late.
  7. 7. But use present tense, future tense or infinitive after hope. Actual Situations Hope for the future Statement with Hope Maybe she will miss the sale. She hopes (that) she doesn’t miss the sale/She hopes (that) she won’t miss the sale/She hopes not to miss the sale. I hope (that) I can buy a new car next Maybe I can buy a new car next year. year/I hope (that) I will be able to buy a new car next year/I hope to buy a new car next year. Maybe they will arrive soon. I hope (that) they arrive soon. I hope (that) they will arrive soon.
  8. 8. Notice the difference in meaning between hope and wish: Hope for something possible or Wish for something less possible likely: or likely: Statement with hope Statement with wish I hope that they arrive soon. I wish they would arrive soon. I hope I can buy a new car next year. I wish I could buy a new car next year. I hope to transfer to a university. I wish that I could transfer to a university.
  9. 9. Subjunctive with if only Actual Situations Conditionals Statement with Wish She will miss the sale. If only she wouldn’t miss the sale. They can’t buy the chest of drawers. If only they could buy the chest of drawers. They arrived late If only they hadn’t arrived late.

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