Pervasive & Ubiquitous


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  • Pervasive & Ubiquitous

    1. 1. Pervasive & Ubiquitous Computing Hao Chu ( 朱浩華 ) Lecture #1 2/16/2004
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Faculty Intro </li></ul><ul><li>Student Intro </li></ul><ul><li>What is Pervasive / Ubiquitous Computing? </li></ul><ul><li>Course Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Course Format </li></ul><ul><li>Course Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Grading </li></ul>
    3. 3. Faculty Intro <ul><li>New assistant professor (8/1/2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD (1999), Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS (1994), Computer Science, Cornell University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous Work Experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTT DoCoMo USA Labs </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Students Intro <ul><li>Please tell us about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current (future) research area, interests, and faculty advisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background (rating: good, fair, none) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English (reading, writing, and speaking) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programming skills (C/C++, Java) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems (OS or distributed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User Interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>What is pervasive & ubiquitous computing (ubicomp)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous = 到處存在的 ; 遍在的 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread computing, computing appearing and happening everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to realize ubicomp? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move beyond desktop computing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embed computing into everyday objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate (seamlessly connecting) physical objects with virtual environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking everyday objects. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Toward Smart Everyday Objects <ul><li>Door can greet you by name upon entering. </li></ul><ul><li>Wall can sense temperature, humidity, lighting, and adjust air conditioning, de-humidifier, lighting accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar can tell you meeting schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>Pencils can record everything you write. </li></ul><ul><li>Book shelf can tell you the location of the book/paper you need. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers update news (according to your interests) every morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerator can offer recipes and dietary recommendation. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes can show the latest fashion or monitor your physical/mental health. </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine cabinet can remind you when to take medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>Dresser can give you fashion advices. </li></ul><ul><li>Washing machines and dryers adjust to washing & drying instructions on dirty clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card will warn if you are spending too much money. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Ubicomp is the Future … <ul><li>“ The (Computing) World is not a desktop!” ... Mark Weiser </li></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp is how computing will (should) be used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in everyday activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>invisibly through embedding in the physical objects (requiring little user attention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to create smart, everyday objects through interconnections and cooperation (with other smart objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ A billion people interacting with a million e-businesses through a trillion interconnected intelligent devices.” IBM Chairman (1993 ~ 2002) Lou Gerstner </li></ul>
    8. 8. Related Fields of Ubicomp <ul><li>How does Ubicomp come about? (the evolution path) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Computing (PC + networks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges: performance, scalability, server or network failures, open networks, performance, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile computing (Mobile devices + wireless networks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges: resource-limitation, unpredictable network, power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubicomp (Everyday objects + wireless networks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges: understanding user intention, heterogeneous ubicomp environments, invisible user experience, more .. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Course Topics (Tentative) <ul><li>Vision & challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Software infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Context-aware computing </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous data access </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Social computing </li></ul><ul><li>Project Aura </li></ul><ul><li>Project Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>(Wearable Computing) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Course Objective <ul><li>To prepare us ( students and faculty ) for research in ubicomp. </li></ul><ul><li>(Try to) duplicate experience from similar courses taught at MIT, Stanford, CMU, and Georgia Tech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by reading papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define problems & challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand state-of-art techniques & solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify limitations of state-of-art solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by doing projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The project must have a research component. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Collaborative Learning <ul><li>This is a research seminar course , so everyone (faculty and students) will contribute to the learning process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp is a new, fast changing field, so faculty may not know all materials! </li></ul>
    12. 12. (Unusual) Course Format <ul><li>Each lecture will discuss 4~5 papers on a specific topic. </li></ul><ul><li>For each paper, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenter will write a summary of the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenter will give an overview of the paper for 20 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone will join the discussion for 10 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I will be the presenter for the papers in the first two lectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will sign up for papers for presentation. </li></ul>
    13. 13. How to read a paper? <ul><li>For each paper, try to answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the current state-of-the-art? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the key make-a-difference (new) method and technique? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is good/bad/ugly about this make-a-difference method? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What has actually been done? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the future work? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(This may not apply to vision & challenges papers.) </li></ul>
