Towards  GENDER    Equality      Gender Mainstreaming   Women’s Empowerment   Poverty , Pro poor Policies , MDGs 2007
Sequences <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty has a gendered face/MDGs </li></ul><ul><li>Data & Recommendations ...
Gender Mainstreaming: <ul><li>The  process  of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, includi...
Women’s Empowerment <ul><li>Complementary strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Women as caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Women as careta...
Caregivers <ul><li>Daughters, wives, mothers, women have primary responsibility for the care & nurturing of families </li>...
Caretakers <ul><li>Women are the main caretakers of the world’s most precious natural resources: water, soil, biomass ener...
Providers :  Women’s work <ul><li>+ household responsibilities: women are economically active </li></ul><ul><li>Family far...
Paradox <ul><li>Women comprise over 50% of the world’s population, account for nearly 2/3 of all hours spent working-for w...
Facts & Figures source: UN Statistical Office  <ul><li>Formal sector: World average: women receive 30%-40% less than men f...
Decision Makers <ul><li>Support workers </li></ul><ul><li>Management 10%-30% </li></ul><ul><li>Politics:  legislators, cab...
Agents of Change <ul><li>Men and Women are equal partners </li></ul><ul><li>There is no other way to live </li></ul>
Paradoxes :  women’s poor status <ul><li>Women were , are the healers,  but seldom  the healed </li></ul><ul><li>Women wer...
Paradoxes <ul><li>Women headed  1/ 3 households, but often had, have  the legal status of children </li></ul><ul><li>Has «...
MDGs  Engendered ?? <ul><li>MDG 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger </li></ul><ul><li>MDG 3:  Promote gender equality& ...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender inequality  distorts women’s access to assets: ( women do not have legal rig...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Unequal distribution of resources within the family: ( traditions, nutrition, boys ...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Women are constrained by time  poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal  distribution of c...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender equality in capabilities & access to opportunities can accelerate economic g...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender equality in farms inputs helps increase agricultural production & reduce pov...
Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Gender disaggregated data on poverty </li></...
Poverty has an engendered face   Lets Measure It. <ul><li>% of women headed-households </li></ul><ul><li>& of women below ...
Poverty has an engendered face  Lets Measure It  <ul><li>Growth rate of share in wage employment </li></ul><ul><li>Share o...
Poverty has an engendered face  Lets Measure It <ul><li>Women’s ownership of land and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Access a...
Poverty has an engendered face  Lets Measure It <ul><li>Patriachy & women’s subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic viole...
Poverty has an engendered face   Lets Measure It <ul><li>Rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues </li></u...
Poverty has an engendered face  Lets Measure It   <ul><li>Daily collection of fuel, fodder & water  </li></ul><ul><li>( im...
Poverty has an engendered face  Lets Measure It   <ul><li>Recent moves towards pricing & cost recovery as measures for wat...
Regional issues:  gender dimension Globalization  source: CAWTAR <ul><li>FDI ( F direct investment )not always targeting s...
Regional issues:  gender dimension Globalization  source: CAWTAR <ul><li>Arab Women labour force participation is the lowe...
Regional issues:  gender dimension Globalization  source: CAWTAR <ul><li>Gender specific dimensions in under employment </...
Recommendations <ul><li>Review pro-poor policies & programs </li></ul><ul><li>Legal, social and economical empowerment pac...
Recommendations  <ul><li>Stakeholders: macro-meso and micro addressing gender dimensions for conducive empowerment </li></...
CONVENTIONS  Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>CEDWA & Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate discrimination against w...
Conventions  Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Ensure men and women equality in all areas of economic and social li...
Conventions  Accountability - Lets measure it  <ul><li>Ensure rural women enjoy adequate living conditions, especially in ...
Conventions  Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Gender based  methodologies  and research to address the feminizatio...
Conventions  Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Integrate gender perspectives in legislation, public policies , prog...
Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender Equality &  </li></ul><ul><li>Links to Poverty </li></ul>
Opportunity for Improved economic conditions <ul><li>Barriers:   </li></ul><ul><li>Gender difference in the impact of econ...
Opportunity for Improved economic conditions <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting economic growth <...
