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  1. 1. Chapter : Historical Timeline (1893-present)
  2. 2. 1890s: Art Movements and Artists/Designers (1 of 2) <ul><li>Arts and Crafts Movement proponents continued to disseminate information about design. </li></ul><ul><li>European art was deeply affected by an influx of Japanese prints. </li></ul><ul><li>American artists and designers were influenced by European trends and movements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Art Nouveau movement influenced all the visual arts, from design through architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Toulouse-Lautrec embraced the poster. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1890s: Art Movements and Artists/Designers (2 of 2) <ul><li>Companies hired Art Nouveau artists, such as Alphonse Mucha, to create posters to advertise their products. </li></ul><ul><li>American advertising agency, N.W. Ayer & Son, opened a design department to “design” their own ads. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethel Reed -- an American woman –became a noted graphic designer and illustrator. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1890s: Technology <ul><li>Advances in printing technology in both Europe and American </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In France, color lithography significantly advanced by Jules Cheret, allowed for great color and nuance in poster reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in lithography helped give rise to the poster as a visual communications vehicle. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1890s: Key Dates <ul><li>1870s-1890s – (last decades of the nineteenth century) Art and Crafts movement </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – Art Nouveau movement begins </li></ul><ul><li>1891 – “La Goulue” Toulouse-Lautrec’s first poster </li></ul><ul><li>1893 – Coca-Cola registered as a trademark </li></ul><ul><li>1897 – Vienna Secession formed </li></ul><ul><li>1898 – Advertising agency N.W. Ayer created the slogan, &quot;Lest you forget, we say it yet, Uneeda Biscuit,&quot; to launch the first prepackaged biscuit, Uneeda, produced by the National Biscuit Co. (today, a company called Nabisco). </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1900s: Fine Art (1 of 2) <ul><li>Two groups of German painters form art philosophies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Die Brücke ( The Bridge ), with Ernst Ludwig Kirchner as a leading proponent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Der Blaue Reiter ( The Blue Rider ) with Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky, a leading member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kandinsky is credited with the first non-objective painting and was a great influence on modern art. </li></ul><ul><li>In France, major artists Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso (b. Spain) create rippling, everlasting effects in all the visual arts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1900s: Fine Art (2 of 2) <ul><li>A very noteworthy influence (to this day), on typography was the Italian Futurists’ challenge to grammatical and typographic conventions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They saw typography as a way to “redouble the force of expressive words.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dadaists used type and image as expressive visual elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists such as Kurt Schwitters in his Merz magazine, used the idea of “randomness” as a guiding principle. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1900s: Design (1 of 2) <ul><li>Milestones in graphic design history occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of grid composition were taught in Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of pictorial modernism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The work of architect/designer Peter Behrens is watershed, exemplifying the relationship between design and industry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He sought a ‘modern’ visual language to express the age of mass production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1907, Peter Behrens designed what might be thought of as the first corporate identity for AEG, a German electrical manufacturing corporation. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1900s: Design (2 of 2) <ul><li>In 1919, Gropius founded the Weimar Bauhaus in Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Weimar Bauhaus – very influential design school – laid the foundation for much of modern thinking about architecture and design. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1900s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1901-1905 – Picasso’s ‘Blue’ period </li></ul><ul><li>1905 – Lucien Bernhard designs the Priester match poster </li></ul><ul><li>1905 – Salon d’Automne, Paris, important French art exhibit </li></ul><ul><li>1907 - Peter Behrens’ corporate identity for AEG </li></ul><ul><li>1909-1914 – Pablo Picasso and George Braque, the period of ‘Analytical Cubism’ </li></ul><ul><li>1909 – Futurist Manifesto proclaims enthusiasm for speed, war, and the machine age </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1900s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1910-1914 – Die Brücke (The Bridge) flourishes in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>1910 – Kandinsky and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) </li></ul><ul><li>1910 – Analytical Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>1913 – Synthetic Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>1916 – Dada founded </li></ul><ul><li>1919-1933 – Bauhaus; founded in Weimar, 1919, under the direction of architect Walter Gropius. