Grammar Presentation
Past Time
Page 17
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
For an action that was
FINISHED in the past.
Example Explanation
Weinlick needed to find a bride. He doe...
PAST PROGRESSIVE =
PAST CONTINUOUS
For an action that was IN
PROGRESS when
another thing happened in
the past.
Example Exp...
PAST TIME: “USED TO”
For an action that was
continued or repeated in
the past.
Example Explanation
Arranged marriages used...
PAST TIME: “WOULD”
For an action that was
repeated in the past.
Example Explanation
When friends asked Weinlick when he
wa...
PAST TIME BEFORE A
TIME IN THE PAST:
PAST PERFECT
For an action that took
place before another
action in the past.
Example...
Be Careful!
had + past participle
is different from
had + infinitive!
He hadn’t met his bride yet
(past perfect)
so
he knew he had to do
something
(= it was necessary for him to
do something).
PAST TIME BEFORE A TIME IN THE PAST:
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE =
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
For an action that continued from ...
Be Careful!
Don’t use progressive tense
with non-action verbs!
He had been pondering
marriage
(past perfect progressive)
and
he had known
(past perfect)
that he was going to get
married...
PAST TIME: AFTER A TIME IN THE PAST BUT BEFORE NOW
“FUTURE IN THE PAST”
Your book shows a confusing way to think
about sen...
PAST TIME: AFTER A TIME IN THE PAST BUT BEFORE NOW
“FUTURE IN THE PAST”
Present Tense Past Tense
He knows that he is going...
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Chapter two grammar presentation

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Chapter two grammar presentation

  1. 1. Grammar Presentation Past Time Page 17
  2. 2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE For an action that was FINISHED in the past. Example Explanation Weinlick needed to find a bride. He does not need to find a bride now because he has found her, and he is married. He advertised on the Internet. He did this in the past, before he found his bride. He said he thinks commitment is important. He said this in the past. The second verb “thinks” is in the present tense because he still thinks this is true now. They talked briefly on that day and again on Tuesday when Runze turned in the completed survey. These events took place in the past.
  3. 3. PAST PROGRESSIVE = PAST CONTINUOUS For an action that was IN PROGRESS when another thing happened in the past. Example Explanation As the date was getting closer, Weinlick … knew he had to do something. During the time when the date was getting closer, Weinlick realized that he had to do something. My parents met when they were studying in high school. During the time when they were studying, they met each other. (Their meeting came during the time when they were studying.) She was looking for someone really special. In this case, the simple past verb is implied. During the time when she was looking for someone special, she read the application from Kunze. Note: the past progressive is used in CONTRAST with another verb in the simple past. The simple past verb may be STATED or IMPLIED.
  4. 4. PAST TIME: “USED TO” For an action that was continued or repeated in the past. Example Explanation Arranged marriages used to be common in Europe, but they are not now. This custom continued for a long time in the past (it gradually disappeared during the 1800’s). It is not a custom in Europe now. I used to walk to school when I was a child. I did this many times in the past. I used to be afraid of the dentist. I was afraid of the dentist for a period of time in the past (but I am not afraid of the dentist any more).
  5. 5. PAST TIME: “WOULD” For an action that was repeated in the past. Example Explanation When friends asked Weinlick when he was going to tie the knot, he would say the didn’t know. His friends asked him this again and again in the past, and every time they asked him, he said that he didn’t know. I would often walk to school when I was a child. I did this many times in the past. Some days she would work for twelve hours. She sometimes did this in the past. Every time I got a low grade, I would become discouraged. I became discouraged repeatedly in the past. (This sentence implies that low grades do not make me discouraged any more.) Note: For a repeated action, past with “would” and past with “used to” mean the same thing. However, “would” is not used for a continued action.
  6. 6. PAST TIME BEFORE A TIME IN THE PAST: PAST PERFECT For an action that took place before another action in the past. Example Explanation I had studied English in high school before I came to the U.S. You can also say I studied English in high school before I came to the U.S. Runze said the day was the most incredible she had ever experienced. Runze was referring to other days that happened before the day she was talking about. He had met her before the wedding. Their meeting happened before the wedding. (Implied: He had met her before the wedding took place.) He met her before the wedding is also correct. He hadn’t met his bride yet. Implied: He hadn’t met her yet when he planned the wedding. Note: Many students use the past perfect incorrectly. We only use the past perfect IN COMPARISON WITH another action in the simple past. The simple past action may be STATED or IMPLIED.
  7. 7. Be Careful! had + past participle is different from had + infinitive!
  8. 8. He hadn’t met his bride yet (past perfect) so he knew he had to do something (= it was necessary for him to do something).
  9. 9. PAST TIME BEFORE A TIME IN THE PAST: PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE = PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS For an action that continued from a time before the past up until a later time in the past (STATED or IMPLIED). Example Explanation I had been studying English for three years when I came to the U.S. I studied English for three years, up until the time when I came to the U.S. He had been planning the wedding for months. He planned the wedding for months and then he started looking for his bride (implied). He had long been pondering marriage and he had known for some time that he was going to get married in June of 1998. He had been pondering marriage up until the time this story began.
  10. 10. Be Careful! Don’t use progressive tense with non-action verbs!
  11. 11. He had been pondering marriage (past perfect progressive) and he had known (past perfect) that he was going to get married in June 1998.
  12. 12. PAST TIME: AFTER A TIME IN THE PAST BUT BEFORE NOW “FUTURE IN THE PAST” Your book shows a confusing way to think about sentences with “was going to” or “would” in the past tense. It is easier to think about this as indirect speech.
  13. 13. PAST TIME: AFTER A TIME IN THE PAST BUT BEFORE NOW “FUTURE IN THE PAST” Present Tense Past Tense He knows that he is going to marry soon. He knew that he was going to marry soon. He knows when the wedding will be. He knew when the wedding would be. He isn’t sure who his bride will be. He wasn’t sure who his bride would be. Neither Weinlick nor Runze knows who will ultimately be chosen. Neither Weinlick nor Runze knew who would ultimately be chosen.

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