Capacity: Enhanced human capital & quality of life <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access to education </li></u...
Capacity: Enhanced human capital & quality of life <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Access to education <...
Security: Greater Economic & Physical Security  <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to economic risk </li></u...
Security: Greater Economic & Physical Security <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Helping poor women & men ...
Empowerment : Increased political participation & gender equality  <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions not acc...
Empowerment : Increased political participation & gender equality <ul><li>Potential Interventions : governance </li></ul><...
Challenges & Opportunities   Lets measure it     <ul><li>Accountability : UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>Are the gender dimensions...
References <ul><li>CF: GMRU UNDP documents </li></ul><ul><li>Gender mobile resource unit </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jocelyne Talbot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  SURF-AS </li></ul><ul><li>  Gender Policy Advisor <...
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Jocelyne Gm Poverty Presentation

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Jocelyne Gm Poverty Presentation

  1. 1. Towards GENDER Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women’s Empowerment Poverty , Pro poor Policies , MDGs 2007
  2. 2. Sequences <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty has a gendered face/MDGs </li></ul><ul><li>Data & Recommendations : Impact of globalization & Gender “ economic participation of Arab Women </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality & Links to Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges & Opportunities :UNDP COs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gender Mainstreaming: <ul><li>The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.” </li></ul><ul><li>(The ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Women’s Empowerment <ul><li>Complementary strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Women as caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Women as caretakers </li></ul><ul><li>Women as providers </li></ul><ul><li>Women as decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Women as agents of changes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Caregivers <ul><li>Daughters, wives, mothers, women have primary responsibility for the care & nurturing of families </li></ul><ul><li>For the child care & elder-care & disabled, sick </li></ul><ul><li>For the nutrition, health care, first educators, main household laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Roles expand: provision of services/education, health, domestic work, women are providers more often than recipients of such services </li></ul>
  6. 6. Caretakers <ul><li>Women are the main caretakers of the world’s most precious natural resources: water, soil, biomass energy ( trees, grasses, crop residues & dung. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary gatherers & users of water, fuel, primary producers of food crops for home consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Choices made by them ( knowledge of resources) key role ecological survival. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Providers : Women’s work <ul><li>+ household responsibilities: women are economically active </li></ul><ul><li>Family farm; family business ( often without pay nor recognition of contribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Earn income as employees, self employed entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Critical role: economic survival of family </li></ul><ul><li>Head of family </li></ul>
  8. 8. Paradox <ul><li>Women comprise over 50% of the world’s population, account for nearly 2/3 of all hours spent working-for which they receive only 1/3 of the world’s income- and own less than 1% of the world property </li></ul><ul><li>Source: WB </li></ul>
  9. 9. Facts & Figures source: UN Statistical Office <ul><li>Formal sector: World average: women receive 30%-40% less than men for doing the same jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Informal sector: Majority of 300 million people working & Majority women </li></ul><ul><li>Unaccounted labour: work in the home or unpaid work for family enterprise ,farms could account + 4 trillions annually </li></ul>
  10. 10. Decision Makers <ul><li>Support workers </li></ul><ul><li>Management 10%-30% </li></ul><ul><li>Politics: legislators, cabinets, heads of gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>3-to 10% ceiling) </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Representation ( need 35-50% to reach parity) </li></ul><ul><li>Development agencies 5% + only </li></ul><ul><li>Community organizations/& voluntary sector </li></ul>
  11. 11. Agents of Change <ul><li>Men and Women are equal partners </li></ul><ul><li>There is no other way to live </li></ul>
  12. 12. Paradoxes : women’s poor status <ul><li>Women were , are the healers, but seldom the healed </li></ul><ul><li>Women were, are the educators , often illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Women were , are the food producers, but not the landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Women were are the small business persons but have no credit </li></ul>
  13. 13. Paradoxes <ul><li>Women headed 1/ 3 households, but often had, have the legal status of children </li></ul><ul><li>Has « development «worked for women» </li></ul><ul><li>Has pro-poor policies, planning , programs worked for women? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the current measurements capturing </li></ul><ul><li>realities, strategic and practical needs </li></ul>
  14. 14. MDGs Engendered ?? <ul><li>MDG 1 : Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger </li></ul><ul><li>MDG 3: Promote gender equality& empower women </li></ul><ul><li>MDG 7 : Ensure women environmental sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Others: # 2 education # 4 child mortality </li></ul><ul><li># 5 maternal health # 6 HIV # 8 global partnership </li></ul>
