Values Issues


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Values Issues

  1. 1. Values Issues A2 Textiles
  2. 2. What are values issues? <ul><li>Values issues have an impact on our lives and on the products that we use. </li></ul><ul><li>Values issues can be the driving force behind product development. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – legislation has been introduced about environmental issues – the need to follow this legislation has meant new products have been developed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>We will look at: </li></ul><ul><li>Global market place </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, economic, environmental, ethical, moral, political and social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of values issues on design and manufacture. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities of developed countries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Global Market Place <ul><li>What is meant by the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational companies who sell their products worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Name some products that are sold on the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, petrol, cars, electronics, finance, food, hotels. </li></ul><ul><li>What has enabled products to be sold worldwide? </li></ul><ul><li>Information and communication technology (ICT) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Impact of Electronic Communications on Global Manufacturing <ul><li>The high speed information revolution has enabled global marketing. What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Fast electronic communication eg by internet, video conferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>How can companies bring the price of their products down and become competitive? </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce labour and materials costs. </li></ul><ul><li>How can they do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Outsource their manufacture to countries where labour costs are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>Name some countries? </li></ul><ul><li>North Africa and Asian countries. </li></ul><ul><li>How does electronic communication aid this process? </li></ul><ul><li>Products can be designed in one country then sent by email to the manufacturing country. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Economic, Environmental, Moral, Political and Social Issues Related to Global Manufacturing <ul><li>Free trade and global marketing have a major impact on quality of life, employment and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Head offices of multinationals are located in MEDC’s (W Europe and N America). </li></ul><ul><li>Some multinationals are also based in NIC’s (Singapore, Korea, Taiwan). </li></ul><ul><li>LEDC’s are being used for manufacture. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Drawbacks of Globalisation <ul><li>What do you think the negative side of the global marketplace is? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Low level skill jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Top jobs are for executives from MEDC. </li></ul><ul><li>Company profits go back to MEDC. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinationals cut corners on health and safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials are imported. </li></ul><ul><li>Goods are exported. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pros of Globalisation <ul><li>What are the good things about the global market place? </li></ul><ul><li>Employment and higher living standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved expertise of local workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign currency comes into the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Widens country’s economic base. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of new technology. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cultural, Economic, Environmental, Ethical, Moral, Political and Social Issues <ul><li>Designers need to consider the values of their target market. </li></ul><ul><li>For example what is fashionable this year won’t be next year. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers have to keep up with current and future trends relating to artistic, cultural and social influences. </li></ul><ul><li>They also have to understand how economic, political, ethical, moral and environmental issues impact on consumers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cultural and Social Trends and Lifestyle Issues <ul><li>Fashion designers have to find out what cultural values, social values and lifestyles their target market have. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Eastern culture may be in fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Socially people may want environmentally friendly garments. </li></ul><ul><li>People may have active lifestyles and need appropriate garments. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Moral and Ethical Issues <ul><li>Fashion products that are morally and ethically acceptable in one country may be unacceptable in another. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of examples? </li></ul><ul><li>Fur products </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sweat shops </li></ul><ul><li>Garments that are short or have short sleeves (in muslim countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum wages. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Offence <ul><li>Designers have to ensure products do not offend religions or cultural groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it morally acceptable to advertise glamorous clothing in countries where people are living in poverty? </li></ul><ul><li>IS it morally acceptable to create a demand for products that offend a religion? </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to make value judgements <ul><li>A good way to judge the value is to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be split into six areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Your response to the product </li></ul><ul><li>The need for the product </li></ul><ul><li>Design of the product </li></ul><ul><li>The product manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion and marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Use and disposal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Your response to the product <ul><li>Do you want to touch or use it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it intended for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why would they buy it? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to own it? </li></ul><ul><li>What would this say about you? </li></ul>
  15. 15. The need for the product <ul><li>Is the product needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose needs were identified to produce it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who benefits from the manufacture of the product? </li></ul><ul><li>How will they benefit? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Design of the product <ul><li>Who made decisions about the design? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a choice of designs? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the design developed? </li></ul><ul><li>What influences had an impact on the design? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The product manufacture <ul><li>What materials and components are used and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do the materials come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Will they run out? </li></ul><ul><li>What other resources are used to manufacture the product? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact could using these resources have on people or the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to any waste produced during manufacture? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the working conditions in the place of manufacture like? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Use and disposal <ul><li>How is the product used? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it have an impact on people’s lives or the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>How long will it last? </li></ul><ul><li>How will it be disposed of? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors may limit or lengthen the product life? </li></ul><ul><li>How easily can it be recycled? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would pay the cost of recycling? </li></ul>
  19. 19. The impact of values issues on design and manufacture <ul><li>Every human need is related to values. </li></ul><ul><li>For manufacturers needs are connected to wants – the market needs products. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers fulfil these wants and needs to make a profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers need to take account of values issues whilst making a profit. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Environmental issues <ul><li>Legislation requires companies to dispose of waste environmentally. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers need to start designing for recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>New products should be made from environmentally friendly processes. </li></ul>
  21. 21. New materials <ul><li>New and smart materials enable textiles to enhance performance, protect the wearer, allow people to wear electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Do these new materials enhance lives? </li></ul><ul><li>At what cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Is fashion necessary? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Genetic engineering <ul><li>Why are some people unhappy about genetic engineering? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the long term effects of genetic engineering? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the benefits outweigh the disadvantages? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Responsibilities of Developed Countries <ul><li>We have already discussed global manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>There is pressure on companies to manufacture where costs are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>There are however impacts on people and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>What are these issues? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Issues <ul><li>Setting up costs are big. Big companies get bigger, smaller ones fold. How can this be remedied? – Niche markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore labour costs are lower but working conditions may be worse. Should manufacturers take on responsibility for health and safety? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues can be created offshore. Rapid industrialisation may be adding to global warming. But, how can developed countries deny LEDC’s progess? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should pay the cost of clean technology? </li></ul>