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Tampere Presentation

  1. 1. Tampere City-Region: Towards a Knowledge Economy Mika Kautonen - Jari Kolehmainen - Markku Sotarauta Critical
  2. 2. Tampere city-region: overview <ul><li>TAMPERE REGION </li></ul><ul><li>population 445,500 </li></ul><ul><li>9 % of Finland’s population </li></ul><ul><li>GRP per capita 3rd highest </li></ul><ul><li>GRP 19,200 EUR (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>EU 15 GRP index 100: in Tampere 94.9 (2000), 88.3 (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>TAMPERE CITY-REGION </li></ul><ul><li>population 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>the 2nd largest regional centre </li></ul><ul><li>City of Tampere, town of Nokia and municipalities of Ylöjärvi, Kangasala, Lempäälä, Pirkkala and Vesilahti </li></ul><ul><li>TAMPERE CITY </li></ul><ul><li>population 200,000 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tampere City Region
  4. 4. <ul><li>Industry to develop in the 19th century: manufacturing of textile and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the century, 69% of industrial employees in textile industry, 13% in pulp and paper industry and 8% in metal industry </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations after World War II contributed to the growth of metal industry </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1960s, textile, clothing, leather and shoe industries employed 38%, metal industry 31% and pulp and paper industry 14% </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1980s reorganizations, spin-offs and specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of the Soviet trade affected traditional industries </li></ul>Tampere city-region: from manufacturing to services
  5. 5. <ul><li>recession from the early 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>growth of information and telecommunication technology and KIBS sectors (Nokia Group alone 3.600 in R&D) </li></ul><ul><li>in 2000, textile, clothing, leather and shoe industries employed 4%, metal products and machine building together 26% (9.800 employees), pulp and paper industry 11%, and electronics 9% of industrial employees (total manufacturing employment 32.000) </li></ul><ul><li>in comparison, so-called KIBS sector alone 19.000 employees (software and computer services, technical services, consultancy, R&D services, private training etc.) </li></ul>Tampere city-region: from manufacturing to services
  6. 6. <ul><li>Educated population in Tampere city-region </li></ul><ul><li>of total adult population (>15 years), 64.5% at least secondary level degree, and 26.5% HEI degree (nat. average of 59.4 and 23.3 %) </li></ul><ul><li>number of university students about 25.000 </li></ul><ul><li>R&D intensity </li></ul><ul><li>R&D investments 14 per cent of national spending </li></ul><ul><li>25% real annual change 1995-1999 (nat. average 14%) </li></ul><ul><li>growth particularly in the business sector </li></ul><ul><li>share of R&D personnel of the workforce high, 4.6% (nat. average 3.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, Helsinki Region dominates R&D expenditures with a share of 45% strongly. </li></ul>Roots of local competitiveness
  7. 7. Knowledge Centres” in Tampere
  8. 8. The basics of digital media agglomeration in Tampere <ul><li>roots quite far in history, but the real emergence and rapid growth in the 1990s (5.000 employees in 1996 -> 10.000 in 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>the business structure very diverse, but dominated by the business units of large, internationalised ICT companies (especially Nokia Group) </li></ul><ul><li>major strengths: strong large companies, e ducational institutions and science and technology base </li></ul><ul><li>major weakness: weak entrepreneurial atmosphere, the paucity of (new) companies aiming at fast growth and internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>digital media has been one of the most important focus areas of local business development and innovation policy -> large eTampere Programme (appr. EUR 130 million) for five years. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>traditionally, Finland has been a closed society with a very homogenous population </li></ul><ul><li>access to the EU -> increased in- and outmigration, immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>yet, “images of Finland and especially its urban regions outside of the Capital region were not particularly prominent in the foreign experts’ field of choices” (Raunio 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>several nation-wide polls consistently shown that as a city to live in, Tampere rated highest of all cities in Finland </li></ul><ul><li>based on e.g. increase of jobs, central location and good connections, and the cultural amenities of the city (e.g. theatres, festivals, congresses). </li></ul>Cosmopolitanism and image
  10. 11. <ul><li>economic crisis of the early 1990s had serious social consequences for Tampere city-region as the unemployment rate skyrocketed to over 20 per cent </li></ul><ul><li>despite economic growth unemployment rate is still over 10% (12,9% in 2001, whole country 12,0) </li></ul><ul><li>about 25% of the unemployed long-term unemployed and among them every second unemployed for more than two years </li></ul><ul><li>‘ skills mismatches’ of the transformation period -> permanent problem? </li></ul><ul><li>60 per cent of the long-term unemployed 50 years old or older, risk especially high in manufacturing sectors. </li></ul>Social polarisation
  11. 12. <ul><li>during the 1990s, rise of the environmentalism, “environmental awakening” </li></ul><ul><li>local environmental movements key actors in process of change by challenging the local political traditions/culture and especially the tradition of local governance, called “brothers-in-arms axis” </li></ul><ul><li>City of Tampere with a holistic environmental management system based on ISO 14001 </li></ul><ul><li>Tampere Forum to stimulate local democracy and to activate citizen participation in sustainable development (est. 1996), a bottom-up approach. </li></ul>Sustainability
  12. 13. Governance <ul><li>in Finland, trend of the 90’s the increasing sub-regional co-operation between municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>reasons, e.g.: new Regional Development Act (1994), small size of municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>local government gained more importance in regional policy. The new Act splits the responsibility for institutional regional development efforts between state and municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>sub-regions form the smallest regional policy unit </li></ul><ul><li>sub-regional co-operation significant part of local activities, yet experiences and success vary greatly. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Strategies focus on… <ul><li>Health care technology (Finn-Medi ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>ICT (Tampere Technology Centre ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>Automation and mechanical engineering (Tampere Technology Centre ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>Media communication (MediaTampere ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>KIBS (Professia ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>City of Tampere is building institutions, infrastructure,and is co-ordinating the development network etc. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Some conclusions <ul><li>Concept of a comprehensive business development policy by the City of Tampere from 1998: many integrative aspects already acknowledged, however operationalisation slower. </li></ul>Human resources Welfare infrastructure Material infrastructure Sectors & clusters New business establishments Regional innovation system Communication Communication
  15. 17. Some conclusions <ul><li>several of the proposed challenges are well acknowledged in Tampere city-region, including learning- and innovation-based competitiveness, image of the region, and social inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>cultural aspects increasingly seen important also for the local economic development </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitanism considered very important, yet maybe most challenging among the policy-makers </li></ul><ul><li>sustainability-related matters usually conceived as a part of separate policy domain. </li></ul>