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Vasily Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1920s: Fine Art (1 of 2) <ul><li>Fine art movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubism, Futurism, De Stijl, Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly affected design and advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Picasso’s work continued to have a powerful effect on the visual arts. </li></ul><ul><li>The popular geometric style of the 1920s was Art Deco. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly manifested in all the visual arts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1920s: Fine Art (2 of 2) <ul><li>In 1921, a group of Russian artists led by Constructivists Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko rejected “art for art’s sake,” to pursue the duty of artist as citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivists viewed visual communications, industrial design, and the applied arts as mediums that could best serve their ideals and ideas for society. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1920s: Design (1 of 2) <ul><li>Many graphic designers absorbed artistic movements creating a popular visual aesthetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.M. Cassandre, who was a renowned poster designer, created a visual language clearly influenced by Cubism, and brought it to the greater public via poster design. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cassandre’s success in both typeface design and poster design, established him as a purveyor of style. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1920s: Design (2 of 2) <ul><li>Also greatly influenced by Cubism, Futurism and Art Deco movements, American graphic designer E. McKnight Kauffer created a body of work that, included 141 posters for the London Underground, as well as others for major corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>American advertising reflected designers’ great interest in Modernism and European art ideas as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Coiner for the N. W. Ayer agency reflected an avant-garde influence. </li></ul><ul><li>In an attempt to visually express their dynamic modern age, both artists and designers are highly concerned with the relationship between form and function. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1920s: Key Dates (1 of 3) <ul><li>1922 – Aleksei Gan’s brochure on Constructivist ideology Konstruktivizm </li></ul><ul><li>1922. – E. McKnight Kauffer poster for London Underground </li></ul><ul><li>1922 – Piet Mondrian mature “Composition” </li></ul><ul><li>1923 – Herbert Bayer cover design for Bauhaus catalog </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – El Lissitzy poster for the Pelikan corporation </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1920s: Key Dates (2 of 3) <ul><li>1924 – Andre Breton’s Manifesto of Surrealism </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – Charles Coiner joins N.W.Ayer’s art department </li></ul><ul><li>1926 – Fritz Lang’s film “Metroplis” </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – Paul Renner designs Futura typeface </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – A. M. Cassandre railway poster </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1920s: Key Dates (3 of 3) <ul><li>1928 – Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha is made art director at Vogue magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 – Jan Tschichold advocates new ideas about typography in his book Die Neue Typographie </li></ul><ul><li>William H. Bradley, American, designed a series of covers for the Chap Book (influenced by the British Arts and Crafts movement and art) </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1930s: Design (1 of 3) <ul><li>At the end of the 1920s, the modern movement hit America. </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were American-born designers such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lester Beall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Goldin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alvin Lustig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Rand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BradburyThompson </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 1930s: Design (2 of 3) <ul><li>Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were émigrés such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mehemed Fehmy Agha (Russian-born, emigrated in 1928) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexey Brodovitch (Russian-born, emigrated in 1930) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Burtin (German-born, emigrated in 1938) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leo Lionni (Dutch-born, emigrated in 1939) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbert Matter (Swiss-born, moved to New York in 1936) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sutnar Ladislav (Czech-born, traveled to U.S. in 1939 and stayed) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1930s: Design (3 of 3) <ul><li>Many fled the Nazis and immigrated to America, including esteemed Bauhaus members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mies van der Rohe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Josef Albers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laszlo Moholy-Nagy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walter Gropius. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Paul Rand: A Seminal American Designer <ul><li>Paul Rand, started in 1935, as the art director of Esquire and Apparel Arts magazines. </li></ul><ul><li>Rand also designed covers for Direction , a cultural journal, from 1938 until 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Rand’s influence holds to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>Rand was greatly influenced by the European avant-garde thinkers and designers, though he established his own indelible point of view and visual vocabulary. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1930s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1934 – Herbert Matter designs Swiss travel posters. </li></ul><ul><li>1934 – Alexey Brodovitch is art director at Harper’s Bazaar . </li></ul>Magazine spread Designer: Alexey Brodovitch