  15. 15. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender inequality distorts women’s access to assets: ( women do not have legal rights to land and property: access to credit, decent work & assured income) </li></ul><ul><li>Distorts access to public goods and services that are designed to improve well being : engaging in the public sphere? opportunities ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Unequal distribution of resources within the family: ( traditions, nutrition, boys first) </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access to employment is engendered ( discrimination with lower wages in job market & informal sector </li></ul><ul><li>Formal sector: pattern of discrimination $ and scale </li></ul>
  17. 17. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Women are constrained by time poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal distribution of care work </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of chances & opportunities for education & employment & constraints their involvement in « development «  </li></ul><ul><li>Feminisation of poverty  </li></ul>
  18. 18. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender equality in capabilities & access to opportunities can accelerate economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access for women to basic transport & energy infrastructure ( clean cooking fuels ) can lead to greater economic activitiy. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender equality in farms inputs helps increase agricultural production & reduce poverty because women farmers form a significant proportion of the rural poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal investment in women’s health & nutritional status reduces chronic hunger, malnourishment and will increase prooductivity & well being </li></ul>
  20. 20. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Gender disaggregated data on poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable groups: Gender disaggregated data : cycle of life/minority, disabilities, youth, single household etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Localising poverty indicators ( gender sensitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data and connections : poverty, gender equality & other goals </li></ul><ul><li>Money trail ( allocations of budget ( poverty programs) Costing engedered MDGs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It. <ul><li>% of women headed-households </li></ul><ul><li>& of women below poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>Income/earning.wages .Earnings by level of education,/sector of employment /age </li></ul><ul><li>Labour participation/economic activity rate </li></ul><ul><li>Employment/unemployment rates by sex/sector/age/education/marital status </li></ul>
  22. 22. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Growth rate of share in wage employment </li></ul><ul><li>Share of women entrepreneurs/owners of business </li></ul><ul><li>Share of women in public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Time spent at work </li></ul><ul><li>Access to social services/pensions/ credit </li></ul>
  23. 23. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Women’s ownership of land and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Access and control; of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of women in police, law making( human security/order) & policy-making bodies </li></ul>
  24. 24. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Patriachy & women’s subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Gender biaises in customary laws </li></ul><ul><li>Gender biaises in laws </li></ul><ul><li>Linkages: Women’s role in market economy & violence </li></ul>
  25. 25. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>Poor households are dependent for survival on common property resources </li></ul><ul><li>Women are the main users of the resources </li></ul><ul><li>Women are often engaged in survival agriculture on common lands ( impact due to environmental degradation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Daily collection of fuel, fodder & water </li></ul><ul><li>( impact on girls education ) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary managers of domestic energy resources ( non availability of clean fuel etc.-health impact and $) </li></ul><ul><li>Women bear the brunt of natural disasters ( caring of family in disaster- excluded of the decision making) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Poverty has an engendered face Lets Measure It <ul><li>Recent moves towards pricing & cost recovery as measures for water conservation have contributed to women’s poverty ( $ or walk to unsafe source) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sanitation facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Women in urban settlements have different priorities for services & infrastructure ( mobility, security, excluded from urban planning </li></ul>
  28. 28. Regional issues: gender dimension Globalization source: CAWTAR <ul><li>FDI ( F direct investment )not always targeting sectors where female labour is likely to grow: (ex.$ goes to chemicals, petrochemicals , materials, (M )and less goes to textile and leather (W ) </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle trend to encourage Arab women to withdraw from the labour force ( also outside of region) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Regional issues: gender dimension Globalization source: CAWTAR <ul><li>Arab Women labour force participation is the lowest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Arab Region = 35.6 % Africa 62.5 %: </li></ul><ul><li>Asia 45.2%; Latin A:45.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Women prefer public sector/ fragile –restructuring-negative impact </li></ul><ul><li>Self employment :the less risky( home-based waged employment )? Micro credit? Access??? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Regional issues: gender dimension Globalization source: CAWTAR <ul><li>Gender specific dimensions in under employment </li></ul><ul><li>Women illiteracy higher than men </li></ul><ul><li>Education of women : related to market needs </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s participation in public life: LOW </li></ul><ul><li>Limited potential to contribute to changes </li></ul>
