Successful strategies for waste prevention and minimisation in the Netherlands
Contents <ul><li>General information on the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Development stages in waste management </li></ul...
General information on the Netherlands <ul><li>16.3 million inhabitants  </li></ul><ul><li>450 inhabitants per km 2 </li><...
Capacity, ownership, gate fees, turnover waste processing
Waste management development stages and scale of government Local issue Municipal scale Provincial scale concessions Regio...
Responsibilities in waste management <ul><li>Municipalities have duty of care for household waste: </li></ul><ul><li>Weekl...
Decoupling
Household waste and GDP: continuous growth
Decline of land filling
Results:  development total waste production
Results: development waste treatment
Results: actual waste treatment in the Netherlands
Economic and financial instruments for steering waste <ul><li>Instruments to restrict and discourage land filling </li></u...
Landfil tax <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>restrict and discourage land filling </li></ul><ul><li>waste processing  tarif...
 
Landfill tax in 13 EU countries (€/ton)
Producers responsibility: when do we choose this instrument  ? <ul><li>For  products  as waste  </li></ul><ul><li>For Haza...
Systems of variable charging <ul><li>Goal: financial incentive to reduce volume residual waste, to stimulate recycling and...
Supply of residual waste and separate collected fractions (kg/inh)
Municipal waste tax
Benchmarking municipal waste management: three Performance area’s Waste triangle Service costs Environment
Municipal benchmark (example  Nijmegen) Costs performance
Municipal benchmark
Looking for  Good/Best Practices <ul><li>Benchmark circles and online benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the cause/origin ...
Results:  declining numbers and area of landfill
Development Waste Management
Development treatment household waste
Results: increasing recovery rate of household waste (2003)
Municipal waste in EU: destination
Intensification of prevention and recycling <ul><li>A programme for stimulating separate collection and prevention of hous...
Instruments to enhance public participation   <ul><li>Supply Information: continual publicity, promotion and education cam...
Changing the attitude of citizens <ul><li>Social instruments used to change attitude of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Constan...
Emphasis on improving waste behavior of households <ul><li>WHY </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous growth of volume of household ...
How to improve waste behavior of households <ul><li>Specific mix of instruments: sticks, carrots, marketing, education </l...
Improvement of local knowledge and expertise  <ul><li>Agency SenterNovem (SN) carries out tasks for Ministry: </li></ul><u...
Better offers and marketing <ul><li>Offers . F.i.: additional curb side collection of Paper/cardboard, municipal yard for ...
Concluding remarks <ul><li>An important barrier towards higher recycling rates is a cheap alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
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Specific Campaigns For Separate Collection Of Glass, Paper, Hazardous Waste, Bio Waste, Weee, Textile, Batteries

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  • Specific Campaigns For Separate Collection Of Glass, Paper, Hazardous Waste, Bio Waste, Weee, Textile, Batteries

