Design Of Interactive Systems

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Design Of Interactive Systems

  1. 1. OVERHEADS I: DESIGN OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS <ul><li>by MURRAY TUROFF </li></ul><ul><li>DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>NEWARK NJ, 07102 </li></ul><ul><li>TEL: 201 596 3399 </li></ul><ul><li>© Copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  2. 2. DESIGN METHODS <ul><li>COMPARISON / DIFFERENTIATING </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGNING / REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TASK UNDERSTANDING / MACRO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE UNDERSTANDING / MICRO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUP UNDERSTANDING / MICRO & MACRO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENHANCEMENTS / EVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>VISIONING / NORMATIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ENGINEERING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL SETTING </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ATMOSPHERE <ul><li>HUMAN COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW RAPID </li></ul><ul><li>SLOPPY RIGOROUS </li></ul><ul><li>FORGETFUL PRECISE </li></ul><ul><li>BRILLIANT STUPID </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO DESIGN A COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE TWO? </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHY INTERACTIVE <ul><li>ITERATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING </li></ul><ul><li>UNPREDICTABLE SEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>TOOL FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>IMPOSSIBLE MANUALLY </li></ul><ul><li>COLLABORATION </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCEMENT (SAVE TIME, EFFORT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED, QUANTITY, MEMORY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENJOYMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SUBLIMATING AND BEING BUSY </li></ul>
  5. 5. DESIGN ATMOSPHERE <ul><li>PERSONAL WORKSTATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEGABYTES OF CORE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPTICAL DISKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANY MIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BROAD BAND COMMUNICATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH COGNITIVE VARIABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANAGERIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROBLEM SOLVERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CREATIVE </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. VIEWS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>REAL WORLD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES: VALIDATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEMS ANALYSIS: EVALUATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM DESIGN: TESTING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INTERFACE MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAPHOR: SYSTEM OPACITY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCE: FUNCTIONAL OPACITY </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. USER TYPES & MODES <ul><li>NOVICE, CASUAL, INTERMEDIARIES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCED </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTINE </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM SOLVERS </li></ul><ul><li>POWER </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIFFERENT ROLES IN ONE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE INTERFACE METHODS </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  9. 10. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>CRITERIA FOR FACTOR DIMENSIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN IT BE PERCEIVED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN IT BE MEASURED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REPRODUCIBLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RELIABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORTHOGONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN IT GUIDE DESIGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELATE TO INTERFACE METHODS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN IT EVALUATE DESIGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN IT SENSITIZE </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>FOUNDATION FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTANDING & EASE OF LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>SENSE OF CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>ADMINISTRATIVE </li></ul>
  11. 12. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>FOUNDATION FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIMELINESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RESPONSIVENESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELIABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCESSIBILITY / CONVINCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENCY / LEAST EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SECURITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCURACY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROTECTION / BULLET-PROOFING </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>UNDERSTANDING / EASE OF LEARNING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUIDANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFORMATIVENESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS / BREVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLARITY / SIMPLICITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEGMENTATION / DECOMPOSITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RETENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPECIFICITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAMILIARITY </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>SENSE OF CONTROL I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LEVERAGE / MODIFIABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANIPULABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLOSURE / CONFIRMATION / NOTIFICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEEDBACK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSE OF CAUSALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTI-TASKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESS CONTROL / ESCAPE / INTERRUPT </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>SENSE OF CONTROL II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORGIVENESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRANSPARENCY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY / COGNITIVE ADOPTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PREDICTABILITY / REGULARITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTEXTUAL VISIBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BACKTRACKING / AUDITING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORECASTING / ANTICIPATING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BACKUP / UNDO </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>EFFECTIVENESS I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TASK FUNCTIONALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GENERALITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MATCHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMPLETENESS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROBUSTNESS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABSTRACTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADAPTABILITY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>EFFECTIVENESS II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INTEGRATION / CONNECTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RESILIENCY / ROBUSTNESS / RICHNESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECISION </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ETHICAL / HONESTY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AESTHETIC / PLEASING / ARTFUL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERESTING / CHALLENGING / FUN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPECTATIONS / MOTIVATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PEER RELATIONS / STATUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSE OF COMMUNITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMANIZATION / POLITE </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SATISFACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GROUP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TASK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPECTATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERCEIVED UTILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEELING OF PARTICIPATION </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>ADMINISTRATIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRAINING / DOCUMENTATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JOB ENHANCEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMAN HELP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM EVOLUTION / MODIFIABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVALUATION / FEEDBACK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHARGING POLICIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONFIDENCE </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN <ul><li>CONFLICTS AND TRADEOFFS: EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION SEGMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY EFFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY COGNITIVE ADOPTION </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS INFORMATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS CLOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>RESILIENCY EASE OF LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>TASK GENERALITY TASK MATCHING </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICITY FAMILIARITY </li></ul><ul><li>LEVERAGE MANIPULABILITY </li></ul>