  31. 31. Recommendations <ul><li>Review pro-poor policies & programs </li></ul><ul><li>Legal, social and economical empowerment package </li></ul><ul><li>Review social security and tax regulations as women individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Address Arab Women unemployment and under employment </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access for women and men to affordable credit, production –enhancing technology and market relevant training skills </li></ul>
  32. 32. Recommendations <ul><li>Stakeholders: macro-meso and micro addressing gender dimensions for conducive empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Civil societies, trade unions to address gender dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Gender sensitive measurements: qualitative & quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Gender sensitive pro poor policies </li></ul>
  33. 33. CONVENTIONS Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>CEDWA & Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate discrimination against women to ensure the same rights for men and women ( C11) </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure rural women equal treatment in land reform and access to agriculture credit , loans, marketing facilities and technology ( C14.2) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Conventions Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Ensure men and women equality in all areas of economic and social life, and in particular the same rights to bank loans and all forms of financial credit ( C13.b) </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure equality between men and women in marriage and family life and in particular the same rights in ownership, acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property </li></ul><ul><li>( C14,3) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Conventions Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Ensure rural women enjoy adequate living conditions, especially in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity & water supply an transport and communications ( C 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide business services, training and access to markets, information& technology, particularly to low income women (B F3) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conventions Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Gender based methodologies and research to address the feminization of poverty ( B,A4) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate working conditions, & control over economic resources ( B F1) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Conventions Accountability - Lets measure it <ul><li>Integrate gender perspectives in legislation, public policies , programmes, and projects ( B-H2) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate gender concerns & perspectives in policies for sustainable development ( B K2) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Poverty has an engendered face <ul><li>Gender Equality & </li></ul><ul><li>Links to Poverty </li></ul>
  39. 39. Opportunity for Improved economic conditions <ul><li>Barriers: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender difference in the impact of economic downturns </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access to labor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access to productive assets </li></ul><ul><li>Pay discrimination </li></ul>
  40. 40. Opportunity for Improved economic conditions <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access to labor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Access to productive assets </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing women’s travel and time burdens </li></ul>
  41. 41. Capacity: Enhanced human capital & quality of life <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access to education </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access to health </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to water & energy leading to women’s time poverty </li></ul>
  42. 42. Capacity: Enhanced human capital & quality of life <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Access to education </li></ul><ul><li>Access to health </li></ul><ul><li>Access to water & energy </li></ul>
  43. 43. Security: Greater Economic & Physical Security <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to economic risk </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to civil & domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to environmental risks </li></ul>
  44. 44. Security: Greater Economic & Physical Security <ul><li>Potential interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Helping poor women & men manage risk </li></ul><ul><li>Manage economic crisis & natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from civil and domestic violence </li></ul>
  45. 45. Empowerment : Increased political participation & gender equality <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions not accessible to poor women & men </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of voice in national policies </li></ul><ul><li>Limited voice in community decision -making </li></ul>
  46. 46. Empowerment : Increased political participation & gender equality <ul><li>Potential Interventions : governance </li></ul><ul><li>Making institutions more responsive to poor women & men </li></ul><ul><li>Removing barriers to political participation for women and men </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering women & men to demand accountability from institutions </li></ul>
  47. 47. Challenges & Opportunities Lets measure it <ul><li>Accountability : UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>Are the gender dimensions integrated into our “ poverty & governance “ portfolio ?Can we localized the gender dimensions in all the programs & operations ? Gender sensitive budget ing </li></ul><ul><li>M&E tools Gender disaggregated data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Basic framework: Case to build” </li></ul>
  48. 48. References <ul><li>CF: GMRU UNDP documents </li></ul><ul><li>Gender mobile resource unit </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jocelyne Talbot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> SURF-AS </li></ul><ul><li> Gender Policy Advisor </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Thank You. </li></ul>

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