Financial Accounting

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  • Financial Accounting

    1. 1. Financial Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making, 3rd Ed. Kimmel, Weygandt, Kieso ELS
    2. 2. Chapter 5
    3. 3. Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations <ul><li>After studying Chapter 5, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the differences between a service enterprise and a merchandising company. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Chapter 5 Merchandising Operations <ul><li>After studying Chapter 5, you should be able to </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the cost of goods sold under a periodic system. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the factors affecting the profitability. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Service enterprises perform services as their primary source of revenue. Merchandising companies buy and sell merchandise.
    6. 6. Differences Between a Service Enterprise and a Merchandising Company <ul><li>In a merchandising company, the primary source of revenues is the sale of merchandise, referred to as sales revenue or sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike expenses for a service company, expenses for a merchandising company are divided into two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of goods sold - the total cost of merchandise sold during the period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating expenses - selling and administrative expenses. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Terms <ul><li>Sales revenue or sales = sale of merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of goods sold = total cost of merchandise sold </li></ul>
    8. 8. Page 202 in book Sales Revenue Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Operating Expenses Net Income (Loss) Less Less Equals Equals How Income is Measured in a Merchandising Company
    9. 9. Operating cycle of a company is... the average time it takes to go from cash to cash in producing revenues. TO
    10. 10. Operating cycle of a merchandising company is... <ul><li>ordinarily longer than than that of a service company; </li></ul><ul><li>purchase of merchandise and its sale lengthens the cycle. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Receive Cash Receive Cash Perform Services Buy Inventory Sell Inventory Service Company Merchandising Company Cash Cash Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable Merchandise Inventory
    12. 12. Inventory Systems <ul><li>Perpetual - detailed inventory system in which the cost of inventory is maintained and the records continuously show the inventory that should be on hand </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic -inventory system in which detailed records are not maintained and the cost is goods sold is determined only at end of accounting period </li></ul>
    13. 13. Record Revenue and compute and record Cost of Goods Compute and record Cost of Goods Sold Perpetual Periodic Perpetual Item Sold End of Period Comparing Periodic and Perpetual Inventory Systems Inventory Purchased Record Purchase of Inventory End of Period No Entry Record Purchase of Inventory Record Revenue Only Inventory Purchased Item Sold
    14. 14. Computers
    15. 15. and electronic scanners have enabled many companies to install perpetual inventory systems
    16. 16. <ul><li>All costs of getting the inventory to company and ready to sell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+Freight-In </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+Special Permits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only costs associated with merchandise purchased for resale - not assets acquired for use, such as supplies </li></ul>What Is Charged to Merchandise Inventory?
    17. 17. Merchandise Purchases On May 4 the company bought $ 3,800 worth of merchandise from PW Audio Supply, Inc. Task:Record the purchase by getting information from the Purchase Invoice . The Purchase Invoice is a copy of the sales invoice.
    18. 18. <ul><li>1. Seller </li></ul><ul><li>2.Invoice Date </li></ul><ul><li>3.Purchaser </li></ul><ul><li>4.Salesperson </li></ul><ul><li>5.Credit terms </li></ul><ul><li>6.Freight terms </li></ul><ul><li>7.Goods sold: catalog no.,description,quantity, price per unit </li></ul><ul><li>8.Total invoice price </li></ul>Invoice No. 731 Address 125 Main Street Attention o f James Hoover, Purchasing Agent Date5/4/04 Salesperson Maone Terms 2/10,n/30 Freight Paid by Buyer Catalog No. Description QTY Price Amount Firm Name: Sauk Stero City Chelsea Stat e Illinois Zip 60915 IMPORTANT : ALL RETURNS MUST BE MADE WITHIN 10 DAYS TOTAL $3,800 1,500 300 8 Production Model Circuits A2547Z48
    19. 19. Merchandise Purchases On May 4 the company bought $ 3,800 worth of merchandise from PW Audio Supply, Inc. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 4 Merchandise Inventory 3,800 Accounts Payable 3,800 To record goods purchased on account. Accounts Payable Merchandise Inventory May 4 3,800 Freight-out May 4 3,800
