Destination Positioning, Branding And Image Management

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  • Destination Positioning, Branding And Image Management

    1. 1. 6. Destination Positioning, Branding and Image Management Manila, 20 – 22 March 2006 World Tourism Organization
    2. 2. SESSION COVERAGE <ul><li>Destination positioning & branding: what are they & why are they important to destination strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>Destination brand development & architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Destination image – determinants & influences </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic image management tools & techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Role & importance of the media </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with crises </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating marketing effectiveness </li></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    3. 3. DESTINATION POSITIONING <ul><li>Unique position in relation to competitors, based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation of offering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of offering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized focus of offering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positioning should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent with market requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost and value for money (high cost-low volume, low cost-high volume) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market trends and preferences (exploration, experiential, romanticism, relaxation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience of purchase (ease of access, packaging, time limits, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic trends (family/individual, age groups, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent with resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Features and Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capability to deliver requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    4. 4. GENERIC POSITIONING STRATEGIES DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Generic strategy Key strategy elements Resource and organizational requirements Cost leadership Investment in scale-efficient plant; design of products for ease of operation; control of overheads; R&D; avoidance of marginal customer accounts. Access to capital; process engineering skills; frequent reports; tight cost control; structured organization and responsibilities; incentives relating to quantitative targets. Differentiation Emphasis on branding and brand advertising, design, service and quality. Marketing abilities; product engineering skills; creativity; capability in basic research; subjective rather than quantitative measurement and incentives; strong inter-functional co-ordination.
    5. 5. DIFFERENTIATING THE DESTINATION <ul><li>Using Unique Selling Proposition(s) (USP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique/exceptional when compared to competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique/exceptional appeal in relation to market needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be a single factor or a combination of factors, e.g. broad based (time, cost and general experiences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core, broad based proposition across market segments + focused propositions for particular market segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signaling the destination position through destination branding </li></ul>Assess current position Select desired position Strategy to achieve desired position Implement strategy DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    6. 6. THE BRAND: PERSONIFYING THE DESTINATION <ul><li>Unique combination of product characteristics and added values, both tangible and non-tangible, which have taken on a relevant meaning that is inextricably linked to the destination, awareness of which may be conscious or intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Not only a trademark (logo or icon), but an experience and image that signals a value system – e.g. airline from advertising to flying </li></ul><ul><li>Destination branding challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget limitation – Sony ($300m p.a.) vs global destination advertising ($350m p.a.) – outsmart rather than outspend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political interference, dynamics and changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product challenges – delivering the brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation challenges – sustainable, believable and relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major potential value – Vodacom $700 m; Malibu rum GBP540m; Coca Cola $69 billion; David Beckham at Man United $100 000/week </li></ul><ul><li>Strong movement towards emotional , less tangible benefits – the hearts and minds </li></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    7. 7. <ul><li>Customer loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial value </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as base to co-ordinate private sector efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Sound base for establishing “seamlessness” between communication tools </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as base for promotion of other products (Film brands, agricultural product brands, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Irishness and Scottishness </li></ul>THE BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE DESTINATION BRANDING DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    8. 8. BRAND WINNERS: RICH IN EMOTIONAL APPREAL, GREAT CONVERSATION VALUE AND HIGH ANTICIPATION Celebrity Value Low High Emotional pull Low High DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Problem Places Losers Celebrities Potential Stars
