Marketing Essentials


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Marketing Essentials

  1. 1. Marketing Essentials Section 24.2 Inventory Control  Chapter 24 Stock Handling and Inventory Control
  2. 2. SECTION 24.2 What You'll Learn Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>The concept of inventory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of inventory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit and dollar control of inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to calculate stock turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of stock management of basic, model stock, and never-out lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of technology on inventory systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Why It's Important <ul><ul><li>The inventory a business owns represents money tied up in products until the inventory is sold. Since inventory is a large part of the total investment of a business, well-managed and controlled inventories increase the profits of a business. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Key Terms <ul><ul><li>inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>just-in-time inventory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perpetual inventory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical inventory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tickler control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dollar control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unit control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stockkeeping unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic stock list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>model stock list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never-out list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time inventory system </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Inventory refers to an amount of goods stored, including raw materials, purchased components, manufactured sub assemblies, works in process, packaging materials, and finished goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory management is the process of buying and storing products for sale while controlling costs for ordering, shipping, handling, and storage. </li></ul></ul>Inventory Management Slide 1 of 2
  6. 6. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Inventory Management A just-in-time inventory system is an arrangement in which suppliers deliver parts and raw materials just before they are needed for production. Plants keep only small stocks on hand to avoid tying up money and inventory space. Slide 2 of 2
  7. 7. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Inventory Systems <ul><ul><li>All merchandise bought and sold must be tracked to gain the information needed for effective inventory management. Two methods of tracking inventory are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the perpetual inventory system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the physical inventory system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Perpetual Inventory System <ul><ul><li>A perpetual inventory system tracks the number of items in inventory on a constant basis, as sales occur. There are two strategies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual Systems Employees gather paper records of sales and enter the information into the inventory system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Based Systems A point-of-sale terminal automatically feeds sales transaction data directly into a computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Under a physical inventory system , stock is visually inspected or actually counted to determine the quantity on hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Control Used to monitor physical inventory levels. Stock cards specify the number of each item to be kept on hand. </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Inventory System Slide 1 of 2
  10. 10. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><ul><li>Tickler Control A small portion of the inventory is physically counted each day so that the entire inventory is accounted for on a regular basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual Inventory Count Inventory is physically counted once a year. Most businesses do this. </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Inventory System Slide 2 of 2
  11. 11. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Many businesses use both inventory systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The perpetual system gives an up-to-date inventory record throughout the year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical system gives an accurate count that can be compared to the perpetual records to identify errors or problems. </li></ul></ul>Using Both Systems
  12. 12. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Stock control involves monitoring stock levels and investments in stock so that a business is run efficiently. Planning and monitoring stock levels requires the use of several different systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dollar vs. unit control methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stock turnover calculations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>three stock lists (model, basic, and never-out) </li></ul></ul></ul>Stock Control
  13. 13. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Dollar control represents the planning and monitoring of the total inventory investment that a business makes. This information helps a business determine its net profit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit control refers to the quantities of merchandise that a business handles. This information helps a business make better merchandising decisions. </li></ul></ul>Dollar vs. Unit Control Slide 1 of 2
  14. 14. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control In a unit control inventory system, each item or group of related items is referred to as a stockkeeping unit (sku) . Tracking the skus shows which items (including which sizes and colors) are successful and which are not selling. This system also helps show when a product needs to be ordered. Dollar vs. Unit Control Slide 2 of 2
  15. 15. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Stock turnover is the number of times the average inventory has been sold and replaced in a given period of time. High turnover rates mean higher profit for the business because its money is not tied up in inventory. Stock Turnover Slide 1 of 2
  16. 16. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Stock turnover rate is computed as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net sales (in retail dollars) Average inventory on hand (in retail dollars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When only cost information is available, calculate stock turnover this way: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of goods sold Average inventory on hand (at cost) </li></ul></ul></ul>Stock Turnover Slide 2 of 2
  17. 17. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>There are three plans used to monitor different kinds of stock. They are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic stock list—for staple items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>model stock list—for fashion items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>never-out list—for very popular items </li></ul></ul></ul>Stock Lists Slide 1 of 4
  18. 18. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Buyers use basic stock lists to plan purchases and keep track of items that should always be in stock. Where on this list is the stockkeeping unit (sku)? If you ran a retail store, what kind of items would be on your basic stock list? Basic Stock List Slide 2 of 4 October Sales November Sales December Sales Stock Description Size Packing Units Cost Retail Min. Stock This Year Last Year This Year This Year Last Year Last Year 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 Skippy Peanut Butter Skippy Peanut Butter Skippy Peanut Butter Jif Peanut Butter Jif Peanut Butter Jif Peanut Butter 32 oz. 32 oz. 18 oz. 18 oz. 12 oz. 12 oz. 24 24 24 24 24 24 4 8 8 4 8 8
  19. 19. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control Buyers use model stock lists for fashion merchandise. How and why does this type of list differ from a basic stock list in form and content? Why would it be more difficult to maintain accurate model stock lists than basic stock lists? Model Stock List Slide 3 of 4 PRODUCT CLASS ____________________________________________________ SEASON ____________________________ Specific Styles General Styles Price Range Color Size 6 Size 8 Size 10 Size 12 Size 14 Total Units Blouse Blouse Sleeveless Tailored Short-sleeve Oversize $25 $35 White Black Blue Pink Orange 12 12 12 24 24 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 3 5 5 2 2 2 4 4 Misses Sportswear Spring
  20. 20. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>A never-out list is used for best-selling products that make up a large percentage of sales volume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : A video rental store will keep a popular movie on the never-out list and keep a large quantity of it in the store. Later, more popular titles will replace it. </li></ul></ul>Stock Lists Slide 4 of 4
  21. 21. SECTION 24.2 Inventory Control <ul><ul><li>Technology is quickly changing the way stock is handled and controlled. In particular, retailers use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UPCs to capture sku-level information at the point of sale. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard electronic data interchange (EDI) transactions for electronic B2B communication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized shipping container marking (SCM) to quickly identify cases and their contents. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Impact of Technology on Inventory Management
  22. 22. 24.2 A SSESSMENT Reviewing Key Terms and Concepts <ul><ul><li>1. What is inventory management and why is it important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Explain the concept of just-in-time inventory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Name the two different types of inventory systems used for inventory management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. What is the difference between dollar control and unit control as they relate to inventory management? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. What is stock turnover? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 24.2 A SSESSMENT Thinking Critically <ul><ul><li>Do you think a just-in-time inventory control system could be used in a retail or wholesale operation? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 24.2 Graphic Organizer Inventory Systems Perpetual Inventory System Tracks inventory on a constant basis, giving an up-to-date record throughout the year. Physical Inventory System Stock is visually inspected or counted to determine actual inventory. Business can use both systems, comparing physical records to perpetual records to identify problems. Manual System Computer Based System Visual Control Tickler Control Annual Inventory
  25. 25. End of Section 24.2 Marketing Essentials