  24. 24. 1930s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1935 – WPA hires designers to work for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – Lester Beall designs Rural Electrification Administration poster. </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – Picasso’s “Guernica” painting portrays the devastation of the Spanish Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>1939 – Bradbury Thompson designs first Westvaco Inspirations. </li></ul><ul><li>1939 – Leo Lionni becomes art director at N.W. Ayer. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1940s: Fine Art and Design (1 of 2) <ul><li>In the U.S., during 1940s and 1950s, Abstract Expressionism is the primary artistic movement (overshadowing any representational artists), with leading artists such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson Pollack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willem de Kooning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franz Kline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Rothko </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 1940s: Fine Art and Design (2 of 2) <ul><li>In the post World War II years, New York City became the art capital of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, Olivetti corporation hired Giovanni Pintori, who contributed enormously to Italian design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pintori’s vision, drawing on Futurist visual forms, manifested itself in corporate identity design and advertising. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 1940s: Design and War (1 of 3) <ul><li>In 1939, World War II began. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many artists and designers were called into active duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others used their great talents to create posters to disseminate public information, support the war effort, pump up morale, and create anti-Nazi vehicles, including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Shahn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E. McKnight Kauffer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Binder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abram Games </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In England, The British Ministry of Information recruited available pre-eminent designers to this cause. </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1940s: Design and War (2 of 3) <ul><li>Many designers embraced Surrealism using photomontage and bold typography to create war posters, including German graphic artist John Heartfield, whose strong anti-war work satirized the Nazi party. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1940s: Design and War (3 of 3) <ul><li>What would eventually become the Advertising Council, a public service advertising organization, began in 1942 as the War Advertising Council, which was organized to help prepare voluntary advertising campaigns for wartime efforts. </li></ul>PSA The Advertising Council
  30. 30. 1940s: Key Dates <ul><li>1940s – Paul Rand designs Directions covers. </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – Lou Dorfsman joins CBS. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 – Armin Hofmann begins teaching graphic design at the Basel School of Design. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 – Giovanni Pintori is hired by Olivetti. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Doyle Dane Bernbach opens. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Cipe Pineles cover for Seventeen . </li></ul>
  31. 31. 1950s (1 of 4) <ul><li>The International Typographic Style, or Swiss design, plays a pivotal role in design with an emphasis on clear communication and grid construction, with Max Bill and Ernst Keller as major proponents. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1959, the movement became a unified international one disseminating ideas in a journal, New Graphic Design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The editors included Josef Muller-Brockmann, Richard P. Lohse, Carlo L. Vivarelli and Hans Neuburg. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 1950s (2 of 4) <ul><li>Important work created in America by seminal designers such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Rand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Goldin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lou Dorfsman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saul Bass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bradbury Thompson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Tscherny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan Chermayeff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom Geismar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cipe Pineless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otto Storch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Wolf </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 1950s (3 of 4) <ul><li>Saul Bass’ movie titles and film promotions set new standards for motion graphics and promotional design. </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1950s (4 of 4) Magazine spread Designer: Bradbury Thompson