    1. 1. Successful strategies for waste prevention and minimisation in the Netherlands
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>General information on the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Development stages in waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Financial Instruments: </li></ul><ul><li>polluter pays principle: producers responsibility and variable charging household waste </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental taxes: tariffs in accordance with waste hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidies to stimulate companies, municipalities, </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments to enhance participation of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding remarks </li></ul>
    3. 3. General information on the Netherlands <ul><li>16.3 million inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>450 inhabitants per km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>12 provinces; 467 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>61 mln. tons waste/year, excluding manure, dredging sludge </li></ul><ul><li>high level ground-water: special care to prevent soil/water pollution by landfills </li></ul><ul><li>flat country, many roads+waterways > low transport costs </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream large European rivers (Rhine, Meuse) </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by highly industrialized area’s in Belgium and Germany </li></ul>
    4. 4. Capacity, ownership, gate fees, turnover waste processing
    5. 5. Waste management development stages and scale of government Local issue Municipal scale Provincial scale concessions Regional National market EU International market 1975 1990 2005 Scale Of government
    6. 6. Responsibilities in waste management <ul><li>Municipalities have duty of care for household waste: </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly door to door collection of municipal waste and financing with municipal waste tax </li></ul><ul><li>Offer facilities for delivery of bulky domestic waste </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces: Licensing facilities and enforcement, physical planning </li></ul><ul><li>State government </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation, Waste shipment directive, Enforcement, National Waste Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>SenterNovem- Waste management department (Agency): </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation, administration, monitoring </li></ul>
    7. 7. Decoupling
    8. 8. Household waste and GDP: continuous growth
    9. 9. Decline of land filling
    10. 10. Results: development total waste production
    11. 11. Results: development waste treatment
    12. 12. Results: actual waste treatment in the Netherlands
    13. 13. Economic and financial instruments for steering waste <ul><li>Instruments to restrict and discourage land filling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill decree (technical requirements and standards; financial covering of post-closure costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill ban: (35 waste streams) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill tax (85 euro/ton): land filling more expensive than recycling and incineration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental taxes: tariffs in accordance with waste hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Producers responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Variable charging of municipal waste </li></ul><ul><li>Economic incentives: competition, benchmarking, transparency </li></ul>
    14. 14. Landfil tax <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>restrict and discourage land filling </li></ul><ul><li>waste processing tariffs in accordance with waste hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate recycling and incineration with energy recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Tax income for Treasury department (greening of taxation) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1995: 13 €/ton. Increased in 3 steps till 86 € in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective instrument to steer waste </li></ul>
    15. 16. Landfill tax in 13 EU countries (€/ton)
    16. 17. Producers responsibility: when do we choose this instrument ? <ul><li>For products as waste </li></ul><ul><li>For Hazardous components, which threaten land filling or incineration (batteries, WEEE) </li></ul><ul><li>To finance chain deficit of state of the art recycling </li></ul><ul><li>To address responsibility for the whole lifecycle from product to waste stream (tyres, PVC piping) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimise recycling & reduce residues (ELV, PVC window frames) </li></ul><ul><li>To fulfil objectives of EU directives for specific wastes (ELV, Batteries, WEEE) </li></ul>
    17. 18. Systems of variable charging <ul><li>Goal: financial incentive to reduce volume residual waste, to stimulate recycling and to impose a fair and equitable tax system based on polluter pays principle </li></ul><ul><li>Volume : Tariff based on the volume of the container (39 municipalities) Weight : Tariff based on weight of the waste (19 municipalities) Frequency : Tariff based on how often the container was put on the curb side to be emptied (always in combination with the volume of the container (55 municipalities) or weight (4 municipalities) </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive bag : Only special waste bags are accepted which are sold by the municipality (20 municipalities) </li></ul>
    18. 19. Supply of residual waste and separate collected fractions (kg/inh)
    19. 20. Municipal waste tax
    20. 21. Benchmarking municipal waste management: three Performance area’s Waste triangle Service costs Environment
    21. 22. Municipal benchmark (example Nijmegen) Costs performance
    22. 23. Municipal benchmark
    23. 24. Looking for Good/Best Practices <ul><li>Benchmark circles and online benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the cause/origin of the differences </li></ul><ul><li>The story behind the data </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from each other </li></ul><ul><li>Important in areas without competition (municipal service) </li></ul>
    24. 25. Results: declining numbers and area of landfill
    25. 26. Development Waste Management
    26. 27. Development treatment household waste
    27. 28. Results: increasing recovery rate of household waste (2003)
    28. 29. Municipal waste in EU: destination
    29. 30. Intensification of prevention and recycling <ul><li>A programme for stimulating separate collection and prevention of household waste started in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: a new impulse to separate collection to reach 60% recycling and recovery of household waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy scheme for municipalities to start projects </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities start with collection of data (sorting out residual waste, comparing actual data with policy targets) and draw up plan for action; next they choose the most promising fractions or actions (f.i paper/cardboard, coarse domestic waste) </li></ul>
    30. 31. Instruments to enhance public participation <ul><li>Supply Information: continual publicity, promotion and education campaigns (waste is everyone’s responsibility), communicate (positive) results, regular consultation, waste calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Create Facilities: curbside collection, recycling centers, municipal depots (bulky domestic waste), banks for bottles/paper, refund systems, one size doesn’t fit all, sweeping/cleaning; </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement: inspections, tagging, warning letters, penalize and reward, face to face contact </li></ul>
    31. 32. Changing the attitude of citizens <ul><li>Social instruments used to change attitude of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Constant & large scale awareness campaigns begin 1990’s; “a better environment starts with your own behaviour” </li></ul><ul><li>Specific campaigns for: separate collection of : glass, paper, hazardous waste, bio waste, WEEE, textile, batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching programs on primary schools </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reaction: full cooperation in households AND in business (coherent behaviour !) </li></ul><ul><li>But: financial “drive” for waste reduction in business much larger than in households </li></ul>
    32. 33. Emphasis on improving waste behavior of households <ul><li>WHY </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous growth of volume of household waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing costs and thus increasing municipal tax </li></ul><ul><li>Post-separation of household waste has poor results </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore participation of citizens is indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>Neglecting the aspects prevention and separate collection for recycling could lead to less support, at home AND in offices, shops, factories, </li></ul><ul><li>Education of young people (new waste generators) necessary </li></ul>
    33. 34. How to improve waste behavior of households <ul><li>Specific mix of instruments: sticks, carrots, marketing, education </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks: variable charging of municipal waste tax. Risks: tax evasion (waste tourism), contaminated streams for recycling, litter, illegal dumping. Municipalities are free to choose: no national obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots: lowering the barriers, providing positive incentives, create facilities. Reward good behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality stimulates citizens, ministry gives support </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy arrangement “Reduction environmental impact”: 3.3 mln euro in 2006 for local projects to: improve separated waste collection & street litter abatement </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge-networks, benchmarks and tools </li></ul>
    34. 35. Improvement of local knowledge and expertise <ul><li>Agency SenterNovem (SN) carries out tasks for Ministry: </li></ul><ul><li>organises networks of municipal experts for: bulky household waste, variable charging, waste paper/cardboard, benchmarking waste separation </li></ul><ul><li>publishes a periodical with appealing examples of municipal actions </li></ul><ul><li>supports benchmark (learning to improve within the triangle of service, costs, environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: cost models available (costs & profits) for municipalities for collection of waste paper and glass </li></ul>
    35. 36. Better offers and marketing <ul><li>Offers . F.i.: additional curb side collection of Paper/cardboard, municipal yard for bulky household waste open on Saturday </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing . Improve internet selling of used articles. Second hand shops offer citizens to sell articles in consignment </li></ul><ul><li>Producer-responsibility organizations (f.i. for batteries) tempt people to bring batteries: much more collection points, lotteries for travel when 10 batteries are delivered, education projects </li></ul>
    36. 37. Concluding remarks <ul><li>An important barrier towards higher recycling rates is a cheap alternative </li></ul><ul><li>The economic scale of operation should not be hindered by the (small) scale of government </li></ul><ul><li>To keep the costs of waste management low, economic incentives should be introduced: competition, benchmark, transparency </li></ul>

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