Resilience (Final)


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  • Resilience (Final)

    1. 1. Resilience Wales College Development Group 2006
    2. 2. Setting the scene <ul><li>‘ I have missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. On 26 occasions I have been entrusted to take the game-winning shot ... and I missed. I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that's precisely why I succeed .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Jordan, </li></ul><ul><li>US basketball player </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is resilience? <ul><li>‘… .qualities which cushion a vulnerable child from the worst effects of adversity, in whatever form it takes, and which may help a child or young person to cope, survive and even thrive in the face of great hurt and disadvantage. ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gilligan, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Resilient children are better equipped to resist stress and adversity, cope with change and uncertainty, and to recover faster and more completely from traumatic events or episodes.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Newman and Blackburn, 2002 </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is resilience? <ul><li>In other words … </li></ul><ul><li>a positive ability to respond to stress </li></ul><ul><li>the capacity to ‘bounce back’ from circumstances where we would expect cognitive or functional abilities to be impaired </li></ul><ul><li>positive developmental outcomes despite exposure to incontrovertible adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Came to notice because children with very similar histories / backgrounds were seen to have different outcomes. </li></ul>
    5. 5. A natural process <ul><li>Like resistance to infection, it develops naturally in response to challenging situations. Managed exposure to risk is competency-enhancing. </li></ul><ul><li>But only if …. </li></ul><ul><li>the level of risk the child is exposed to is reasonable </li></ul><ul><li>the child has adequate coping skills </li></ul><ul><li>conversely, the child is not ‘insulated’ by too much support </li></ul>
    6. 6. Some theory <ul><li>+ve assets (eg. economic advantage) </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTED </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><li>-ve risks (eg. homelessness, violence, low birth weight) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Low social-economic status depresses development, even after a good start
    8. 8. Some theory <ul><li>+ve assets (eg. economic advantage) </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTED </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES protective factors </li></ul><ul><li>-ve risks (eg. homelessness, violence, low birth weight) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Some theory <ul><li>+ve assets (eg. economic advantage) </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTED </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL vulnerability factors </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><li>-ve risks (eg. homelessness, violence, low birth weight) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why are WE interested in it? <ul><li>Because we know …. </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience is associated with better long-term outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic adversity / daily hassles (eg. serious and continuous conflict or drug-using parents) is more likely to have a long-term effect on development than acute episodes of stress (eg. parental separation or loss). </li></ul>
    11. 11. Why are WE interested in it? <ul><li>Because we know …. </li></ul><ul><li>LAC are likely to have faced chronic adversity as a result of the reason for their accommodation (and subsequently living away from home) and fewer resilience-promoting factors. So resilience is even more strongly associated with better outcomes for these children. </li></ul><ul><li>Return home will bring significant changes for the child, as well as anxiety and disputes. The chances of successful reunification improve if the child has good resilience. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Why are WE interested in it? <ul><li>‘ Some children who face stressful, high risk situations fare well in life, but their chances of doing so depend on the extent to which the risk factors in their lives are balanced by protective factors, both individual and environmental. </li></ul><ul><li>… If we look at the experience of children in local authority care from a risk and resilience perspective, we can see that there are present in most of these children’s lives an overwhelming preponderance of risk factors. By the time they reach adolescence, unless there are strong countervailing protective factors or processes, the odds against them are simply too high.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson and Martin, 1998 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Why are WE interested in it? <ul><li>‘ Resilience ….may be seen as the essential quality which care planning and provision should seek to stimulate as a key outcome of the care offered.’ </li></ul><ul><li> Gilligan, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Where adversities are short-term, or where powerful protective factors are present, around two-thirds of children appear to survive adversities without serious developmental harm.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    14. 14. A bit more theory <ul><li>vulnerability resilience </li></ul><ul><li>There are intrinsic ( internal ) factors that shape a child’s level of resilience or vulnerability. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are repeatedly found: </li></ul><ul><li>a secure base (belonging, identity, security) </li></ul><ul><li>strong self-esteem (worth, importance, competence) </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of self-efficacy (mastery and control of our life, understanding of personal strengths and limitations) </li></ul>
    15. 15. A bit more theory <ul><li>protective There are external factors that </li></ul><ul><li>environment shape the extent to which the child is protected from adversity. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are repeatedly found: </li></ul><ul><li>- at least 1 secure attachment </li></ul><ul><li>- wider supports (eg. extended </li></ul><ul><li> family, positive peer relationships) </li></ul><ul><li>- positive school and/or community </li></ul><ul><li>adverse experiences </li></ul><ul><li>environment </li></ul>
