Tartu Presentation Colin Mercer


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Tartu Presentation Colin Mercer

  1. 1. The Creative Economy, the Creative Industries and the Ecology of Culture Colin Mercer
  2. 2. The Creative Economy: market size
  3. 3. The Creative Industries: definition
  4. 4. Creative industries: UK sector composition and employment 2001 <ul><li>Software and computer services (555,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing (141,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Music (122,000) </li></ul><ul><li>TV and radio (102,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising (93,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Design (76,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Performing arts (74,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Film and video (45,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and Antiques market (37,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts (24,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture (21,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Leisure Software (21,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Designer fashion (12,000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= 1.3 million people in industry based on creativity and intellectual property </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The New Economy: characteristics <ul><li>Intellectual property and knowledge-based </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic goods and cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic and cultural entrepreneurs and intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘weightless economy’ of ‘bits’ rather than atoms </li></ul><ul><li>From marketplace to market space </li></ul><ul><li>Based on outputs and flows of cities/city-regions rather than nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Four themes : <ul><li>The significance of the creative industries at local and regional level (clustering effects) </li></ul><ul><li>The contribution of the creative industries to the national economy and international trade </li></ul><ul><li>The context of globalisation and convergence and the importance of indigenous/endogenous creative industry growth </li></ul><ul><li>Some conceptual issues and approaches enabling us to understand these realities (the ‘ cultural ecology’ and the ‘ value chain’) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Local example: the Lace Market/Hockley area in Nottingham <ul><li>419 registered businesses in Lace Market/Hockley area </li></ul><ul><li>168 businesses (40%) in Creative Industries </li></ul><ul><li>67% of those surveyed rated as ‘important to crucial’ for their business their location in the Lace Market area (LMA). </li></ul><ul><li>61% of those surveyed rated as ‘important to crucial ‘ for their business the capacity for meeting and networking with suppliers, collaborators, competitors in the LMA. </li></ul><ul><li>70% gave a ‘very good to excellent’ rating to the LMA as a location for combined business and social interaction. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The creative content makers <ul><li>74% rated as ‘important to crucial’ for their business the attractiveness of the built environment. </li></ul><ul><li>60% rated as ‘important to crucial’ for their business the range and quality of restaurants, pubs, clubs, cafes. </li></ul><ul><li>57% rated as ‘important to crucial’ for their business the heritage quality of the LMA </li></ul><ul><li>50% rated as ‘important to crucial’ for their business the proximity of arts and cultural institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>58% had plans for business expansion </li></ul><ul><li>77% had experienced growth in demand for their product or service in the past year </li></ul>
  9. 9. The creative content users <ul><li>91% of users agreed that the LMA ‘adds vitality to the city centre area’ </li></ul><ul><li>68% rated the LMA as a ‘safe environment’ </li></ul><ul><li>79% rated the LMA as ‘good for shopping’ </li></ul><ul><li>90% rated the LMA as ‘good for socialising’ </li></ul><ul><li>20% were there for work purposes </li></ul><ul><li>30% were there for shopping </li></ul><ul><li>49% were there for social reasons </li></ul>
  10. 10. In the Greater Nottingham Area…. <ul><li>15,000 employed in 1600 businesses </li></ul><ul><li>5% of the workforce (equivalent to national figures) and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong growth in areas such as advertising, design,software, new media, publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures do not include self-employed, freelance, etc (‘the independents’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cultural sector also comprises, as part of its 'ecology', organisations, large and small, which are in receipt of subsidy from local, regional and national government agencies amounting to £10.5 million in 1999-2000 . </li></ul>
  11. 11. The subsidised sector ... <ul><ul><ul><li>These subsidised cultural organisations directly contributed some £34 million to the economy in direct operations spending (on staff, goods, services) in 1999-2000. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through the 'multiplier effect' this contributes, in real terms, up to £85 million annually to the economy. The more that is created and produced locally, the more this money stays in the local and regional economies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The subsidised organisations employ nearly 800 operational staff on both continuing and contract basis and a further 800 artists, performers and educators. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What the people think <ul><ul><ul><li>68% of respondents in random street and telephone surveys, across demographics and areas, placed a 'fairly high' to 'high' value on culture with: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55% agreeing that it 'encourages a sense of community' </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>71% agreeing that it 'helps me to understand the world and its people' </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56% agreeing that it is 'important for my personal development' </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>47% agreeing that it encourages ‘a sense of local identity' </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. From quantity to quality…. <ul><li>The creative industries are a special sector because, while economically increasingly important, they are also about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The resources of identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resources of affirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resources of celebration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resources of social inclusion and cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy of symbols,values and meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality, vitality and conviviality of lived human environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resources of a sustainable and creative new economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of distinctive local, regional and national identities (and industries) in the context of globalisation and potential homogenisation of cultures( ref. Uruguay Gatt Round/WTO the principles of ‘cultural exception’ and ‘cultural diversity’ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Ecology of Culture <ul><li>Dynamic relationship between commercial, independent, community and subsidised sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Flows of people, talent, skills back and forth between these sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of informal social networks and networking capacity (social capital) </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of understanding the processes of this ecology and the ‘critical mass’ that sustains it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Value Production Chain <ul><li>Pre/creation (social conditions, training, funding) </li></ul><ul><li>Production (infrastructure and capacity) </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination and circulation (distribution through people and places) </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning, promotion and marketing (dissemination of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption and usages (how, why, what people are doing and to what ends - audience and market development, co-creation) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Creative Class and the ‘Creativity Index’ <ul><li>Creative class/bohemian/ share of the work force (measured by SOCs) </li></ul><ul><li>High Tech Industry presence </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation index (patents per capita) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity index (overseas born, gays) </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Hong Kong Creativity Index <ul><li>Manifestations of creativity (patents, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural/Institutional Capital (legal system, IP, treaties, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Capital (qualifications, mobility, R&D spend) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital (charitable donations, volunteer levels, civic engagement) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Capital (cultural expenditure, participation rates, values placed on cultural activity) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The UK Creative Economy Programme <ul><li>www. cep .culture. gov . uk   </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Creative Economy Programme is the first step in the DCMS goal to make the UK the world's creative hub .” </li></ul><ul><li>7 working groups and reports: </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Competition and Intellectual Property </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Finance and Business Support </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Evidence and Analysis </li></ul>