    14. 14. SWIFI <ul><li>We will setup a swifi website (collaborative website). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assigned presenter must post presentation slides and paper summary on swifi course page before the lecture starts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assigned presenter will post a discussion summary on the swifi course page after the lecture ends. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Next Week Reading <ul><li>Mark Weiser. &quot;Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing.&quot; Communications of the ACM, July 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Weiser. “Some computer science issues in ubiquitous computing.” Communications of the ACM, 36(7):75-85, July 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Weiser, John S. Brown. &quot;The Coming Age of Calm Technology.&quot; 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Satyanarayanan. &quot;Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing&quot;, Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, May 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Satyanarayanan. “Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges”, In: IEEE Personal Communications. Carnegie Mellon University. (2001). </li></ul>
    16. 16. Reading Sources <ul><li>See Goyal list from </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine (8 Issues) </li></ul><ul><li>ACM Ubicomp, ACM Mobisys, ACM Mobicom, ACM Mobihoc, ACM Sensys, IEEE Percom, Pervasive, SOSP, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be in any system & networking conferences, UI conferences, etc. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Project Component <ul><li>Do a rapid prototype of an ubicomp application in one semester. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: project idea presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun, realizable within one semester time framework and computing equipments, has a research component. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: project proposal document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form teams, define goals, plan, and needed equipments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: project working prototype and final report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working prototype demonstration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project report detailing motivation, objective, related work, design, implementation, and evaluation. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Project Ideas <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia Tech “Mobile & Ubiquitous Computing” (Gregory Abowd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT Pervasive Computing (Larry Rudolph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMU “Mobile Computing Systems & Applications” (Satya) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford “Mobile and Wireless Networks & Applications” (Mary Baker) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE Pervasive Magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education & Training articles by Scott F. Midkiff </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Project Idea (1) Library Navigation System <ul><li>It can guide a user to the shelf location of a book from a mobile device (shortest path to all books). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor location estimation system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can help a librarian find misplaced books on bookshelves from a mobile device. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID tags on books </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Project Idea (2) Ubicomp Games <ul><li>Players’ physical context drives the games. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Players interact with the games and other players in both physical and virtual spaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical world interactions are the “cool/innovative aspects” (differs from PC-based games). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Hide and Seek” (Nottingham): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runaways and policemen carry GPS-enabled cell phones in a city. Both can see their “approximate locations” on a city map. Policemen run around in a city to catch the runaways (caught if come within some small distance). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Ubicomp Doom” (MIT): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game is projected on the wall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No mouse and keyboard -> player’s physical movement moves the virtual player. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Project Idea (3) Location-based Publish & Subscribe Systems <ul><li>A user can use a mobile device to publish & subscribe location-based messages using a mixture of Ad-hoc, WLAN, and Cellular Networks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice of network depends on attributes of messages (priority, time, byte size, spatial size) and availability of networks. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Project Idea (4) Classroom Mood Ring (GATech) <ul><li>Rings (worn by lecturer or/and audience) change color based on the mood of audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide hints to lecturer as to whether audiences are bored, lost, etc. (without asking questions). </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Possible Gadgets & Equipments <ul><li>HP IPAQ 5500 (Bluetooth + 802.11) </li></ul><ul><li>IPAQ Accessories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion pack, camera, memory card, GPS, GPRS, .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light, tilt, temperature, accelerometer, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philgets RFID kits </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley Motes </li></ul><ul><li>Projector </li></ul><ul><li>802.11 AP ( SW location estimation) </li></ul><ul><li>Use your imagination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything you can find on the network or from your own lab … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, budget may be limited  </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Project Result Dissemination <ul><li>Equipments & gadgets are expensive, so I am looking for corporate funding. In return for their $$$, companies may want to see </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports made freely available to them & on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working prototype demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming platforms may be restricted (e.g., MS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anyone has a problem with this? </li></ul><ul><li>These equipments will be on-loan to students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will return them to me in working conditions at the end of course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So be very careful with them! </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Grading (Tentative) <ul><li>Class Participation (30%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of paper presentation, paper summary, and discussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project (70%) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Course Requisites <ul><li>Class attendance (MUST!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please don’t register if you cannot wake up in the morning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good programming skill </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems & networking background </li></ul><ul><li>Some creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Some research experience (if you are not my students) </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to spend extra time & efforts than what a regular course would need </li></ul><ul><li>M1 and undergrads, please come & talk with me after the class. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Course Homepage (is not up yet.) <ul><li>I will setup a link from my homepage </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>(Click on course link) </li></ul><ul><li>Check on Wednesday </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for Course Announcements </li></ul><ul><li>Download papers </li></ul>
    28. 28. Thank you