Why And How Amazon Made Web Services Work

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  • Why And How Amazon Made Web Services Work

    1. 1. Case Study: Why and How Amazon Made Web Services Work Jeff Barr (jbarr@amazon.com) Technical Program Manager
    2. 2. Amazon.com Quick Facts <ul><li>$1B Technology Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Sites in 6 countries </li></ul><ul><li>More than 7000 Employees </li></ul><ul><li>9 Distribution Centers Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>More than 13,000,000 Products in Our Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Ship To More Than 220 Countries </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Earth’s Biggest Selection </li></ul><ul><li>The place where people can find, discover and buy anything they want to buy online </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s Most Customer-Centric Company </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the customer and work backward </li></ul>Amazon.com Vision Be The First Place People Come to Look for *Anything*
    4. 4. Amazon Customer Sets <ul><li>Buyers – the 31 million people who bought stuff on Amazon last year </li></ul><ul><li>Sellers – merchants who sell on Amazon’s platform (21% of total Amazon transactions) </li></ul><ul><li>Web Site Owners (Associates) – people who own Web sites and link to Amazon in return for referral fees </li></ul><ul><li>Developers – people who use Amazon Web Services to create applications and productivity tools </li></ul>
    5. 5. Amazon Associates Program <ul><li>Founded in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Third party sites link to Amazon products </li></ul><ul><li>First associate was puppynet.com </li></ul><ul><li>950,000 associates & growing </li></ul><ul><li>Ready market for tools and components </li></ul><ul><li>www.amazon.com/associates </li></ul>
    6. 6. Amazon Merchant Program <ul><li>Sellers upload inventory and fulfill orders </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants and Pro Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Seller Tools (e.g. www.sellerengine.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 21% of our transactions </li></ul><ul><li>www.amazon.com/sellers </li></ul>
    7. 7. Amazon Technology Platform Search Catalog Payments Associates Similarities Order Pipeline 1-Click Shopping Cart Personalization Wish List Marketplace Forecasting Seller Tools Products Customers Orders International much more… Distribution Reviews Features Content Amazon.com, .ca, .co.uk, .de, .fr, .co.jp
    8. 8. The Road to Web Services (2002) <ul><li>Partners needed better access to data </li></ul><ul><li>Some obtained data feeds (text or XML) </li></ul><ul><li>Others scraped the site to obtain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was expensive and fragile </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Web Services Concept <ul><li>The Programmable Web Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for industry standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote access to data and functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoupling of data and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of a platform to attract software developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlocking creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging technology investment </li></ul></ul>www.simplest-shop.com
    10. 10. Planning for Web Services <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Developer Support </li></ul>
    11. 11. Business Model <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No revenue model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage fees (per-call, per-month, per-app, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend Amazon Associates model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Associates and Sellers </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. License - Issues <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring developer’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting Amazon’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring data freshness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting business model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of server load </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Licensing - Terms <ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use data to create applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 call per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot resell our data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can display and use data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must link to our site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store non-pricing data for up to 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store pricing data for up to 1 hour </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Protocol <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support SOAP or XML over HTTP (REST)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let developers make the choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOAP is industry standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, SOAP makes up just 15% of calls to AWS </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Platform <ul><li>Issue: How to create a platform for developers </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use best practices from software world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward compatibility </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Developer Support <ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to help developers to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to communicate with developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to create a scalable support model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online discussion board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly developer chats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular newsletter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent releases (fixes and features) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online FAQ </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Amazon Web Services <ul><li>July 2002 – AWS 1.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOAP and REST interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SDK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic merchandising capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from US site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>November 2002 – AWS 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketplace support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick-Click </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 2003 – AWS 3.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seller APIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Shopping Cart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from UK site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data from German and Japanese sites </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. AWS API Categories <ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to rich product information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 locales (US, UK, Germany, Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant product & inventory upload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping report download </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Shopping Cart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick-Click Links </li></ul></ul>www.hivegroup.com/amazon_dyn.html
    19. 19. How AWS Works Amazon Platform 3 rd party’s Web server Customer’s Browser AWS Web server Process flow for a typical AWS XML or SOAP request: Example 1 5 3 4 2 6
    20. 20. What does AWS Enable? <ul><li>Customized Shopping Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Rich Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>User Stickiness </li></ul><ul><li>More Revenue for Associates </li></ul><ul><li>New Shopping / Browsing Models </li></ul>www.kokogiak.com/amazon2/default.asp Amazon Research and Reference Pane
    21. 21. AWS Features <ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Browse </li></ul><ul><li>Product Details </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>ListMania/Wishlists/Registry </li></ul><ul><li>Track Listings </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Rank </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel / Merchant Details </li></ul><ul><li>Echo / Response </li></ul><ul><li>Blended Search </li></ul><ul><li>Text Stream Search </li></ul><ul><li>XSLT </li></ul><ul><li>SellerSearch </li></ul><ul><li>SellerProfileSearch </li></ul><ul><li>MarketplaceSearch </li></ul><ul><li>ExchangeSearch </li></ul><ul><li>Quick-Click </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Type Switches </li></ul><ul><li>XML + SOAP Support </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Shopping Cart </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Pay TM Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange Buy Buttons </li></ul><ul><li>Featured Products </li></ul><ul><li>AWS Developer Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Developer Portal </li></ul>
    22. 22. In Depth Example – Hacks Mania <ul><li>Select A Manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Find Match a Keyword </li></ul><ul><li>Sort by Sales Rank </li></ul><ul><li>Apply an XSLT Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>One link </li></ul>
    23. 23. AWS Challenges for Developers <ul><li>Lots to learn: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XSLT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Caching </li></ul>
    24. 24. Web Services Best Practices <ul><li>Cache data to improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Log successes and failures </li></ul><ul><li>Handle error conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Degrade service if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>You are building a distributed application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More moving parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More things can go wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plan for failure </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Amazon Hacks <ul><li>Published 8/2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Tips and Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Developing </li></ul>www.oreilly.com/hacks
    26. 26. Call to Action <ul><li>Visit www.amazon.com/webservices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a developer token </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download the SDK (Software Development Kit) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Join the community </li></ul><ul><li>Create your application </li></ul><ul><li>Make money </li></ul>
    27. 27. Questions?
    28. 28. Thanks for Listening!
    29. 29. Links Reference <ul><li>www.amazon.com/webservices </li></ul><ul><li>www.amazon.com/associates </li></ul><ul><li>www.simplest-shop.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.shopforpowertools.com </li></ul><ul><li>bookstore.webguest.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.nba.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.hivegroup.com/amazon_dyn.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.kokogiak.com/amazon2/default.asp </li></ul><ul><li>www.oreilly.com/hacks </li></ul>

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