  21. 22. BASIC PROBLEM <ul><li>PROPER LEVEL OF TOOLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOO PRIMITIVE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOO MACRO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFLEXIBLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GULF OF EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOALS, INTENTIONS, TO ACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GULF OF EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DISPLAY, INTERPRETATION, TO EVALUATION </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. CONTROL SYSTEM VIEW <ul><li>INPUT - CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT - RESULT </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM - BLACK BOX </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE - COMPARATOR </li></ul><ul><li>LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY </li></ul>
  23. 25. EVALUATION OF INTERFACES <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  24. 26. EVALUATION OF INTERFACES <ul><li>INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - HUMAN FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROTOCOL ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIELD TRIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERVIEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SURVEYS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LONGITUDINAL STUDIES </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. EVALUATION OF INTERFACES I <ul><li>MANAGEMENT SCIENCES - PERCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM MONITORING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USER SATISFACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COST - BENEFITS / PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENCY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUALITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMAN FACTORS </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. EVALUATION OF INTERFACES II <ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOCIOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUP PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION OF INTERFACES </li></ul>
  27. 29. EVALUATION OF INTERFACES III <ul><li>ANTHROPOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAPHORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ARCHAEOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARTIFACTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHILOSOPHICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL REALITY </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING <ul><li>EXPERIMENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>FEATURES RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>MODELS OF TOTAL SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TASKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIELD TRIALS AND PROTOTYPING </li></ul><ul><li>ARTIFACTS AND METAPHORS </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ENGINEERING </li></ul>
  29. 31. EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>FIXED MESSAGE FORMAT VS. USER DESIGNED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LESS NOTE TAKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GREATER COMPREHENSION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DUAL MODE EDITOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AFTER 16-20 HOURS USERS SWITCHED TO COMMANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USED HELP MORE IN COMMAND MODE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MORE ERRORS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. MENU CRITERIA <ul><li>TIME TO CREATE MENU < CHOICE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>MENU EXTENSIBLE BY USER </li></ul><ul><li>THEN BETTER THAN COMMANDS EVEN FOR EXPERTS </li></ul>
  31. 33. SPECIFIC DESIGN FAULTS I <ul><li>POOR INTERACTIVE DIALOGUE </li></ul><ul><li>LONGER TO DO THAN MANUALLY </li></ul><ul><li>NO TOLERANCE FOR HUMAN ERRORS </li></ul><ul><li>NO FLEXIBLE PARSING (RIGIDITY) </li></ul><ul><li>WRONG FUNCTIONALITY </li></ul><ul><li>START-STOP HASSLE </li></ul><ul><li>POOR DOCUMENTATION AND HELP </li></ul><ul><li>INCONSISTENT METAPHORS </li></ul>
  32. 34. SPECIFIC DESIGN FAULTS II <ul><li>MOST COMMON PROBLEM: FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLICABILITY TO BROAD RANGE OF TASKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE APPROACHES TO A GIVEN TASK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE WAYS OF INVOKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADAPT TO DIFFERENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USER STYLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USER TYPES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GREATER FLEXIBILITY IMPLIES MORE COMPLEX SYSTEM </li></ul>
  33. 35. PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS <ul><li>FISHBOWL </li></ul><ul><li>BULLY </li></ul><ul><li>PEEPHOLE </li></ul><ul><li>CONCRETE </li></ul><ul><li>CLUTTER </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE ANGST </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER ANGST </li></ul><ul><li>RORSCHACH BLOT </li></ul>
  34. 36. PHASES OF USER EVOLUTION <ul><li>UNCERTAINTY </li></ul><ul><li>INSIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>INCORPORATION </li></ul><ul><li>SATURATION </li></ul>
  35. 37. PSYCHOLOGICAL ROLES <ul><li>EVALUATOR MAGICIAN </li></ul><ul><li>HELPER ENTERTAINER </li></ul><ul><li>COMPANION CHALLENGER </li></ul><ul><li>FOE MENTOR </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOMPLICE PRODUCER </li></ul><ul><li>OVERSEER DICTATOR </li></ul><ul><li>PRIEST SERVANT </li></ul><ul><li>PICKY PARENT GOD </li></ul>
  36. 38. DESIGN INTRODUCTION <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  37. 39. CONTROL FUNCTION EXAMPLES <ul><li>GO BACK (HOW FAR) </li></ul><ul><li>GO FORWARD (HOW FAR) </li></ul><ul><li>GO ELSEWHERE (HOW FAR) </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT/FILE (HOW MUCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OBJECT, SCREEN, HALF SCREEN, PAGE, LIST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INTERACTION STATE, TASK, FUNCTION, PROCESS, TRANSFER, UP/DOWN LOAD </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIRM, QUIT, HELP, UNDO, ESCAPE, FINISH, INTERRUPT, CONTINUE, TRANSFER, QUIT, SAVE, EXECUTE, OPEN, CLOSE, TRANSFER, COPY, MOVE </li></ul>
  38. 40. INTERACTION METHODS <ul><li>MENUS, COMMANDS </li></ul><ul><li>LISTS, FORMS, DIALOGUE </li></ul><ul><li>WINDOWS, ICONS, GUI </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT MANIPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>MIMICKING / RECORDING </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMATION AND MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>SCRIPTING </li></ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL REALITIES </li></ul><ul><li>AI AND EXPERT SYSTEMS </li></ul>
  39. 41. DESIGN COMPONENTS I <ul><li>GOALS AND OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM METAPHOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM ARTIFACTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OBJECTS / SUB-OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OBJECT PARTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHORTEST, ABSTRACT, CONTENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS ON OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GENERIC AND EXPLICIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRATEGIC CHOICE SETS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REACTIVE CHOICE SETS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLS </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. DESIGN COMPONENTS II <ul><li>MODIFIERS AND STATUS STATES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBSETS, TRACKING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LATERAL LINKAGES </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LIST PROCESSING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCHING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FORMATS </li></ul><ul><li>SCREEN LAYOUTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WORKSPACE, STATUS AREAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROL AREA, MESSAGE AREA </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. DESIGN COMPONENTS III <ul><li>USER INTERACTION STATES </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTION PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>USER OBJECT LISTS </li></ul><ul><li>USER TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE SETS </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSES AND CLOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>ERROR CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM MESSAGES </li></ul>
  42. 44. MODEL RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>MENTAL MODEL TO REAL WORLD: EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS MODEL TO IMPLEMENTATION MODEL: TESTING </li></ul><ul><li>REAL WORLD TO IMPLEMENTATION MODEL: VALIDATION </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODEL TO IMPLEMENTATION MODEL: EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODEL TO INTERFACE MODEL: LEARNING AND TRAINING </li></ul>
