Responsiveness To Intervention


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  • Responsiveness To Intervention

    1. 1. Responsiveness-To-Intervention: A New Method of Identifying Students with Disabilities Douglas Fuchs, Lynn Fuchs, Donald Compton and Joan Bryant Peabody College, Vanderbilt University and National Research Center on Learning Disabilities www. nrcld .org
    2. 2. Criticisms of Current Learning Disabilities Definition <ul><li>Too many children are inappropriately identified </li></ul><ul><li>Many children are classified as LD without participating in effective reading instruction in the regular classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Too costly </li></ul>
    3. 3. Criticisms of IQ-Achievement Discrepancy <ul><li>IQ tests do not necessarily measure intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>IQ and academic achievement are not independent of each other </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of word reading skill deficits, IQ-achievement discrepant poor readers are more alike than different from IQ-achievement consistent poor readers </li></ul><ul><li>Children must fail before they can be identified with a learning disability </li></ul>
    4. 4. OSEP LD Initiative <ul><li>Workgroup </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned papers </li></ul><ul><li>LD Summit </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher Roundtable </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Common Ground Roundtable </li></ul><ul><li>Funding the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Work with RRCs </li></ul>
    5. 5. Researcher Roundtable <ul><li>Response To Intervention: </li></ul><ul><li>There should be alternate ways to identify individuals with SLD in addition to achievement testing, history, and observations of the child. Response to quality intervention is the most promising method of alternate identification and can both promote effective practices in schools and help to close the gap between identification and treatment. Any effort to scale up response to intervention should be based on problem solving models that use progress monitoring to gauge the intensity of intervention in relation to the student’s response to intervention. Problem solving models have been shown to be effective in public school settings and in research. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is the Responsiveness To Intervention Approach to Identification? <ul><li>Many (all?) children in a class, school, or district are tested by one-point-in-time test administration or by repeated measurement in a circumscribed period. </li></ul><ul><li>“ At-risk” students are identified for intervention on the basis of their performance level or growth rate or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is implemented and students are tested following, or throughout, the intervention period. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who do not respond (“treatment resisters”) are identified as requiring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>─ Multi-disciplinary team evaluation for possible disability certification and special education placement, OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>─ More intensive intervention(s). </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention : Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention : Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with Intensive Needs ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE SUPPORT
    8. 8. Advantages of Responsiveness-To-Intervention Approach <ul><li>Provides assistance to needy children in timely fashion. It is NOT a wait-to-fail model. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps ensure that the student’s poor academic performance is not due to poor instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment data are collected to inform the teacher and improve instruction. Assessments and interventions are closely linked. </li></ul><ul><li>In some responsiveness-to-intervention models (e.g., Heartland, IA; Minneapolis, MN; Horry Co., SC), nonresponders are not given labels, which are presumed to stigmatize and to represent disability categories (e.g., LD, BD, MR) that have little instructional validity. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>RRC Work </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>National Research Center on Learning Disabilities
    10. 10. A Work in Progress Operationalizing the Standard Treatment Protocol Approach To Responsiveness-To-Intervention
    11. 11. Four Step Process <ul><li>Step 1: Screening (Responsibility: General Education and Special Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2a: Implementing General Education (Tier 1; Responsibility: General Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2b: Monitoring Responsiveness to General Education (Responsibility: General Education and Special Education) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Four Step Process (continued) <ul><li>Step 3a: Implementing a Supplementary, Diagnostic Instructional Trial (Tier 2; (Responsibility: General Education and Special Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3b: Monitoring Responsiveness to a Supplementary, Diagnostic Instructional Trial (Tier 2; Responsibility: General Education and Special Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Designation of Disability, Classification of Disability, and Special Education Placement (Responsibility: Special Education) </li></ul>
    13. 13. What does this look like? Case Studies
    14. 17. Frequently Asked Questions <ul><li>Will this process delay identification? </li></ul><ul><li>Does each child have to go through RTI or can a child have a traditional assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be required for professional development? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsibility for the various activities required to implement RTI as a method of LD identification? </li></ul>
    15. 18. Frequently Asked Questions (continued) <ul><li>How long will the Step 4 evaluation be and what professional is likely to give the Step 4 assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>What proportion of students is likely to be identified as at risk (for Tier 1 monitoring) and for the Tier 2 diagnostic trial? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there schools currently implementing RTI as a method of LD identification and, if so, how can I find learn more about their methods? </li></ul>
    16. 19. Questions
    17. 20. Special-ed-like instruction MacMaster/Fuchs <ul><li>Immediate corrective feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of content before moving on </li></ul><ul><li>More time on difficult activities </li></ul><ul><li>More opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals and self monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Special relationship with tutor </li></ul>