    20. 20. Purchases Returns and Allowances On May 8 the company returned $300 worth of merchandise to PW Audio Supply, Inc. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 8 Accounts Payable 300 Merchandise Inventory 300 To record goods returned that were purchased on account. Accounts Payable Merchandise Inventory May 4 3,800 Freight-out May 4 3,800 May 8 300 May 8 300
    21. 21. Freight Costs - On Incoming Inventory
    22. 22. Freight Costs - On Incoming Inventory On May 6 the company paid $ 150 to have the merchandise inventory delivered to them. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 6 Merchandise Inventory 150 Cash 150 To record payment of freight. Freight-Out Merchandise Inventory May 4 3,800 Cash May 6 150 May 8 300 May 6 150
    23. 23. Freight Costs - On Outgoing Inventory
    24. 24. Freight Costs-on outgoing inventory On May 6 the seller company paid $ 150 to have merchandise inventory delivered to the buyer. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 6 Freight-Out 150 Cash 150 To record payment of freight on goods sold. Freight-Out Merchandise Inventory Cash May 6 150 May 6 150
    25. 25. Purchase Discounts <ul><li>Credit terms of a purchase on account may permit the buyer to claim a cash discount for prompt payment. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit terms specify the amount of cash discounts and the time period during which they are offered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/10,n/30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/10 EOM </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Purchases Discounts Review - Company purchased $3800 of merchandise and returned $300. The credit terms are 2/10, n/30 and the invoice was paid within the discount period Original Invoice $3,800 -Returns 300 Amount due before discount $3,500 2% discount 70 Net due $3,430
    27. 27. Purchases Discounts Review - Company purchased $3800 of merchandise and returned $300. The credit terms are 2/10, n/30 and the invoice was paid within the discount period. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 14 Accounts Payable 3,500 Cash 3,430 Merchandise Inventory 70 To record payment within discount period. Accounts Payable Merchandise Inventory May 4 3,800 Cash May 4 3,800 May 8 300 May 8 300 May 14 70 May 14 3,500 May 14 3430 May 6 150 May 6 150
    28. 28. Payment of Invoice Review - Company purchased $3800 of merchandise and returned $300. The credit terms are 2/10, n/30 and the invoice was NOT paid within the discount period. GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit June 3 Accounts Payable 3,500 Cash 3,500 To record payment NOT within discount period. Accounts Payable Merchandise Inventory May 4 3,800 May 4 3,800 May 8 300 May 8 300 Jun 3 3,500 Jun 3 3,500 Cash
    29. 29. Sales Invoice ... <ul><li>a business document that provides written evidence of a credit sale. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>1. Seller </li></ul><ul><li>2.Invoice Date </li></ul><ul><li>3.Purchaser </li></ul><ul><li>4.Salesperson </li></ul><ul><li>5.Credit terms </li></ul><ul><li>6.Freight terms </li></ul><ul><li>7.Goods sold: catalog no.,description,quantity, price per unit </li></ul><ul><li>8.Total invoice price </li></ul>Invoice No. 731 Address 125 Main Street Attention o f James Hoover, Purchasing Agent Date 5/4/04 Salesperson Maone Terms 2/10,n/30 Freight Paid by Buyer Catalog No. Description QTY Price Amount Firm Name: Sauk Stero City Chelsea Stat e Illinois Zip 60915 IMPORTANT : ALL RETURNS MUST BE MADE WITHIN 10 DAYS TOTAL $3,800 1,500 300 8 Production Model Circuits A2547Z48
    31. 31. <ul><li>are recorded when earned-revenue recognition principle </li></ul><ul><li>must be supported by a business document-written evidence </li></ul><ul><li>2 entries are made for each sale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one to record sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one to record cost of merchandise sold </li></ul></ul>Sales Revenues - Under a Perpetual System
    32. 32. Sales - under a perpetual system Assume a sale of $ 3,800 ON ACCOUNT May 4 3,800 May 4 2,400 May 4 2,400 For merchandise having a cost of $2,400 May 4 3,800 Cash Accounts Receivable Merchandise Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Sales Returns & Allowances Sales
    33. 33. Sales Returns and Allowances <ul><li>Flip side of purchase returns and allowance </li></ul>On buyer’s books GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 8 Accounts Payable 300 Merchandise Inventory 300 To record goods returned that were purchased on account. On seller’s books GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 8 Sales Returns and Allowance 300 Accounts Receivable 300 To record return of goods delivered to Sauk Stero.