  43. 45. MODELS <ul><li>COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODEL TO INTERFACE MODEL: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL OPACITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION MODEL TO INTERFACE MODEL: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYSTEM OPACITY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 46. INFORMATION DOMAINS OF USERS I <ul><li>COMMON IS SUPPORT LEVELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINGLE FUNCTION TASKS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIMPLE INQUIRY / CALCULATIONS / MESSAGING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURING: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZING / FILTERING / SUMMARIZING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STATUS BRIEFING / REPORT GENERATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRACKING / MONITORING </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. INFORMATION DOMAINS OF USERS II <ul><li>CURRENT INDIVIDUAL CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEPTION REPORTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CREATION TASKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MODELING / STRUCTURING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCOVERY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CURRENT GROUP CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLANNING AND DECISION ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECISION IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMAND AND CONTROL </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  47. 50. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS I <ul><li>USERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAILURE TO NOTICE EXPLICIT INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO THE UNANTICIPATED AND THE FORBIDDEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMULATE OPINION ON LITTLE KNOWLEDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MISINTERPRET MEANINGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT ASK FOR HELP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT REPORT BUGS </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS II <ul><li>USERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT APPRECIATE IMPLEMENTATION EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY APPRECIATE UTILITY TO THEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL FALL INTO HABITS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT READ MANUALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT UNDERSTAND DOCUMENTATION </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS III <ul><li>DESIGNERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPECT USERS TO LEARN WHOLE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TO UNDERSTAND WHOLE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL RE-INVENT THE WHEEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TREAT ALL USERS THE SAME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT TAKE CRITICISM WELL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WILL NOT EXPLAIN THEIR DESIGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CANNOT TEACH USERS </li></ul></ul>
  50. 53. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS IV <ul><li>GENERAL I: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BEST WAY OF USING COMPUTER NOT EVIDENT TO USER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRONG TO AUTOMATE, BUT EASY TO SELL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE DESIGNS CAN BE PRESCRIPTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USER BEHAVIOUR WILL CHANGE AND EVOLVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNER HAS LINE OF CREDIT </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS V <ul><li>GENERAL II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNER KNOWLEDGE OF TASK CRITICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TWO OR MORE SHOULD DESIGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROLE FOR OMBUDSMAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DESIRABLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOW USER TO &quot;CHUNK&quot; PROBLEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USER FRIENDLY - EXPERIENCED HOSTILE </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS VI <ul><li>GENERAL III: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VALUE WILL OVERCOME POOR INTERFACE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEST SYSTEM IS THE FIRST LEARNED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENT COMPUTER DATA STRUCTURE MAY BE INEFFICIENT FOR THE USER </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS VII <ul><li>GENERAL IV: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USERS LEARN BEST BY TRAIL AND ERROR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENT USE OF MACHINE MAY EQUAL INEFFICIENT USE OF PEOPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENT LEADS THEORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNERS SHOULD KNOW APPLICATION AREA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REMEMBER THE MAGIC NUMBER 7 +- 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A SYSTEM EVOLVES OR DIES </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. FOLKLORE OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS VIII <ul><li>GENERAL V: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EVALUATING THE USER NOT A SYSTEM TASK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USERS WANT TO IGNORE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INVOLVE THE USER IN THE DESIGN PROCESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERROR DETECTION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USERS SHOULD HAVE CONTROL </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. USER ROLES AND TYPES <ul><li>NOVICE, CASUAL, ROUTINE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERMEDIARY </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATOR </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCED </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM SOLVER </li></ul><ul><li>POWER </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIFFERENT ROLES IN ONE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE INTERFACE METHODS </li></ul></ul>
  56. 59. USER RESPONSE TO INADEQUATE SYSTEM <ul><li>DIS-USE: TURN TO OTHER SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>MIS-USE: USING INAPPROPRIATE WAYS </li></ul><ul><li>PARTIAL USE: USE OF WRONG SUBSET </li></ul><ul><li>DISTANT USE: USE OF INTERMEDIARY </li></ul><ul><li>MODIFICATION OF TASK: CHANGE TASK TO FIT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>COMPENSATORY ACTIVITY: USER HAS TO DO MORE </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT PROGRAMMING: USER MODIFIES SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>NON-USE: AVOIDING THE SYSTEM </li></ul>
  57. 61. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  58. 62. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS I <ul><li>OBJECTIVE: TO DISCOVER THE PROCESS A PERSON GOES THROUGH IN SOLVING A PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>USES: LEARNING COGNITIVE PROCESSES, DEVELOPING EXPERT SYSTEM MATERIAL, EVALUATING INTERFACES </li></ul>
  59. 63. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS II <ul><li>ASSUMPTION: COGNITIVE PROCESSES THAT GENERATE VERBALIZATION ARE A SUBSET OF THOSE THAT GENERATE BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: &quot;LISA LEARNING,&quot; BY CARROLL AND MAZUR, IEEE COMPUTER, NOVEMBER 1986. </li></ul>
  60. 64. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS III <ul><li>INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF TRUST AND HOW MUCH NEEDS TO BE REPORTED VERBALLY. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. DO YOU KNOW THE CAPITAL OF SWEDEN? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. WHICH OF THE THREE: OSLO, STOCKHOLM, OR COPENHAGEN IS THE CAPITAL? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. NAME THE CAPITAL OF SWEDEN. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RETROSPECT TO 1: TELL WHAT YOU WERE THINKING </li></ul>
  61. 65. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS IV <ul><li>TALK ALOUD, THINK ALOUD MODE: WHILE INFORMATION IS ATTENDED. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCURRENT PROBING MODE: WHILE IN SHORT-TERM MEMORY. </li></ul><ul><li>RETROSPECTIVE PROBING MODE: AFTER COMPLETION OF TASK </li></ul>
  62. 66. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS V CONDITIONS <ul><li>SUBJECT ASKED TO VERBALIZE WHAT THEY ARE THINKING </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT IS NOT BEING EVALUATED </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVER MUST NOT PARTICIPATE IN PROCESS OR AID SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE OF HOW THEY SOLVE A PROBLEM OR HOW THEY LEARN A SYSTEM </li></ul>
  63. 67. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS VI CODING <ul><li>NEED A CODING SCHEME FOR VERBALIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE I: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INTENTIONS: GOALS, SHALL, WILL, MUST, HAVE TO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COGNITIONS: CURRENT ATTENTION SITUATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLANNING: IF X THAN Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVALUATION: YES, NO, DAMIT, FINE </li></ul></ul>
  64. 68. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS VII CODING <ul><li>EXAMPLE II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SURVEYING GIVEN INFORMATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GENERATING NEW INFORMATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEVELOPING A HYPOTHESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSUCCESSFUL SOLUTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHANGING CONDITIONS OF THE PROBLEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF REFERENCE OR CRITICISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SILENCE </li></ul></ul>
  65. 69. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS VIII <ul><li>EXPERTS ON A PROBLEM VERBALIZE A LOT MORE THAN NON EXPERTS (DOUBLE). </li></ul><ul><li>VERBALIZATION OCCURS ONLY 30% TO 50% OF THE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE CANNOT VERBALIZE WHEN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>READING TEXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOING INTENSE COGNITIVE ACTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKING CHOICES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE HAVE TO SLOW DOWN TO VERBALIZE </li></ul>
  66. 70. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS IX <ul><li>HOW TO INCREASE VERBALIZATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. HOLD BACK STIMULUS OR ENCOURAGE SLOWNESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. SEGMENT STIMULUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. INTERRUPT WITH PRE-ARRANGED SIGNAL OR SET POINT </li></ul></ul>
  67. 71. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS X OBJECTIVES <ul><li>OBJECTIVES FOR INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DETERMINE THEIR UNDERSTANDINGS OF TERMS IN THE INTERFACE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNDERSTAND THE CAUSE OF ERRORS OR MISINTERPRETATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DETERMINING MISSING FUNCTIONALITY OR USER REQUIREMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DETERMINING THE UTILITY OF THE METAPHOR FOR LEARNING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DETERMINING THE UTILITY OF HELP AND GUIDANCE </li></ul></ul>
