Use Other People’S Stuff


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  • Use Other People’S Stuff

    1. 1. Copyright and VLEs: How to use other people’s stuff Andrew Charlesworth Senior Research Fellow in IT & Law University of Bristol, UK
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>What IP rights exist in the content? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright, Trademark, database rights, moral rights, performance rights are possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>© - who owns the rights? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer as part of employment relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd party such as contractor, students, other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Domain/Open Source/Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>© - fair dealing and licensing </li></ul>
    3. 3. Myth No. 1 <ul><li>It’s only a short piece of music, there can’t be a copyright in that. </li></ul><ul><li>The UK Channel 4 station jingle consisted of 4 notes and was the subject of a © lawsuit </li></ul><ul><li>… For a looped sample of 3 seconds or less, the fee varies from $1500 to $5000… </li></ul>
    4. 4. Basic © <ul><li>s.16, Copyright, Designs & Patents Act 1988 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rightholder has exclusive right to do certain things in relation to the work - making a copy, public performance, broadcasting - ‘bundle of rights’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights can be assigned, licensed, inherited etc. as a bundle or as individual rights – journal article. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus a copyright infringement can occur when an individual copies an electronic work without the authority of the copyright holder. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>s.107 CDPA 1988 – selling, hiring, exhibiting, or distributing an infringing copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s.110 CDPA 1988 – where offence under s.107 is committed by a body corporate </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Myth No. 2 <ul><li>My colleague’s husband says his mate at the Rose & Crown reckons any © materials can used for an educational purpose – it’s something called fair dealing… </li></ul><ul><li>Most use of other people’s materials in VLEs will fall outside the scope of fair dealing… </li></ul><ul><li>… which is in any case a defence to an infringement action and not a right </li></ul>
    6. 6. Fair dealing <ul><li>© law allows certain limited uses of © materials without rightsholder permission – fair dealing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual non-commercial research or private study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism, review or news reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair dealing is unlikely to apply to much placing of 3 rd party works on VLEs by staff or students. </li></ul><ul><li>Most works in which the institution does not own © will have to be licensed from the rightsholder before being placed on a VLE. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Myth No. 3 <ul><li>If I put ‘for educational purposes only’ on other people’s material before I put it on the VLE, then it’s OK </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ‘for educational purposes only’ has no effect in UK © regime </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s not fair dealing or licensed, it’s likely an infringement </li></ul>
    8. 8. Licensing <ul><li>Direct communication with rightsholder. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of licensing bodies, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Licensing Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CLA HE Licence + CLA Digitisation Licence – not universal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper Licensing Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Recording Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and Artists Copyright Society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial service for UK FE/HEIs that wish to provide online access to student readings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HERON (Ingenta) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Licensing II <ul><li>It is likely that most material on a VLE will be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>owned by the institution (employer/employee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>licensed from third parties (terms of licence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created by students in the course of their studies (owned by students unless explicitly assigned) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of materials under basic educational license may increasingly be restricted to physical, as opposed to virtual, campus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible problems for distance learning courses </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Licensed material <ul><li>Licence conditions for locally stored digitised files are usually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files must be stored and accessed within a Secure Network (password protected VLE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access must be restricted to Authorised Users (course or institution specific) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files must be accompanied by an appropriate acknowledgement of the source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The files must be deleted once they are no longer required for the licensed purpose </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Myth No. 4 <ul><li>It’s on the Web/Internet, that means there’s no copyright in it and I can use it for anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the work is in the public domain due to its age or an explicit assignment, it’s very likely copyrighted – in which case you need to know what its terms of use are. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Use of Web materials <ul><li>It is not currently a breach of UK © to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make an incidental (cache) copy of a webpage while accessing it (fair dealing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link to another’s public webpage without permission, but consider: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep linking to publicly accessible pages (politeness) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep linking to private protected pages (licence) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link to .pdf files on public webpages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a link to a page with infringing works (but probably unwise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>download/print a webpage for personal study. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Use of Web materials II <ul><li>It may be a breach of UK © to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cut and paste material from another’s website to put it on your own (unless the fair dealing defence applies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link to image files so as to make them appear on your webpage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to use another’s © text as a hyperlink – headlines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is a breach of UK © to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy, print or download part or all of webpage for non-fair dealing purposes unless permission is granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission should not be assumed simply by virtue of the fact the material is web-based. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Myth No. 5 <ul><li>It’s got a Creative Common Licence on it, that means it’s not copyright and I can use it for anything </li></ul><ul><li>A CC licence is a © licence and there are different types of CC licence. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you sure that the person granting the CC licence is entitled to do so? </li></ul>
    15. 15. CC Licenses <ul><li>Using a CC license does not mean giving up your © </li></ul><ul><li>You can offer some of your rights to any taker, on certain conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The CC lets you mix and match conditions, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Derivative Works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Alike </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are thus a range of CC licenses to choose from. </li></ul><ul><li>If the license is violated, the rightsholder may be able to sue for © infringement. </li></ul>
    16. 16. One last myth… <ul><li>Who’s going to sue me, on the pittance I get I’m not worth suing… </li></ul><ul><li>1. © holders don’t just sue people for $$, they sue people to set an example. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Getting your institution sued, if not a ‘P45 generator’ is probably a sure-fire CLM </li></ul>