    16. 16. A bit more theory <ul><li>protective environment </li></ul><ul><li>vulnerability resilience </li></ul><ul><li> adverse environment </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 dimensions interact … for example, a protective environment boosts intrinsic resilience. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Three ecological levels <ul><li>The child is ‘nested’ within a complex network </li></ul>child child family relationships wider community
    18. 18. Assessing resilience <ul><li>6 domains </li></ul><ul><li>secure base : strong attachments, belonging, identity </li></ul><ul><li>education : curiosity about the environment and support for cognitive development and stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>friendships : strong relationships, ability to make / keep friends, an environment that encourages this </li></ul>
    19. 19. Assessing resilience <ul><li>6 domains </li></ul><ul><li>self-esteem : feelings of success from talents, interests and aptitudes, encouragement for their development </li></ul><ul><li>positive values : capacity for empathy, helpfulness, caring and can inhibit -ve actions (‘prosocial behaviour’) </li></ul><ul><li>social competencies : self-efficacy, autonomy, self control, attention and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>See also checklist at annex A. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Planning for resilience <ul><li>6 top tips </li></ul><ul><li>interventions are needed in all 3 ecological levels (but it’s particularly important to build a protective network around the child by working on family relationships and the wider community) </li></ul><ul><li>empower and collaborate with existing ‘assets’ (eg. extended family, neighbours, schools, friends, community members and clubs) – only add professional support when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>use strengths in 1 domain to boost weaknesses in another (eg. a significant adult to nurture a talent) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Planning for resilience <ul><li>6 top tips </li></ul><ul><li>make sure you are taking steps to do all of the following: i) eliminate / reduce risks, ii) improve access to / strengthen assets, iii) address what’s missing </li></ul><ul><li>use transition points (education, biological or legal) – these can be threats to resilience but opportunities too </li></ul><ul><li>interventions have the greatest restorative power in the pre-school years, but interventions at any age can make a significant difference to resilience if they are age appropriate </li></ul>
    22. 22. Planning for resilience <ul><li>Adults who, as children, were exposed to many of the risk factors for CD or ASB but who proved to be ‘resilient’ frequently mention an individual adult who influenced their life as a young person. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ When children themselves are asked what helped them to ‘succeed against the odds’ the most frequently mentioned factors are help from members of their extended families, peers, neighbours or informal mentors … We must be careful not to under-value these non-professional sources .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, 2004 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Planning for resilience <ul><li>‘ The weight of evidence suggests that building parenting or carer capacity is, overall, the most important source of leverage in the early and middle years. Strategies which just focus on the child, or the broader community, are likely to prove less successful than those which recognise the importance of the child’s immediate family.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, 2004 </li></ul>
    24. 24. Planning for resilience <ul><li>For LAC particularly </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively few assets? insecure base? ‘deviant’ behaviours or beliefs (eg. extreme self reliance)? poor educational experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>secure attachment to foster carers </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining links with birth family </li></ul><ul><li>intense investment in educational programmes </li></ul><ul><li>access to the job market (or networks that increase the likelihood of training or employment) </li></ul>
    25. 25. What works Ability to re-frame experiences more positively and be active Teaching coping strategies and being helped to re-frame Greater adult stability and increased income Opportunities for education and careers Counters belief in ever-present risk Exposure to demands with opportunity to succeed in valued tasks Promotes self-esteem and self-efficacy Compensatory experiences Breaks ‘chain’ effects Contact with others who can provide activities / opportunities for work Reduction in exposure to and impact of parental conflict Contact with a reliable and supportive other Less sensitive to risk and more able to cope with demands Demanding and challenging activities Benefits to children and YP All developmental stages
    26. 26. What works: early years <ul><li>build a network of social support for isolated mothers </li></ul><ul><li>access to learning materials and toys </li></ul><ul><li>parent education to improve the quality of care-giving </li></ul><ul><li>work focused on helping the child feel more secure </li></ul><ul><li>develop self-control, attention and prosocial behaviours </li></ul>
    27. 27. What works: 5 – 13 years <ul><li>positive first experience at school (key protective factor) </li></ul><ul><li>strong home-school links and parent/carer involvement in education </li></ul><ul><li>mobilise community resources (eg. clubs, leisure facilities) to expose children to a range of pursuits, nurture friendships and provide a sense of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to make a valued contribution within the home </li></ul>
    28. 28. What works: 14 years + <ul><li>build positive attachment relationships with competent adults </li></ul><ul><li>engagement of male partners </li></ul><ul><li>nurture particular skills and talents </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities to fulfil a valued social role with responsibility (eg. part-time work, roles in the home, a school project, community voluntary work) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Closing thoughts <ul><li>‘ People are like stained-glass windows. They sparkle and shine when the sun is out, but when the darkness sets in, their beauty is revealed only if there is a light from within .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrist and author (‘On death and dying’) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius, </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese thinker and philosopher, 500BC </li></ul>