Impact Commission


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  • Impact Commission

    1. 1. Problem Gambling and Its Impacts Rachel A. Volberg, Ph.D. Gemini Research, Ltd. Northampton, MA
    2. 2. What is Problem Gambling? <ul><ul><li>Gambling behavior that compromises, disrupts or damages personal, family or vocational pursuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Council on Problem Gambling, 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling behaviour that creates negative consequences for the gambler, others in his or her social network, or for the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferris and Wynne, 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Gambling Problems Occur on a Continuum <ul><li>Most severe end of continuum recognized as psychiatric disorder since 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Essential features of pathological gambling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progression in frequency, amounts, preoccupation, obtaining money to gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuation of gambling despite adverse consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Psychiatric Association, 1994 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. How Many Problem Gamblers? <ul><li>Based on SOGS—oldest and most widely used problem gambling screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.9% current probable pathological gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.6% current problem gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Welte et al., 2001. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on NODS—new screen developed for NGISC survey and based on DSM-IV criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2% pathological gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5% problem gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.7% at risk gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerstein et al., 1999. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Problem Gambling Impacts (1) <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress-related illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression & anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco, alcohol & drug dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family / Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & emotional abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect, separation, divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children more likely to be depressed, suicidal </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Problem Gambling Impacts (2) <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor performance, lowered productivity, impaired judgment, abuse of leave time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft, embezzlement, loss of job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of resources for basic expenses for gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indebtedness, credit card abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of credit, loss of savings, bankruptcy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad checks, forgery, fraud, tax evasion, burglary, selling stolen goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUI, weapons offenses </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Past Year Impacts
    8. 8. Lifetime Impacts
    9. 9. Who Is At Risk? <ul><li>Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>College Educated </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Social Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Other Psychiatric Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Men and Women </li></ul><ul><li>All Educational Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Other Psychiatric Conditions </li></ul>1975-1995 1995 - Present
    10. 10. The Costs of Problem Gambling (1) <ul><li>Widely divergent estimates of the costs of problem gambling have been published </li></ul><ul><li>Differences based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of “problem gambler” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of samples </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The Costs of Problem Gambling (2) <ul><li>Important to differentiate lifetime and annual costs </li></ul><ul><li>Annual costs of $715 and $1,200 per problem & pathological gambler </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime costs of $5,000 and $10,500 per problem & pathological gambler </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerstein et al., 1999. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Addressing Problem Gambling <ul><li>Need for broad array of services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach / crisis counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring / research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing public interest in addressing problem gambling has not kept pace with expansion of legal gambling </li></ul>
    13. 13. Monitoring & Research <ul><li>Need for commitment to monitoring gambling & problem gambling in coherent & consistent fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring & research include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence surveys @ regular intervals with large samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on tax streams, economic & social impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of effectiveness of services </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Why Study Youth Separately? <ul><li>Ethical concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal behavior for adolescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires informed consent from parent or guardian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should problem gambling among adults & adolescents be measured the same way? </li></ul></ul>