  68. 72. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XI APPROACH 1 <ul><li>ASK THE USER TO DESCRIBE WHAT HE OR SHE IS DOING OUTLOUD </li></ul><ul><li>TO GO THROUGH THE TERMS ON THE SCREEN AND EXPLAIN WHAT THEY THINK THEY MEAN </li></ul><ul><li>TO TRY TO FORECAST WHAT A COMMAND CHOICE WILL DO </li></ul><ul><li>CAN RECORD, TAPE, AND/OR MAKE NOTES </li></ul>
  69. 73. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XII APPROACH 2 <ul><li>EXPLAIN IT IS SYSTEM BEING EVALUATED, NOT USER </li></ul><ul><li>THERE TO OBSERVE ONLY, CANNOT HELP USER </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY ASK USER TO VERBALIZE IF IT IS UNCLEAR AS TO WHAT THEY ARE DOING </li></ul>
  70. 74. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XIII APPROACH 3 <ul><li>ASK TO EXPLAIN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. WHAT THEY ARE TRYING TO DO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. WHAT CONFUSION OR CONCERNS THEY HAVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. WHAT THEY EXPECT TO HAPPEN NEXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. WHAT THEY DON'T KNOW THE MEANING OF </li></ul></ul>
  71. 75. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XIV APPROACH 4 <ul><li>GIVE HELP ONLY IF USER IS AT A DEAD END </li></ul><ul><li>USERS DO NOT ALWAYS KNOW WHY THEY DO THINGS </li></ul><ul><li>SAVE RETROSPECTIVE QUESTIONS FOR END </li></ul>
  72. 76. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XV ADVANTAGES <ul><li>A LOT LESS EFFORT THAN OTHER APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE DONE ON PROTOTYPE OR MOCKUP </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING HOW USER APPROACHES TASK </li></ul><ul><li>CAN LEARN ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID FEEDBACK FROM SMALL SAMPLES </li></ul>
  73. 77. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XVI REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>REQUIREMENTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECTS MUST BE REPRESENTATIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS SIMPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YOU MUST BE OBSERVER ONLY </li></ul></ul>
  74. 78. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XVII QUESTIONS <ul><li>CAN ASK: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT ARE YOU THINKING? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT DOES THAT TERM MEAN? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SHOULD NOT ASK: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY DID YOU DO THAT! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT DOES A MESSAGE DO? </li></ul></ul>
  75. 79. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XVIII HOW TO 1 <ul><li>A ONE PAGE EXPLANATION TO THE SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>A SET OF WRITTEN TASKS IN USER TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT SHOULD SPEND ABOUT ONE HOUR </li></ul><ul><li>A CATEGORISATION SCHEME FOR RECORDING </li></ul><ul><li>TAPE RECORD THEIR VERBALIZATIONS </li></ul>
  76. 80. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS XIX HOW TO 2 <ul><li>RETROSPECTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR END </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RETENTION OF MAJOR CONCEPTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERCEIVED UTILITY OF FEATURES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DO NOT TRY TO TEST EVERYTHING </li></ul><ul><li>AT LEAST THREE SUBJECTS ON SAME TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>BE SPECIFIC ABOUT USER EXPLAINING CHOICE THEY ARE ABOUT TO MAKE </li></ul>
  77. 82. GUIDELINES <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  78. 83. MODELS I <ul><li>COGNITIVE MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION OF MENTAL PROCESS BY WHICH HUMAN PERFORMS A TASK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USER CONCEPTUAL/MENTAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL OF THE SYSTEM THAT THE USER UNDERSTANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM METAPHOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNERS MODEL OF THE SYSTEM INTENDED TO BE THE ONE THE USER UNDERSTANDS </li></ul></ul>
  79. 84. MODELS II <ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MODEL USED TO DESCRIBE THE INTERNAL SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MODEL DEVELOPED THROUGH SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PROCESS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REAL WORLD MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT OCCURS IN THE PHYSICAL WORLD </li></ul></ul>
  80. 85. GUIDELINES I <ul><li>HIGHLIGHTING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOR, SOUND, REVERSE VIDEO, FLASHING, SIZE, FONTS, BOXING, WINDOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PURPOSE: ATTENTION GETTING AND FEEDBACK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCREEN LAYOUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STATUS, WORK, CONTROL, ERROR, HELP </li></ul></ul>
  81. 86. GUIDELINES II <ul><li>TELL USER WHAT HE/SHE IS WORKING ON </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLIGHT WHAT USER HAS SELECTED </li></ul><ul><li>PUT DATA IN SOME ORDER </li></ul><ul><li>LONG STRINGS/NUMBERS BROKEN UP INTO MEANINGFUL CHUNKS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>106677471812 1066-742-1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCREEN DENSITY 25% TO 50%, 30% USUALLY IDEAL </li></ul>
  82. 87. GUIDELINES III <ul><li>ORDER/GROUP MATERIAL: SEQUENTIAL, CLASSIFIED, HIERARCHICAL </li></ul><ul><li>MENU CHOICES: 5 TO 9 (7+-2) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP MENU ITEMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHANGE / NO CHANGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TWO DIMENSIONAL ( 5 X 5 = 25 ) </li></ul></ul>
  83. 88. GUIDELINES IV <ul><li>MENU TYPES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRATEGIC MENUS / CONTROL PANELS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MENU TREES / OUTLINES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POPUP/PULLDOWN MENUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTS (MULTIPLE CHOICES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OBJECT MENUS (ICONS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTION MENUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MODIFIER MENUS </li></ul></ul>
  84. 89. GUIDELINES V <ul><li>CHOICE SELECTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CURSOR KEYS / MOUSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECTION BAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMBERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LETTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABBREVIATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FREQUENCY OF USE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUPINGS OF COMMANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HABIT & ERROR AVOIDANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLS </li></ul></ul>
  85. 90. GUIDELINES VI <ul><li>SEPARATE PARAGRAPHS BY BLANK LINES </li></ul><ul><li>USER STANDARD REPRESENTATIONS: HH:MM:SS </li></ul><ul><li>USE COMPLETE WORDS </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID HYPHENATION </li></ul><ul><li>USE VERTICALLY ALIGNED LISTS </li></ul><ul><li>USE OUTLINES AND BULLETS </li></ul><ul><li>MOST SIGNIFICANT WORDS FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE PUNCTUATION: CPU </li></ul>
  86. 91. GUIDELINES VII <ul><li>LABELING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LABEL OR IDENTIFICATION FOR AN OBJECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE TITLE, PHRASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED SCAN OF SHORT VERSION OF OBJECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FULL STATUS DESCRIPTION OF AN OBJECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLIES TO CONTENT OBJECTS, MENUS, SCREENS, STATES </li></ul></ul>
  87. 92. GUIDELINES VIII <ul><li>USER SHOULD BE ABLE TO CONTROL AMOUNT OF INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>ALL MEANINGFUL ALTERNATIVES IN ONE SCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY IN USE OF TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICITY OF TERMS DESIRABLE </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILIARITY OF TERMS DESIRABLE </li></ul>
  88. 93. GUIDELINES IXX <ul><li>ALLOW SYNONYMS WHERE POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS CONFIRM CRITICAL ACTIONS (E.G. DELETE) </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE NUMBER OF MODES OF INTERACTION (E.G. EDIT MODE) </li></ul><ul><li>DISPLAY ACTION TAKING PLACE (E.G. STATUS) </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE SUPERFLUOUS TASKS (E.G. LOGON) </li></ul>
  89. 94. GUIDELINES XX <ul><li>PROMPTS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER ERRORS </li></ul><ul><li>USER GIVEN IMMEDIATE CHANCE TO CORRECT </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY ERRORS SPECIFICALLY </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE RECOVERY INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>+UNDO OR +OOPS </li></ul><ul><li>SHOULD EXPLAIN WHY WHEN SOMETHING CAN NOT BE DONE </li></ul>
  90. 95. GUIDELINES XXI <ul><li>ALLOW USER TO STAY IN ONE MODE OF ENTRY AS LONG AS POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOW ENTRY STACKING OR ANSWER AHEADS </li></ul><ul><li>USE LOWER AND UPPER CASE </li></ul>
  91. 97. INDEXING <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  92. 98. INDEXING I <ul><li>HIERARCHICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINGLE LOCATION IN TREE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECISE DEFINITIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.1.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. OUTLINES, MS/DOS FILES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIGID, DIFFICULT TO ADAPT </li></ul></ul>
  93. 99. INDEXING II <ul><li>NETWORK (LATERAL LINKS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINGLE LOCATION IN NETWORK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECISE RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. BOOK INDEX, CITATION INDEX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. HYPERTEXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LACK OF GLOBAL VIEW </li></ul></ul>