  35. 35. 1950s: Corporate Identity (1 of 2) <ul><li>Corporate (visual) identity becomes gospel at corporations with in-house designers such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Goldin and Lou Dorfsman at CBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni Pintori at Olivetti </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. 1950s: Corporate Identity (2 of 2) <ul><li>Corporations begin to rely on designers to create visual identities that would differentiate them within a competitive marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers, such as Paul Rand created visual identities for IBM, Westinghouse, and ABC. </li></ul>
  37. 37. 1950s: Advertising <ul><li>Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) rocked the advertising world. </li></ul><ul><li>DDB’s Volkswagen campaign began the creative revolution in advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>DDB teamed art directors and copywriters to generate creative ideas to drive their advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>DDB didn’t use a hard sell – it set a new standard that winked at the consumer with greater respect. </li></ul>
  38. 38. 1950s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1949 – Hermann Zapf designs Palatino typeface. </li></ul><ul><li>1955 – Jackson Pollack’s creates “Autumn Rhythm.” </li></ul><ul><li>1950 – William Goldin designs the CBS symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>1955 – Roy Kuhlman designs Grove Press paperback covers. </li></ul><ul><li>1955 – Rudy deHarak opens his New York studio. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 1950s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1955 – Fogleman defines “corporate identity.” </li></ul><ul><li>1954 – Adrian Frutiger creates a family 21 sans-serif fonts named Univers. </li></ul><ul><li>1954 – Push Pin Studios is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>1955 – Saul Bass designs Man with the Golden Arm film graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>1950s – Henryk Tomaszewski creates Cryk. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 1960s: Corporate Identity <ul><li>Corporate identity design grows in importance, work by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lester Beall for International Paper Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chermayeff & Geismar for Mobil, The Chase Manhattan Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saul Bass for AT&T, Continental Airlines, and the Girl Scouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massimo Vignelli and the Unimark office for Knoll </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. 1960s: Changes in Design (1 of 3) <ul><li>The poster was extremely popular with great work from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunter Rambow, in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wes Wilson, in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victor Moscosco in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Lois’ designs covers for Esquire magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milton Glaser </li></ul></ul>Poster Designer: Milton Glaser
  42. 42. 1960s: Changes in Design (2 of 3) <ul><li>Pop Art movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A movement drawing upon imagery from popular culture, with leading artists Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Robert Indiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged the conventions of Modernist thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push Pin in New York and Haight Ashbury/San Francisco music scene designers rocked Modernism’s structural boat. </li></ul>
  43. 43. 1960s: Changes in Design (3 of 3) <ul><li>Wolfgang Weingart was at the forefront of those slowly challenging Modernism’s core. </li></ul><ul><li>American graphic designers, including the Push Pin Studios, Saul Bass, and Herb Lubalin redefined American graphic design. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 1960s: Advertising <ul><li>Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) continued to be the force behind creative advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>Employed at DDB were some of the most brilliantly creative art directors and writers of the twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob Gage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helmut Krone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Lois </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Wells Lawrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phyllis K. Robinson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Julian Koenig </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of these creatives left DDB to open their own creative agencies, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Lois & Julian Koenig (together) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Wells Lawrence </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. 1960s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1960 – John Berg becomes art director at CBS records. </li></ul><ul><li>1960 – Lester Beall designs International Paper logo. </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger design Helvetica typeface. </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – Herb Lubalin designs Eros magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – Carl Ally opens Allly & Gargano. </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – “The Pepsi Generation” ad </li></ul>