    9. 9. BUILDING THE BRAND <ul><li>5 Key Phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Investigation, analysis and strategic recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand identity development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand launch and introduction – communicating the vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring, evaluation and review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements of a successful brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveying powerful ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusing for trade partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resonating with the consumer </li></ul></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    10. 10. BRAND BUILDING ELEMENTS AND BENFITS 6. What is the essential nature and character of the destination 5. What does the value mean for the typical repeat visitor 4. What key traits and characteristic s of the destination are communicated by the brand – both head and heart? 3. What psychological rewards or emotional benefits do tourists receive by visiting this destination? How does the tourist feel? 2. What benefits to the tourist results from this destination’s feature? 1. What are the tangible, verifiable, objective, measurable characteristics of this destination? Brand Essence Brand Personality Emotional Benefits Rational/physical benefits Primary Attributes Brand Values DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    11. 11. BRAND ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Blueprint to guide brand building, development and marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Should reflect positioning, rational (head) and emotional (heart) benefits and personality </li></ul><ul><li>Take cognizance of destination composition (national, regional, city and town) and facilitate synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Identify suprabrands and sub-brand, based on geographical and product differentiations (e.g. Cape: South Africa, Cape Garden Route, Cape Wine, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Brand architecture reflected in destination trademarks (logos, insignia), marketing collateral, advertising concepts, etc. </li></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    12. 12. Degree of Separation Most Least Branded House Master Brand Sub brands Endorsed Brands House of Brands BMW Mercedes VW: Jetta, Golf, etc. Strong or token Endorsements SAB, Unilever, etc. DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    13. 13. <ul><li>Colours: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red: Earth, desert, centre, outback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue: Sky, sea, cool, endless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green: Bush, rainforest, environment, clean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow: Warm, nights, life, energy, sun youth, friendly </li></ul></ul>BRAND AUSTRALIA (ATC, 1997): Logo yellow kangaroo against red sun over background of green and blue sea DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Youthful Stylish Vibrant Diverse Adventurous Youthful, energetic, optimistic, stylish, unpretentious, genuine, open, fund Brand Personality Brand Values
    14. 14. EVOLVING BRAND AUSTRALIA POST-OLYMPICS : “AUSTRALIA: IN A DIFFERENT LIGHT” DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Rejuvenating the brand to fit with futuristic image </li></ul><ul><li>Olympics etc. put Australia on map as youthful, energetic, “can do” </li></ul><ul><li>To remain fresh and vibrant and relevant : future focus on light, colours </li></ul><ul><li>Re-enforce energy, but more mature and futuristic </li></ul><ul><li>See brand clips </li></ul>
    15. 15. BRAND ARCHITECTURE: BRITAIN (BTA, 1997) DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT Conservative. Pleasant. Refined. Hearty. Humorous. Approachable I feel fulfilled by experiencing the quaint culture. Relaxed by the harmonious countryside. Soothed by the outdoors Afternoon teas, quaint pubs, cathedrals, rivers, canals, lakes Lush, green discovery England Honest. Welcoming. Romantic. Down to Earth. Passion I feel inspired by the lyrical beauty of Whales. Uplifted by the spirituality of the environment Natural, dramatic beauty, poetry and song, legend and mystery Nature and legend Whales Independent. Warm. Mysterious. Rugged. Feisty I feel in awe of the elements in Scotland. Embraced and rejuvenated by the warmth of the people Rugged, unspoilt, wilderness, dramatic scenery, romantic history, heritage/folklore, warm & feisty people Fire and Stone Scotland Open-minded. Casual, Unorthodox. Vibrant. Creative I feel liberated by the vibrancy of London. Stimulated by the wealth of heritage and culture Diverse culture, arts, glamour pageantry, nightlife, music, cosmopolitan, fashion Pageantry and pop London Great/solid yet accessible. Cold in appearance yet friendly. Traditional yet innovative I feel stimulated by the enriching, often paradoxical experience of Britain. At ease among the open friendly culture Heritage, landscape, arts and culture, people Traditional heritage and the uncon-ventional Britain Personality Emotional benefits Rational Benefit Positioning Area
    16. 16. INTERNALIZING THE BRAND <ul><li>For the brand to be authentic and deliver on its promise the local community and stakeholders should believe in it and live it </li></ul><ul><li>Best brand champions are our citizens – could also be worst enemies if they don’t subscribe to brand essence </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy required to communicate and advocate the brand internally </li></ul><ul><li>Practical ways of instilling the brand values within the community </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitate and enable leadership figures to live the brand and infuse the population </li></ul><ul><li>See “Alive with Possibilities” video clip </li></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    17. 17. UNDERSTANDING TOURISM DESTINATIONS <ul><li>What is a tourist destination? </li></ul><ul><li>* one product – but also many </li></ul><ul><li>* many stakeholders with different goals </li></ul><ul><li>* both physical & socio-cultural aspects </li></ul><ul><li>* mental concept for potential visitors </li></ul><ul><li>* subject to a wide range of influences </li></ul><ul><li>* subject to historical, real & fictitious events </li></ul><ul><li>* evaluated subjectively for value-for-money </li></ul><ul><li>* no two destinations the same!! </li></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    18. 18. INFLUENCES ON DESTINATION’S IMAGE <ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures & website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own experience </li></ul></ul>DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    19. 19. STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process of: * researching a place’s image * segmenting & targeting its image & audiences * positioning the place’s benefits to support existing or changed image * communicating those benefits to the target audiences (Kotler, Haider & Rein, 1993) DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    20. 20. STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT Ongoing process because images change over time and in response to events, media coverage etc Consider: Iraq: good to bad South Africa: bad to good DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    21. 21. ASSESSING PLACE IMAGE Two-part process: * select target segments * measure the image held by those segments Three approaches to measuring image: * familiarity-favourability scales * semantic differential * evaluative maps DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    22. 22. FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Familiarity – awareness Scale of responses: Never heard of it > Heard of it > Know a little about it > Know a fair amount about it > Know it very well DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    23. 23. FAMILIARITY-FAVOURABILITY SCALES Favourability – positive/negative perception Scale of responses: Very unfavourable > Somewhat unfavourable > Indifferent > Somewhat favourable > Very favourable Helps define what image issues a destination needs to address and to which target segments DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    24. 24. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL Tests respondents’ perceptions on a set of relevant dimensions for a particular theme eg factors in choosing a holiday destination * weather * cost * natural features * cultural interest * shopping * friendliness of host people Each factor measured on a five-point bipolar scale from positive to negative extremes i.e. very poor to very good DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    25. 25. EVALUATIVE MAPS Inventory of target segments’ visual impressions of a place Words that represent opposites placed at either end of the scale Respondents asked to indicate where between the two extremes the place fits Cold>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Friendly Natural>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Artificial Simple>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Sophisticated DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    26. 26. GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING PLACE IMAGE To be effective, an image must be: * valid * believable * simple & used consistently * appealing * distinctive DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    27. 27. TOOLS TO COMMUNICATE AN IMAGE Slogans, themes, positions Visual symbols: diverse, humorous, denying, consistent Events & deeds DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    28. 28. IMAGE SITUATIONS Positive – focus on amplifying & delivering image to target groups Weak – places that are small, lack attractions or do not promote Negative – requiring fundamental change prior to image redevelopment DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    29. 29. IMAGE SITUATIONS Mixed – strategy to emphasise selected aspects & rectify others Contradictory – different groups with opposing images, stress positive points to groups with negative perceptions Overly attractive – withdraw publicity, planning restrictions DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    30. 30. PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Warm welcome – smiling, positive body poses Diversity – beach +, different segments Amazing Thailand, Incredible India DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    31. 31. PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Unspoilt– pristine natural and/or socio- cultural aspects eg 100% Pure New Zealand DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    32. 32. PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES ESCAPE, SIMPLICITY – often combined eg Ireland – “live a different life”; or focused on self-pampering – “happiness” eg Dubai DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    33. 33. PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Old & New, Traditional & Modern – variety Culture – Malaysia: Truly Asia DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    34. 34. PREVAILING DESTINATION IMAGE THEMES Safety post 9/11 – “new”, “international”, “safe”, “welcome ” DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    35. 35. ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA Consumer is exposed to: * Newspaper travel supplements * Magazines dedicated to one aspect or another of travel & tourism * Television travel programmes * Guide books * Independent websites DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    36. 36. ROLE OF FOREIGN MEDIA * Consumer is exposed to: * Newspaper travel supplements * Magazines dedicated to one aspect or another of travel & tourism * Television travel programmes * Guide books * Independent websites POTENTIAL FRIENDS FOR DESTINATION BUT MANY HAVE MINIMAL COMMITMENT THEIR PRIMARY MOTIVE BEING TO GENERATE SUBSCRIPTION OR ADVERTISING REVENUE DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    37. 37. CRISIS MANAGEMENT 1. Never underestimate the possible harm a crisis can do 2. Never discount the scale & influence of the media 3. Be prepared – have a crisis plan, and update it regularly 4. Set up a Communications Centre as the source of information during the crisis 5. Act fast, then issue regular updates DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    38. 38. CRISIS MANAGEMENT 6. Do NOT impose a news blackout 7. Train your spokespeople 8. Put the crisis in context 9. Ensure follow-up coverage is positive 10. Do not lie! Trust is the key component of destination: foreign media relationship DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    39. 39. EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Big challenge for tourism marketers seeking to justify budgets Difficulty of separating out impacts of paid advertising etc from other influences Tools: * coupon response rates * website hit rates * tracking surveys DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    40. 40. EVALUATING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS Australian State of Victoria uses: * Pre-testing through focus groups * visitor surveys * omnibus surveys weighted to whole population * tourist accommodation surveys * research among regional, national & international markets DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    41. 41. KEEP UP-TO-DATE Tourism market place constantly changing in response to the many influences & determinants of tourism Vital for tourism marketer to keep abreast of all relevant developments and to understand implications for the tourism product/service Trade magazines, regional organisations, tourism news websites, etc. DESTINATION POSITIONING, BRANDING & IMAGE DEVELOPMENT
    42. 42. Thank you! THE COMPETITIVE CONTEXT

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