  94. 100. INDEXING III <ul><li>SUBJECT HEADINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE SUBJECT HEADINGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIXED CATEGORIES, NO STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECISE DEFINITIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. COMPUTERS IN CHEMISTRY AND INTEGRAL EQUATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  95. 101. INDEXING IV <ul><li>KEY WORD AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIXED KEY WORDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FREE KEY WORDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE KEYS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COORDINATES FOR PROPERTIES E.G. TALL, MEDIUM, SHORT </li></ul></ul>
  96. 102. INDEXING V <ul><li>SYNTACTIC LANGUAGES 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAGGED DESCRIPTORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUALIFIED KEYS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. TANK.WEAPON, TANK.PETROLEUM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  97. 103. INDEXING VI <ul><li>SYNTACTIC LANGUAGES 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FACETED INDEX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEPARATE DIMENSIONS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., QUANTITY, STYLE, COLOR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., FOR LEATHER, WINE, METAL ALLOYS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., AUTHOR, TITLE, SOURCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., STEEL, COMPONENT, INDUSTRY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MIXED INDEXES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION </li></ul></ul>
  98. 104. INDEXING VII <ul><li>UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>341.67:623.454.8(094.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>341.67: DISARMAMENT, LIMITATION AND CONTROL OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>623.45: AMMUNITION, PYROTECHNIC DEVICES, WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>623.454.8: ACTIVE RAYS, ATOMIC NUCLEAR (THERMO) WEAPONS </li></ul><ul><li>094.2: HISTORICAL SOURCES (09), INTERNATIONAL TREATIES </li></ul>
  99. 105. INDEXING VIII <ul><li>PHRASES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SHORT PHRASES, TITLES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. KWIC INDEX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. CHAPTER HEADINGS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. ABSTRACTS </li></ul></ul>
  100. 106. INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS IX <ul><li>RELEVANT NON-RELEVANT </li></ul><ul><li>RETRIEVED A B </li></ul><ul><li>NOT RETRIEVED C D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRECISION = A / (A+B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECALL = A / (A+C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPECIFICITY = D / (B+D) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SEARCH EFFICIENCY = (RECALL)(SPECIFICITY) </li></ul>
  101. 107. INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS X <ul><li>TIMELINESS (UPDATING) </li></ul><ul><li>ACCURACY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETENESS (ALL IN DATABASE) </li></ul><ul><li>FORM OF DATA (E.G. SUMMARY, RAW DATA) </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTIVE / OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>ADOPTION </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORICAL RELEVANCE </li></ul>
  102. 108. INDEXING XI <ul><li>INDEX TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>AMBIGUITY EXPRESSIVE CONCISE </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL </li></ul><ul><li>LOW LOW HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>FIXED KEYS </li></ul><ul><li>FREE KEYS </li></ul><ul><li>TAGGED DESCRIPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FACETED INDEXES </li></ul><ul><li>PHRASES </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH HIGH LOW </li></ul>
  103. 109. INDEXING XII <ul><li>INDEX TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>RETRIEVAL SELECTION ADOPTION </li></ul><ul><li>EFFORT EFFORT EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL </li></ul><ul><li>LOW HIGH HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>FIXED KEYS </li></ul><ul><li>FREE KEYS LOW </li></ul><ul><li>TAGGED DESCRIPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FACETED INDEXES </li></ul><ul><li>PHRASES </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH LOW HIGH </li></ul>
  104. 110. INDEXING XIII <ul><li>INDEX TYPE IDEAL USE </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO, WELL STRUCTURED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NETWORK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MICRO, STRUCTURED RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO, STRUCTURED CONCEPTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIXED KEYS </li></ul><ul><li>FREE KEYS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MICRO, UNSTRUCTURED </li></ul></ul>
  105. 111. INDEXING XIV <ul><li>TAGGED DESCRIPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FACETED INDEXES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MICRO, STRUCTURED FACTORS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PHRASES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO, SEMI STRUCTURED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO, UNSTRUCTURED </li></ul></ul></ul>
  106. 112. INDEXING XV <ul><li>ZIPF'S LAW </li></ul><ul><li>LOG FREQUENCY OF TERMS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARE LINEAR WITH LOG OF RANK ORDER </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO DETERMINE INDEX TERMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH FREQUENCY USELESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FREQUENCY USELESS FOR KEYS LEFT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMS DIFFERENT FROM NORMAL ENGLISH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEADS TO PRINCIPLE OF LEAST HUMAN EFFORT </li></ul>
  107. 114. USER & TASK PROPERTIES <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  108. 115. USERS AND TASKS <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABILITIES, SKILLS, BACKGROUNDS COGNITIVE STYLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DATA DIFFICULT TO USE BY DESIGNERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS USED IN SELECTION OF JOBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OFTEN TIED TO TASK WHICH IS EASIER TO DEAL WITH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERY USEFUL TO HAVE TASK TAXONOMY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNERS FAMILIAR WITH TASK DOMAIN USUALLY DO BETTER JOB </li></ul></ul>
  109. 116. ERROR ANALYSIS <ul><li>ERROR FREQUENCY ANALYSIS CAN BE VERY INDICATIVE OF DESIGN PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT MONITORING FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTACTIC ERRORS CAN BE USED TO TRIGGER LEARNING AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>CONCEPTUAL ERRORS WHERE THE CURRENT CHALLENGE IS </li></ul>
  110. 117. USER TASKS <ul><li>TRAP OF DESIGNING A SYSTEM WHICH REINFORCES CURRENT USER BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>MICRO AND MACRO UNDERSTANDING OF TASK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MICRO = COGNITIVE LEVEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO = FUNCTIONAL LEVEL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PREDICTING WHAT HAS NOT BEEN POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: CLASSIFYING COMMUNICATIONS OF A MANAGER </li></ul>
  111. 118. USER TASKS <ul><li>PAPER SIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>USER OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOCOL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO TASK </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOTYPING ALTERNATIVES </li></ul><ul><li>MOCK UPS (DEMO2) </li></ul>
  112. 119. TASK MODEL APPROACHES I <ul><li>CONTROL SYSTEM MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHYSIOLOGICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED/ERROR ASSESSMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NETWORK MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STATISTICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DECISION THEORY MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TASK STRATEGIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., SEARCHES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION PROCESSING MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMORY, ATTENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECOGNITION </li></ul></ul>
  113. 120. TASK MODEL APPROACHES II <ul><li>PROBLEM SOLVING MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MACRO BEHAVIOUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOALS, OBJECTIVES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MICRO BEHAVIOUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCANNING, SPECIFICITY, ETC. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MENTAL (METAPHOR) MODELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LEARNING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION </li></ul></ul>
  114. 121. PROBLEM OF TASK ALLOCATION: <ul><li>WHAT TO GIVE TO THE USER AND WHAT TO GIVE TO THE COMPUTER TO DO </li></ul><ul><li>CHOOSING PROBLEM SOLVING AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT UNITARY, NOT ONE AID FOR EACH SITUATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOTH TASK AND USER EXPERIENCE INVOLVED </li></ul></ul>
  115. 122. PROBLEM SOLVING SUBTASKS <ul><li>PROBLEM RECOGNITION </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGY SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE GENERATION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION </li></ul>
  116. 123. ASPECTS OF A TASK <ul><li>1. GOALS AND INTENTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>2. SPECIFICATION OF ACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>3. MAPPING FROM GOALS TO ACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>4. TRANSLATION: COGNITIVE TO PHYSICAL </li></ul><ul><li>5. PHYSICAL STATE OF THE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>6. CONTROL MECHANISMS </li></ul><ul><li>7. MAPPING PHYSICAL TO CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>8. INTERPRETATION OF SYSTEM STATE </li></ul><ul><li>9. EVALUATING OUTCOMES </li></ul>