  46. 46. 1960s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1964 – “First Things First” manifesto signed by 22 signatories. </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – Andy Warhol’s “Campbell’s Soup” </li></ul><ul><li>1967 – Jay Chiat opens Chiat/Day. </li></ul><ul><li>1968 – Herb Lubalin designs Avante Garde magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – George Lois’ composited Esquire cover of Andy Warhol drowning in an oversized can of Campbell's soup. </li></ul>
  47. 47. 1970s: Design as Differentiator <ul><li>It became clear to clients that design and advertising was going to distinguish their parity goods and services in a highly competitive international marketplace. </li></ul>Identity Design firm: Vignelli Associates
  48. 48. 1970s: New Thinking (1 of 2) <ul><li>Some critics see the 1970s as the end of Modernism and the beginning of Postmoderism thinking, especially in the typographic directions taken by designers such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Weingart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>April Greiman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willi Kunz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dan Friedman </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. 1970s: New Thinking (2 of 2) <ul><li>Some designers saw the Modernist style as corporate and reacted with alternative creative thinking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subversive posters emanating from the French design collective GRAPUS in California, April Greiman was experimenting with type, hybrid imagery, and mixing media. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A growing response to the perceived ‘objectivity’ of Modernism with highly individual, personal aesthetics grew around the world. </li></ul>
  50. 50. 1970s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1970 – GRAPUS studio, a French design collective, is formed by Pierre Bernard, Francois Miehe, and Gerard Paris-Clavel. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – Raymond Loewy designs the U.S. Mail eagle symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – Shigeo Fukuda designs graphics for Expo 70. </li></ul><ul><li>1971 – Saul Bass designs the United Way logo. </li></ul>
  51. 51. 1970s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1974 – Paula Scher designs covers for CBS records. </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – Milton Glaser designs “I LOVE NY” symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – Louise Fili becomes art director of Pantheon Books. </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – Pentagram opens their New York office. </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – M&Co founded by Tibor Kalman with Carol Bokuniewicz and Liz Trovato. </li></ul>
  52. 52. 1980s: Technology (1 of 2) <ul><li>In 1984, Apple computers introduced the Macintosh computer, which provided graphic designers with the most significant tool since the pencil. </li></ul><ul><li>The digital revolution enabled designers to have more creative control. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design/layout their own type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become their own compositors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily manipulate imagery (as opposed to using handcrafted photomontage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitate visual effects such as airbrushing </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. 1980s: Technology (2 of 2) <ul><ul><li>Easily make changes to layout and color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate type without a typesetter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute hand-lettered comps with digitally produced ‘finished-looking’ comps </li></ul></ul>Poster Designer: April Greiman
  54. 54. 1980s: Design (1 of 3) <ul><li>Termed the Postmodern (or Late Modernist) period, the 1980s and 1990s were an eclectic and diverse time. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers experimented with new technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The political and social climate provided a fertile environment for provocatively creative designers and thinkers, such as Tibor Kalman, founder of M&Co. </li></ul>
  55. 55. 1980s: Design (2 of 3) <ul><li>In California, Rudy VanderLans (trained in the Netherlands) and Zuzana Licko (b. Czechoslovakia) collaborated to create experimental typography in Émigré . </li></ul>Magazine spread, Émigré Designer: Rudy Vanderlans
  56. 56. 1980s: Design (3 of 3) <ul><li>David Carson designed Beach Culture magazine and his typographic methodology will eventually divide designers into ‘camp’ divisions about typographic design philosophy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In England, Neville Brody, art director of The Face magazine, challenged both editorial design and typographic design conventions. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. 1980s: Advertising (1 of 3) <ul><li>In England, advertising agency Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH) created sexy campaigns for Levi’s and Haagen-Dazs. </li></ul><ul><li>In New York, George Lois’ ad campaign concept “I want my MTV” transforms entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiat/Day created one of the great moments in TV advertising with its “1984” spot for Apple Macinstosh. </li></ul>
  58. 58. 1980s: Advertising (2 of 3) <ul><li>Advertising agencies outside of the usual ad hubs, made indelible marks, making cities such as Minneapolis and Dallas the homes of creative advertising. </li></ul>
  59. 59. 1980s: Advertising (3 of 3) Ad Agency: Doyle Dane Bernbach