    34. 34. Sales - under a perpetual system Assume a sale of $ 3,800 ON ACCOUNT May 4 3,800 May 4 2,400 May 4 2,400 For merchandise having a cost of $2,400 May 4 3,800 Cash Accounts Receivable Merchandise Inventory Cost of Goods Sold Sales Returns & Allowances Sales
    35. 35. What Is the Sales Returns and Allowances Account? <ul><li>Contra Revenue Account to sales </li></ul><ul><li>Used to show how much came in on returns and allowances </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive returns and allowances suggest: </li></ul><ul><li>inferior merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>inefficiencies in filing orders </li></ul><ul><li>errors in billing customers </li></ul><ul><li>mistakes in delivery or shipment of goods </li></ul>
    36. 36. What Is the Sales Discount Account? <ul><li>Contra Revenue Account to sales </li></ul><ul><li>Used to disclose amount of cash discounts taken by customers </li></ul>
    37. 37. Sales Discounts <ul><li>Flip side of purchase discounts </li></ul>On seller’s books GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 14 Cash 3,430 Sales Discounts 70 Accounts Receivable 3500 To record collection within discount period. On buyer’s books GENERAL JOURNAL Debit Credit May 14 Accounts Payable 3,500 Cash 3,430 Merchandise Inventory 70 To record payment within discount period
    38. 38. Two Forms Of Income Statements <ul><li>Single-step income statement </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-step income statement </li></ul>
    39. 39. Single-Step Income Statement <ul><li>One step… subtract total expenses from total revenues </li></ul>Revenues $10,000 Expenses 3,000 Net income $ 7,000
    40. 40. PW AUDIO, Inc. Single-step Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2004 Sales $460,000 Interest Revenue 3,000 Gain on Sale of equipment 600 Total Revenues $463,600 Expenses Cost of goods sold $316,000 Selling expenses 76,000 Administrative expenses 38,000 Interest expense 1,800 Casualty Loss from vandalism 200 Income tax expense 10,100 Total expenses 442,100 Net income $ 21,500
    41. 41. Sales revenues Sales $ 480,000 Less: Sales returns and allowance $12,000 Sales discounts 8,000 20,000 Net sales 460,000 Cost of goods sold 316,000 Gross profit $ 144,000 Operating expenses Selling expenses: Store salaries expense $45,000 Advertising expense 16,000 Depreciation expense 8,000 Freight-out 7,000 Total selling expenses $76,000 Administrative expenses Salaries expense $19,000 Utilities expense 17,000 Insurance Expense 2,000 Total administrative expenses 38,000 Total operating expenses 114,000 Income from operations $ 30,000 PW AUDIO SUPPLY, INC. Multi-step Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2004
    42. 42. Income from operations (continued) $ 30,000 Other revenues and gains Interest revenue $ 3,000 Gain on sale of equipment 600 $ 3,600 Other expenses and losses Interest expense $ 1,800 Casualty loss from vandalism 200 2,000 1,600 31,600 Income before income income taxes Income tax expense 10,100 Net income $21,500 PW AUDIO SUPPLY, INC. Multi-step Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2004
    43. 43. Cost of Goods Sold -Periodic Method <ul><li>A running account of changes in inventory is not maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate accounts use to record freight costs, returns and discounts </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of goods sold and ending inventory are calculated at end of period. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Cost of goods sold Inventory, January 1 $ 36,000 Purchases $325,000 Less Purchase returns and allowances $10,400 Purchase discounts 6,800 17,200 Net purchases 307,800 Add: Freight-in 12,200 Cost of goods purchased 320,000 Cost of goods available for sale 356,000 Inventory, December 31 40,000 Cost of goods sold 316,000 PW AUDIO SUPPLY, INC. Cost of Goods Sold For the Year Ended December 31, 2004
    45. 45. Gross Profit Rate= <ul><li>Gross Profit </li></ul><ul><li>Net Sales </li></ul>Company’s gross profit expressed as a percentage
    46. 46. Profit Margin Ratio <ul><li>Measures the percentage of each dollar of sales that results in net income </li></ul>Profit Margin Ratio = Net Income Net Sales Higher value suggests favorable return on each dollar of sales.

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