  117. 124. USER ACTIVITIES <ul><li>ESTABLISHING GOAL </li></ul><ul><li>FORMING INTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFYING ACTION SEQUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>EXECUTING THE ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEIVING SYSTEM STATE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPRETING THE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATING RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul>
  118. 125. BEHAVIOUR DIMENSIONS <ul><li>ABSTRACTION NO ABSTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>SEARCH NO SEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>DATA DRIVEN CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABSTRACTION: DEAL WITH STRATEGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ABSTRACTION: GENERATE ALTERNATIVES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCH: NEW STRATEGIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO SEARCH: USING ESTABLISHED STRATEGIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DATA DRIVEN: EVALUATION BY DATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN: EVALUATION BY CONCEPT </li></ul></ul>
  119. 126. METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING I <ul><li>ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION: SEARCH, NO ABSTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE GENERATION: SEARCH, NO ABSTRACTION, CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>BACKTRACKING: NO ABSTRACTIONS, SEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVING DATA: DATA DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE PROBLEM REPRESENTATION: ABSTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY CHECKING: DATA DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGY IMPROVEMENT: ABSTRACTION, CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN </li></ul>
  120. 127. METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING II <ul><li>DECOMPOSITION AND RECOMBINATION: ABSTRACTION, CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENDED MEMORY: NO ABSTRACTION, SEARCH, NO SEARCH, DATA DRIVEN, CONCEPTUALLY DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID TRIAL AND ERROR: NO ABSTRACTION, SEARCH, DATA DRIVEN </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGY CAPTURE (RULE SYSTEMS): DATA DRIVEN </li></ul>
  121. 128. DIALOGUE PROPERTIES <ul><li>INITIATIVE: COMPUTER OR USER INITIATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY: NUMBER OF WAYS A USER CAN ACCOMPLISH A GIVEN TASK </li></ul><ul><li>POWER: AMOUNT OF WORK DONE BY THE SYSTEM IN RESPONSE TO A SINGLE USER ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION LOAD: DEGREE TO WHICH THE INTERACTION ABSORBS MEMORY AND PROCESSING RESOURCES OF USER </li></ul>
  122. 129. GUIDELINES <ul><li>INTERFACE BUGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OUTRIGHT FAILURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOING SOMETHING THE WRONG WAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT ALLOWING SOMETHING TO BE DONE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURAL: USER CAN DO X Y BUT NOT Y X </li></ul></ul>
  123. 130. DESIGN PRINCIPLES <ul><li>MAKE EXPLANATIONS BRIEF </li></ul><ul><li>ESSENTIAL PART OF DESIGNING USER INTERFACES IS TO EXPLAIN THEM </li></ul><ul><li>A STRUCTURE MODEL IS KEY TO UNDERSTANDING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MENDELEEV'S PERIODIC TABLE AND IMPACT ON CHEMISTRY </li></ul></ul>
  124. 131. JOSS DESIGN PRINCIPLES I <ul><li>EXECUTION STEPS ARE ALWAYS COMPLETED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERRUPT CAUSES NO STATE CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE MODE </li></ul><ul><li>COMMAND CAUSING AN ERROR HAS NO IMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>JOSS AND USER PERCEIVE SAME INTERNAL STATE </li></ul>
  125. 132. JOSS DESIGN PRINCIPLES II <ul><li>JOSS INSISTED ON LETTER PERFECT INPUT/OUTPUT </li></ul><ul><li>USER / COMPUTER CONTROL BY LOCKED KEYBOARD -NEVER ANY DOUBT </li></ul><ul><li>ANYTHING INPUTTED COULD BE STORED </li></ul><ul><li>INCREMENTAL AND BATCH THE SAME </li></ul>
  126. 134. USER MENTAL MODELS <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  127. 135. USER MENTAL MODELS <ul><li>USER MODEL IS RARELY VERBALIZED </li></ul><ul><li>A USER MODEL IS GENERALLY AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>THE USER MODEL OFTEN CHANGES AS HE OR SHE ACQUIRES MORE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>USER MODELS SHOULD CONFORM TO PSYCHOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS </li></ul>
  128. 136. TASK MODEL OF WRITING I EXPLORE <ul><li>I. EXPLORE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GATHER RAW MATERIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPLORE (BROWSE) MATERIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLAY WITH DIFFERENT CLUSTERS OF IDEAS AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LET IDEAS HAPPEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MECHANICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JOT AND POSTING, OUTLINE, DIAGRAMS, FILL IN HOLES, BOTTOM UP, TOP DOWN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE: MAP CONCEPTUAL SPACE </li></ul>
  129. 137. WRITING II ANALYSES 1 <ul><li>II. ANALYZE READERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY READERSHIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RANK THEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTIMATE WHAT THEY KNOW ABOUT SUBJECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DETERMINE WHAT YOU HAVE TO TELL THEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SET GOALS ON HOW MUCH YOU WANT TO CHANGE THEM </li></ul></ul>
  130. 138. WRITING III ANALYSES 2 <ul><ul><li>CHANGE KNOWLEDGE, CHANGE ATTITUDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>METHODS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ESTIMATE DISTANCE FROM YOU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MATRIX OF CONCEPTS BY READER TYPES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  131. 139. WRITING IV FOCUS 1 <ul><li>III. FOCUS </li></ul><ul><li>DECIDE ON THE DOCUMENT YOU WILL WRITE OUT OF ALL POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT IS OVER RIDING POINT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOST IMPORTANT READERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHANGE TO MAKE IN READERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW TO SOUND (IMAGE) </li></ul></ul>
  132. 140. WRITING V FOCUS 2 <ul><li>ORGANIZE TOP-DOWN HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEADINGS ARE CUES TO READER ON CONCEPTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM LEVEL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARAGRAPH FOR WHAT YOU DO NOT KNOW WELL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAGE OR MORE FOR MATERIAL YOU KNOW WELL </li></ul></ul>
  133. 141. WRITING VI WRITING 1 <ul><li>IV. WRITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRODUCE USABLE DRAFT FOR LATER REVISION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT REVISE AS YOU GO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALTERNATIVE WAYS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>START TO FINISH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TOP-DOWN: INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RANDOM ORDER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BOTTOM UP: DETAILS FOR EACH SECTION </li></ul></ul></ul>
  134. 142. WRITING VII WRITING 2 <ul><li>PROBLEMS IN WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITH WORDING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARK FOR LATER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 STRIKES YOUR OUT, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KEEP WRITING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WITH STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MINOR - KEEP WRITING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAJOR - RETHINK STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>THINK STRATEGICALLY: TO PERSUADE, TO INFORM, SIGNAL HIERARCHY </li></ul>
  135. 143. WRITING VIII FINAL STAGES <ul><li>V. VERIFY AND REVISE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL: TO TURN DRAFT INTO FINISHED PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SET PRIORITY AND EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYNTACTIC: GRAMMAR, WORD CHOICE, SPELLING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC: OBJECTIVES, STRUCTURE, PARAGRAPHS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VI. REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>VII. FORMAT </li></ul><ul><li>VIII. COLLABORATIVE DOCUMENT </li></ul>
  136. 144. WRITING IX STRUCTURE <ul><li>RELATION WRITERS READERS </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK EXPLORING REMEMBERING </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHY ORGANIZING COMPREHENDING </li></ul><ul><li>SEQUENCE ENCODING DECODING </li></ul><ul><li>DOCUMENT SHOULD SIGNAL STRUCTURE: HEADINGS </li></ul><ul><li>PARAGRAPH IS A SINGLE THOUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERTEXT AN APPROACH TO NETWORKS LEVEL </li></ul>
  137. 145. WRITING AND READING X <ul><li>HIGHLIGHT WHAT THEY WANT: IMPOSE VALUE </li></ul><ul><li>ANNOTATE, MARGINAL NOTES </li></ul><ul><li>FLIP PAGES BACK AND FORTH </li></ul><ul><li>SEEK REFERENCES, INDEX, GLOSSARY, TEXT TO FIGURE, EARLIER ITEMS </li></ul><ul><li>MARKING TRIALS </li></ul><ul><li>BOOKMARKS FOR INTERRUPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COPYING NOTES </li></ul><ul><li>AGENDA FOR FURTHER WORK </li></ul>
  138. 146. MENTAL MODEL GUIDELINES 1 <ul><li>FORM DATA CHUNKS THAT ARE USED THROUGHOUT THE APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>VERBAL MEDIATION: WITHIN SYSTEM IMPORTANT WORDS SHOULD TAKE ON SPECIALIZED MEANINGS </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL PROCESSES IN THE INTERFACE TO THE LEVEL OF DETAIL WHICH THE USER CAN AFFECT, BUT NO MORE </li></ul>
  139. 147. MENTAL MODEL GUIDELINES 2 <ul><li>PROCESSES SHOULD BE GROUP TOGETHER TO HIGHER LEVEL: E.G., ALL UPDATING TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>LOWER LEVEL PROCESSES SHOULD BE THE SAME WHERE EVER THEY ARE (SEARCH). </li></ul>