  60. 60. 1980s: Key Dates (1 of 2) <ul><li>1981 – MTV logo (art director: Fred Seibert, designers: Frank Olinsky, Pat Gorman, and Patti Rogof /Manhattan Design) </li></ul><ul><li>1982 – George Lois’ “I want my MTV&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – R/Greenberg Associates film title sequence “The Dead Zone” </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – Apple Macintosh TV spot “1984” by Chiat/Day Agency; directed by Ridley Scott </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – Rolling Stone “Perception/Reality” campaign by Fallon McElligott and Rice/Minneapolis </li></ul>
  61. 61. 1980s: Key Dates (2 of 2) <ul><li>1985 – BBH, London, revitalizes Levi’s brand </li></ul><ul><li>1986 – Neville Brody designs Typeface Six for The Face </li></ul><ul><li>1988 – Motel 6 “We’ll Leave a Light on for You,” The Richards Group, Dallas </li></ul><ul><li>1988 – David Carson designs Beach Culture magazine </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones create type foundry </li></ul>
  62. 62. 1990s: Technology (1 of 2) <ul><li>As the century came to a close, the technological boom continued to deeply affect all the visual arts. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990, Adobe released Photoshop, imaging software, providing a tool that enabled individual designers to manipulate imagery effectively, inexpensively, and rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>The web would become the home to every brand worldwide as well as set new design challenges. </li></ul>
  63. 63. 1990s: Technology (2 of 2) <ul><li>Designers would be forced to work closely with IT professionals to launch their visual designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Design and technology are at aesthetic crossroads that are reconciled in various ways with interesting effects on popular visual culture. </li></ul>
  64. 64. 1990s: Design Community Issues <ul><li>There are hot debates on consumerism, typographic design form/function questions. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Green issues’ are arguments that even become known outside the design community. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides creating design to earn a living, some designers are tackling social and political issues with their independently conceived, created, and produced posters. </li></ul><ul><li>Design itself takes on new respect in museums and in media coverage. </li></ul>
  65. 65. 1990s: Design and Advertising (1 of 4) <ul><li>Irony becomes a truly pervasive postmodern approach to all visual communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual combinations of form and color juxtapositions mark the work of many. </li></ul>Poster Design firm: Sagmesiter Inc.
  66. 66. 1990s: Design and Advertising (2 of 4) <ul><li>Historical stylistic references allow visual communicators to hold fast to the end of the century. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations continue to count on branding and visual communications to distinguish their brands across borders. </li></ul>
  67. 67. 1990s: Design and Advertising (3 of 4) <ul><li>No longer belonging to the marginalized artist, post-modernism is co-opted by major brands seeking to align themselves with hipsters and be perceived as trendsetters. </li></ul>
  68. 68. 1990s: Design and Advertising (4 of 4) Poster Design firm: Morla Design
  69. 69. 1990s: Key Dates (1 of 3) <ul><li>1990 – Fabien Baron redesigns Interview magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – Paula Scher joined Pentagram, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>1993 – David Carson designs Ray Gun magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>1993 – Sagmeister Inc. is founded by Stefan Sagmeister in New York. </li></ul>
  70. 70. 1990s: Key Dates (2 of 3) <ul><li>1994 –“Got Milk?” ad campaign by Goodby, Silverstein & Partners, San Francisco for the California Fluid Milk Processor Advisory Board </li></ul>
  71. 71. 1990s: Key Dates (3 of 3) <ul><li>1995 – Razorfish web design studio is founded </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – &quot;Mixing Messages: Graphic Design in Contemporary Culture&quot; at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum </li></ul><ul><li>2000 – Steven Brower redesigns Print magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 – Émigré magazine (and other magazines) publishes “First Things Manifesto 2000” </li></ul>
  72. 72. 2000: Advertising <ul><li>Unconventional advertising formats and solutions are redefining advertising, with agencies leading the way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crispin Porter + Bogusky / Miami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabolical Liberties / London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KesselsKramer / Amsterdam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strawberryfrog / Amsterdam </li></ul></ul>Campaign Agency: Strawberryfrog
  73. 73. 2000: Post-9/11 (1 of 2) <ul><li>The convergence of technology in the visual arts has helped redefine what graphic design is, but not what it is not. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual communications is an ever-evolving discipline that can solve innumerable communications problems. </li></ul>Poster Designer: Milton Glaser
  74. 74. 2000: Post-9/11 (2 of 2) <ul><li>Post 9/11, visual communicators are finding more and more that, as Paula Scher said, “design matters.” </li></ul><ul><li>Whether it is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminate information to the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance understanding of editorial content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design better election ballots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design posters to ‘get out the vote’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create public service campaigns to raise awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are creative professionals who are constantly challenging us to think and reevaluate. </li></ul>