  140. 148. MENTAL MODELS I INTERACTING OBJECTS & EVENTS <ul><li>CASUAL COMMONSENSE </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT OBJECT AND MEMBER OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>CHAIN OF EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>SET OF SYSTEM STATES </li></ul><ul><li>MORE AMBIGUOUS AND FUZZY </li></ul><ul><li>WORK ON OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>USERS SELECT OBJECT FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOMATIC PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>EVENT DRIVEN </li></ul>
  141. 149. MENTAL MODELS II VARIABLES AND RULES <ul><li>DETERMINISTIC REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURE BY OBSERVED VARIABLES </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURED BY RULES BETWEEN VARIABLES </li></ul><ul><li>WORK ON ACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMANDS CHOSEN FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>CONSCIOUS PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SERIAL PROCESSING </li></ul>
  142. 150. MENTAL MODELS III <ul><li>USERS WANT TO SUBDIVIDE AND CLASSIFY (ENCODE) SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>LOW LEVEL OF SYSTEM TO DEAL WITH EVENT DRIVEN PROCESSES (REACTIVE) </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER LEVEL DRIVEN BY GOALS AND MOTIVES (STRATEGIC) </li></ul>
  143. 151. MENTAL MODELS IV <ul><li>PROBLEM IS POSSIBLE LATERAL PROCESSING BETWEEN BOTTOM LEVEL NODES </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM LEVEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DATA DOMAIN FOR ASSOCIATION, RECOGNITION, AND MATCHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL DOMAIN FOR ABDUCTION, DEDUCTION, AND INDUCTION </li></ul></ul>
  144. 152. MENTAL MODELS V <ul><li>IF SYSTEM STATE IS NOT OBVIOUS USERS WILL ENCODE IT THEIR OWN WAY </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE DO NOT MIND DEALING WITH COMPLEXITY IF THEY CAN CONTROL IT </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH DATA DRIVEN AND HYPOTHESIS DRIVEN MODES SHOULD BE CATERED TO </li></ul>
  145. 153. MENTAL MODELS VI <ul><li>USERS SHOULD UNDERSTAND ANY INFERENCE PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE OF GROUPED DATA SHOULD BE EVIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION SHOULD EXHIBIT RESULTS RATHER THAN INFORM IT IS DONE </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY ONE EXIT AND ONE ENTRY TO A PROCESS SHOULD BE USED </li></ul>
  146. 154. MENTAL MODELS VII <ul><li>T(TASK) = T(ACQUIRE) + T(EXECUTE) </li></ul><ul><li>ACQUISITION IS MAIN PROBLEM IN REDUCTION OF TIME </li></ul><ul><li>USE USERS COGNITIVE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>MATCHING MECHANISMS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SYNTACTIC (GRAMMAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PARAMETRIC (FORM, COLOR, SHAPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC (TEXT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICONIC (VISUAL PATTERN) </li></ul></ul>
  147. 155. MENTAL MODELS VIII <ul><li>TASK KNOWING: GOAL AND SUBTASKS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERFACE KNOWING: MECHANICS OF ACCOMPLISHING TASK </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE KNOWING: HOW SYSTEM WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE REPRESENTATIONS: WHAT USER CURRENTLY KNOWS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESCRIPTIVE REPRESENTATIONS: WHAT USER SHOULD KNOW </li></ul>
  148. 156. MENTAL MODELS IX GOMS <ul><li>GOMS: GOALS, OPERATORS, METHODS, AND SELECTION RULES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOALS, SUBGOALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RULES TO CHOOSE METHODS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEQUENCE OF OPERATORS TO DO A METHOD </li></ul></ul>
  149. 157. MENTAL MODELS X GOMS <ul><li>EXAMPLE: SEVERAL WAYS TO FIND FIRST PLACE TO EDIT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCH, PAGE SCANNING, CURSOR KEYS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MODELS OF PROCESSING TIME BASED UPON KEYSTROKING VERY ACCURATE </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODELS: IF I DO THIS, THIS WILL HAPPEN </li></ul>
  150. 158. MENTAL MODELS XI MODEL TYPES 1 <ul><li>SURROGATES: PERFECTLY MIMICS TARGETS, NO CORRESPONDENCE (SPREADSHEETS) </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHORS: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN TARGET SYSTEM AND SOMETHING KNOWN TO USER (DESKTOP) </li></ul><ul><li>GLASS BOX: ATTEMPTS TO REPRESENT INTERNAL SUBSYSTEMS (STORAGE FILE CABINETS) </li></ul>
  151. 159. MENTAL MODELS XII MODEL TYPES 2 <ul><li>NETWORK: SYSTEM STATES, USER STATES, AND TRANSITION CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: A FLOW CHART IS LIKE A PIPELINE (GAS/WATER/USER KNOWLEDGE) </li></ul>
  152. 160. MENTAL MODELS XIII INFERENCES <ul><li>GOMS (SEQUENCE/METHOD) APPROACHES CAN PREDICT EFFORT BUT NOT ERRORS. CAN PREDICT USE OF KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL MODELS EXPLAIN ERRORS AND BEHAVIOUR IN NOVEL SITUATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING INVOLVES: INTERNALIZATION, ELABORATION, AND CONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATIONS OF CALCULATORS VARY WIDELY EVEN BY PEOPLE WHO USE THEM. </li></ul>
  153. 161. MENTAL MODELS XIV INFERENCES <ul><li>UNIX: 20 OF 400 COMMANDS ACCOUNT FOR 70% OF USAGE (LOCAL TASK VIEWS) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENSIVE USAGE DOES NOT LEAD TO POWER USE OF SYSTEM (WITHOUT METAPHOR?) </li></ul>
  154. 162. MENTAL MODELS XV LEARNING <ul><li>IF DESIGN IS BASED UPON A MODEL THEN USER CAN BE TRAINED BY TEACHING THE MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHING A CALCULATOR BY EXPLAINING INTERNAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAME ON STANDARD TASKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BETTER FOR NOVEL TASKS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOME INDICATION BETTER LEARNING IF METAPHOR FORCES ACTIVE LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>READING UNDERSTOOD BETTER IF GOALS PRIOR TO DETAILS IN STORIES </li></ul>
  155. 163. MENTAL MODELS XVI METAPHOR EXAMPLES 1 <ul><li>TYPEWRITER (WORDPROCESSING) </li></ul><ul><li>DOCUMENT (GML, PAGEMAKER) </li></ul><ul><li>OUTLINE (THINKTANK) </li></ul><ul><li>CHALKBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>NOTECARDS (HYPERTEXT) </li></ul><ul><li>DESKTOP (STAR, LISA, ETC.) </li></ul><ul><li>DESKTOP TOOLS (SIDEKICK) </li></ul><ul><li>DASHBOARD </li></ul><ul><li>BUSINESS FORMS </li></ul>
  156. 164. MENTAL MODELS XVII METAPHOR EXAMPLES 2 <ul><li>TABLES OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>BUILDINGS </li></ul><ul><li>THEATRE </li></ul><ul><li>ROADMAP </li></ul><ul><li>LETTERS </li></ul><ul><li>POST OFFICE </li></ul><ul><li>SPACES </li></ul><ul><li>TOOLS </li></ul>
  157. 165. MENTAL MODELS XVIII PROBLEMS 1 <ul><li>METAPHORS OFTEN INCOMPLETE ANALOGY </li></ul><ul><li>MISMATCHES PROVIDE PROBLEMS (DESTRUCTIVE BACKSPACE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAPER FORM ON SCREEN MAY RESTRICT INPUT TO FIELDS, NO MARKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, CAN VERIFY DATA </li></ul></ul>
  158. 166. MENTAL MODELS XIX PROBLEMS 2 <ul><li>METAPHORS OFTEN APPLIED UNEVENLY </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHORS CAN BE MORE THAN PHYSICAL WORLD (GAMES) </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHORS CAN BE MISLEADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE OF ATOM = STRUCTURE OF SOLAR SYSTEM </li></ul></ul>
  159. 167. MENTAL MODELS XX COGNITIVE STATES <ul><li>COGNITIVE STATES OF METAPHOR USE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INSTANTIATION: AUTOMATIC ACTIVATION PROCESS, USUALLY BASED UPON SIMILARITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MISMATCHES STIR ELABORATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELABORATION: MAPPING STRUCTURE BY GOAL MATCHING AND CHECKING INFERENCES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONFIRMATION OF INFERENCES LEAD TO CONSOLIDATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONSOLIDATION: CREATION OF MODEL, CONDENSING INTO SINGLE REPRESENTATION </li></ul></ul>
  160. 168. MENTAL MODELS XXI PROPERTIES <ul><li>PROPERTIES OF METAPHORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BASE SPECIFICITY: DEGREE TO WHICH IT SPECIFIES THE TARGET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLARITY: DEGREE OF ONE TO ONE CORRESPONDENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABSTRACTION: DEGREE OF GENERALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RICHNESS: EXPANDABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BASE EXHAUSTIVENESS: COVERS WHOLE OF TARGET </li></ul></ul>
  161. 169. MENTAL MODELS XXII DESIGNING METAPHORS <ul><li>IDENTIFY CANDIDATE METAPHORS </li></ul><ul><li>DETAIL METAPHOR / SOFTWARE MATCH </li></ul><ul><li>USE REPRESENTATIVE USER SCENARIOS </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY MISMATCHES </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY DESIGN STRATEGIES TO HELP USERS </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGE MISMATCHES </li></ul><ul><li>TO DESCRIBE METAPHOR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TASKS: WHAT PEOPLE DO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>METHODS: OBJECTS, ACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APPEARANCE: LOOK AND FEEL </li></ul></ul>
  162. 170. MENTAL MODELS XXIII EXAMPLE 1 <ul><li>SCENARIO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAPHOR: REMOVE DOCUMENT FROM A FOLDER TO VIEW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TARGET: REMOVE FILE FROM A FILE DIRECTORY TO VIEW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>METHODS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAPHOR: OPEN FOLDER BY PULLING BACK FOLDER COVER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TARGET: OPEN FOLDER BY DOUBLE CLICKING FOLDER ICON </li></ul></ul>
  163. 171. MENTAL MODELS XXIV EXAMPLE 2 <ul><li>APPEARANCE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METAPHOR: 3-D PAPER FOLDER THAT UNFOLDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TARGET: 2-D ICON THAT EXPANDS INTO 2-D WINDOW </li></ul></ul>
  164. 172. MENTAL MODELS XXV LEARNING MODEL 1 <ul><li>COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>I. BEGIN WITH TASK EMBEDDED IN FAMILIAR ACTIVITY (BY EXAMPLE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROVIDES SCAFFOLDING FOR UNFAMILIAR TASK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II. POINT TO DIFFERENT DECOMPOSITIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRESSES HEURISTICS ARE NOT ABSOLUTE </li></ul></ul>
  165. 173. MENTAL MODELS XXVI LEARNING MODEL 2 <ul><li>III. ALLOW LEARNER TO GENERATE THEIR OWN PATHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCULTURATING/SITUATED COGNITION </li></ul></ul>
  166. 174. MENTAL MODEL XXVII DOCUMENTATION <ul><li>MINIMAL MANUAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOCUS ON REAL TASKS NOT OVERVIEWS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON'T EXPLAIN MENU BUT SHOW HOW TO CREATE A MESSAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN PRINCIPLE ERRORS USERS MAKE AS DETERMINED BY PROTOCOL ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COORDINATE WRITING WITH THE USE OF THE SCREENS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;CAN YOU FIND THIS PROMPT ON THE SCREEN?&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  167. 175. MENTAL MODELS XXVIII COGNITIVE 1 <ul><li>DIFFICULT CONSTRUCTING COMMANDS THAT ARE &quot;NATURAL&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL IMPLIES EXISTENCE OF GOAL-ACTION ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>COMMAND HIERARCHY IS ONE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GET.LIST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GET.SCAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GET.VIEW </li></ul></ul>
  168. 176. MENTAL MODELS XXIX COGNITIVE 2 <ul><li>NUMBER OF RULES TO DECOMPOSE A GOAL INTO SUBGOALS AND TO EXECUTE THE SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS PREDICTS LEARNING TIME </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING PROGRAM LANGUAGE = 200-500 HOURS </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF THOUGHTS TO CONSTRUCT NEXT ACTION PREDICTS DELAY </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNT NEEDED IN SHORT TERM MEMORY PREDICTS ERRORS </li></ul>
  169. 177. MENTAL MODELS XXX COGNITIVE 3 <ul><li>VISUAL LAYOUT FOUND TO BE VERY IMPORTANT AND NOT PREDICTED BY GRAMMAR RULES </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCE NUMBER OF RULES NEED IS AN OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DELETING SENTENCE SAME RULE AS DELETING PARAGRAPH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TRAINING WHEELS: INTRODUCE ONLY SUBSET OF SYSTEM </li></ul>
  170. 178. MENTAL MODELS XXXI COGNITIVE 4 <ul><li>METAPHORS SHOULD NOT BE MECHANISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>WHETHER OR NOT SYSTEM USES METAPHOR IN THE DESIGN THE USER WILL FORMULATE ONE </li></ul><ul><li>MAIL METAPHOR AN EXAMPLE OF LIMITING THE UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IS POSSIBLE </li></ul>
  171. 179. MENTAL MODELS XXXII OBSERVATION <ul><li>&quot;METAPHORS ARE NOT JUST GOOD OR BAD DESCRIPTIONS OF THEIR TARGETS, RATHER THEY ARE STIMULATING OR UNSTIMULATING INVITATIONS TO SEE TARGET DOMAIN IN A NEW LIGHT.&quot; CARROL </li></ul>
  172. 181. COGNITIVE PROPERTIES <ul><li>© copyright 1991 Murray Turoff </li></ul>
  173. 182. THE MAGIC NUMBER 7+-2 <ul><li>MILLER (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>CHUNKING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1776149219181941 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIMITED CHANNEL CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT TERM MEMORY </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PEOPLE REORGANIZE INFORMATION TO OVERCOME LIMITATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  174. 183. THE MAGIC NUMBER 7+-2 <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE SEVEN SEAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE SEVEN SINS </li></ul></ul>
  175. 184. RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP <ul><li>COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMORY MODELS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEARNING THEORIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE PROCESSING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMAGE PROCESSING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION AND CLUSTERING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEVELS OF MEMORY </li></ul></ul>
  176. 185. HUMAN FACTORS AND ENGINEERING <ul><li>STIMULUS RESPONSE MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNAL/NOISE RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHOICE REACTION TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECISION PERFORMANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRESS REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FILTERING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS </li></ul>
  177. 186. COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION THEORY <ul><li>COMMUNICATION CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CODING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SERIAL AND PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>UNCERTAINTY AND AMBIGUITY </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTIVE INFORMATION MEASURES </li></ul>
  178. 187. MORSE CODE CODING <ul><li>LETTER CODE PROBABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>E * .131 </li></ul><ul><li>T - .105 </li></ul><ul><li>A *- .082 </li></ul><ul><li>X *-** .0012 </li></ul><ul><li>Z **** .0008 </li></ul>
  179. 188. THE THIRD METAPHOR COMPUTER ANALOGY TO THINKING <ul><li>GENERALITY OF PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>ALGORITHMS, SUBROUTINES AND COMPILERS </li></ul><ul><li>CONDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS AND DECISION MAKING </li></ul><ul><li>SIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURAL THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>SYMBOL MANIPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMS AND INTERNAL STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  180. 189. AN INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM <ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RECEPTORS, EFFECTORS, PROCESSOR, MEMORY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SYMBOLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SET OF RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REFERENCES OBJECT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROGRAM OR INTERPRETER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MEMORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RETAINS SYMBOL STRUCTURES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REPRESENTATION </li></ul></ul>
  181. 190. SYSTEM CONCEPTS <ul><li>INFORMATION FLOW </li></ul><ul><li>DECOUPLING </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORKING STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>ASSOCIATIVE STRUCTURE </li></ul>
  182. 191. CHOICE REACTION TIME (CRT) SERIAL PROCESSING MODE <ul><li>STIMULUS PREPROCESSED </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULUS COMPARED UNTIL CATEGORIZED </li></ul><ul><li>CATEGORISATION IS BASIS FOR RESPONSE SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECT PROGRAMS HIS RESPONSE EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>PROPORTIONAL TO LOG OF CHOICES </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENT WITH INFORMATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>40 MSEC PER ITEM, 400 MSEC INITIAL SETUP </li></ul>
  183. 192. SERIAL AND PARALLEL PROCESSING <ul><li>CRT SERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>TYPING AND PHONE NUMBERS PARALLEL </li></ul><ul><li>SCANNING FOR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(K, Z), OR (K, O), OR (O, C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K OR (K,Z) SAME TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(K, O) DOUBLE TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PREPROCESSORS FOR SENSES </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE SCANNING NEWSPAPERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEED INDEPENDENT OF NUMBER OF CLIENTS </li></ul></ul>
  184. 193. SPEED-ACCURACY TRADE-OFF <ul><li>EXTREME ACCURACY EMPHASIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLOW, MAXIMUM ACCURACY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXTREME SPEED EMPHASIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAST, VERY LOW ACCURACY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HUMANS CAN CHOOSE TRADEOFF POINT </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY </li></ul>
  185. 194. SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY I <ul><li>HUMAN SETS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER THRESHOLD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAST POSITIVE RESPONSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMALL NUMBER OF FALSE ALARMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER THRESHOLD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAST NEGATIVE RESPONSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMALL NUMBER OF MISSES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  186. 195. SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY II <ul><li>BETWEEN THRESHOLDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMORY SEARCH YIELDING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SLOWER POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RESPONSES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FAMILIARITY IS THE X AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING EFFECTS </li></ul>
  187. 196. RECOGNITION DECISION FLOW <ul><li>STIMULUS PRESENTED </li></ul><ul><li>ENCODING AND ACCESS TO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAMILIARITY VALUE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RESPOND IMMEDIATELY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO: EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YES: ACTIVATE RESPONSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE OUTPUT </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN PERFORMANCE CAN BE INFLUENCED </li></ul>

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