Cultural Influences On Consumer Behavior


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Cultural Influences On Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Cultural Influences On Consumer Behavior
  2. 2. Culture: <ul><li>Is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among the members of an organization or society. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Consumer Behavior and Culture: <ul><li>A Two-Way Street </li></ul><ul><li>Products and services that resonate with the priorities of a culture at any given time have a much better chance of being accepted by consumers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cultural Categories: <ul><li>Leisure? </li></ul><ul><li>Work? </li></ul><ul><li>Genders? </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine style? </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine style? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cultural Categories <ul><li>Case: </li></ul><ul><li>Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, designers, advertisers, and retailers have been more sensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Case: </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing worn by political figures or movie and rock stars can affect the apparel and accesory industries. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Aspects Of Culture <ul><li>Culture is not static. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of culture: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which a system is adapted </li></ul><ul><li>to its habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The japanese, greatly value </li></ul><ul><li>products that are designed for efficient </li></ul><ul><li>use of space. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aspects Of Culture <ul><li>2. Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which orderly social life is </li></ul><ul><li>maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: nuclear family VS extended family </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aspects Of Culture <ul><li>3. Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>The mental characteristics of a </li></ul><ul><li>people and the way in which they </li></ul><ul><li>relate to their environment and social </li></ul><ul><li>group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: nuclear family VS extended family </li></ul>
  9. 9. Myths: <ul><li>That define the culture </li></ul><ul><li>A myth: </li></ul><ul><li>is a story containing symbolic elements that expresses the shared emotions and ideals of a culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: M for McDonald’s </li></ul>
  10. 10. Myths: <ul><li>Serve four interrelated functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Metaphysical </li></ul><ul><li>Help explain the origins of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cosmological </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize that all components of the </li></ul><ul><li>universe are part of a single picture. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sociological </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain social order by authorizing a social </li></ul><ul><li>code. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Provide models for personal conduct. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rituals: <ul><li>Is a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: wear prom dress </li></ul><ul><li>tuxedos </li></ul><ul><li>graduation gowns </li></ul><ul><li>wedding gowns </li></ul><ul><li>Halloween gowns </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sacred Consumption: <ul><li>Involves objects and events that are “set apart” from normal activities, and are treated with some degree of respect or awe. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: - Sacred place (Bethlehem; Mecca; </li></ul><ul><li>Stonehenge) </li></ul><ul><li>- Sacred people (Princess Di; John </li></ul><ul><li>Lennon; Elvis </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Creation And Diffusion Of Fashion Consumer culture
  14. 14. <ul><li>The culture, the movement of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 3-1 Page 81 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Culture production process </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 3-2 Page 82 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Culture Production System: <ul><li>Three major subsystems: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A creative sub system </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for generating new </li></ul><ul><li>symbols and products. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A managerial sub system </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for selecting, making tangible, </li></ul><ul><li>mass producing, and managing the </li></ul><ul><li>distribution of new symbols and/or </li></ul><ul><li>products. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Culture Production System (continued): <ul><li>Three major subsystems: </li></ul><ul><li>3. A communication sub system </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for giving meaning to the </li></ul><ul><li>new product and providing it with a </li></ul><ul><li>symbolic set of attributes that are </li></ul><ul><li>communicated to consumers. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry: <ul><li>Designer </li></ul><ul><li>designs the specific items </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandiser </li></ul><ul><li>conducts research for future styles and trends. </li></ul><ul><li>PR Dept </li></ul><ul><li>deals with the public </li></ul>
  19. 19. Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry (continued): <ul><li>Adv Dept </li></ul><ul><li>conceives and develops ideas for campaigns and creates advertisement to promote the merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Sales person </li></ul><ul><li>sells, provide information and assistance to customers </li></ul>
  20. 20. Apparel Specialists In The fashion Industry (continued): <ul><li>Store manager </li></ul><ul><li>oversees merchandise categories </li></ul><ul><li>Controller </li></ul><ul><li>manages the retailer’s financial plans </li></ul><ul><li>Grader </li></ul><ul><li>size pattern </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types Of Innovations <ul><li>1. A symbolic innovation </li></ul><ul><li>communicates a new social meaning, </li></ul><ul><li>Example: - a new hair style </li></ul><ul><li>- a new car design </li></ul><ul><li>2. A technological innovation </li></ul><ul><li>involves some functional change, </li></ul><ul><li>Example: - a new textile form </li></ul><ul><li>- a new central home air </li></ul><ul><li>conditioning </li></ul>
  22. 22. Behavioral Demands Of Innovations: <ul><li>Three major types of innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A continuous innovation </li></ul><ul><li>a modification of an existing product, </li></ul><ul><li>example: Levi’s promoted shrink to fit </li></ul><ul><li>jeans, </li></ul>
  23. 23. Behavioral Demands Of Innovations: <ul><li>Three major types of innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>2. A dynamically continuous innovation, </li></ul><ul><li>- more pronounced change in an </li></ul><ul><li>existing product. </li></ul><ul><li>- have a modest impact on the way </li></ul><ul><li>people do thing, creating some </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral change. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Behavioral Demands Of Innovations: <ul><li>Three major types of innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>3. A discontinuous innovation </li></ul><ul><li>- creates major change in the way we </li></ul><ul><li>live. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Prerequisites For Successful Adoption: <ul><li>Several factors are desirable for a new </li></ul><ul><li>product to succeed: </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility, </li></ul><ul><li>the innovation should be compatible with consumers’ lifestyle </li></ul>
  26. 26. Prerequisites For Successful Adoption: <ul><li>Several factors are desirable for a new </li></ul><ul><li>product to succeed: </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><li>people are more likely to adopt an </li></ul><ul><li>innovation if they can experiment with </li></ul><ul><li>it prior to making a commitment. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Prerequisites For Successful Adoption: <ul><li>Several factors are desirable for a new </li></ul><ul><li>product to succeed: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>- The product should be low in </li></ul><ul><li>complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>- A product that is easier to understand </li></ul><ul><li>and use will be chosen over that of a </li></ul><ul><li>competitor. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Prerequisites For Successful Adoption: <ul><li>Several factors are desirable for a new </li></ul><ul><li>product to succeed: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>- the product should offer relative </li></ul><ul><li>advantage over other alternatives, </li></ul><ul><li>- The consumer must believe that its </li></ul><ul><li>use will provide a benefit other products </li></ul><ul><li>cannot offer. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Prerequisites For Successful Adoption: <ul><li>Several factors are desirable for a new </li></ul><ul><li>product to succeed: </li></ul><ul><li>Observability </li></ul><ul><li>- innovation that are easily observable </li></ul><ul><li>and communicated, are more likely to </li></ul><ul><li>spread </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tasks <ul><li>No.7. Page 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think product placement is fair </li></ul><ul><li>competition? What fashion brand </li></ul><ul><li>examples do you see in your favorite TV </li></ul><ul><li>shows and movies? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Individual Consumer Dynamics (Motivation and Values)
  32. 32. Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes <ul><li>Modest theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Immodest theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Adornment theory. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued) <ul><li>Modest theory. </li></ul><ul><li>-people wore clothing to conceal the </li></ul><ul><li>private parts of their bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>-Modest theory is not universal </li></ul>
  34. 34. Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued) <ul><li>2. Immodest theory. </li></ul><ul><li>-clothes have been worn to draw </li></ul><ul><li>attention to certain parts of the body. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued) <ul><li>3. Protection theory. </li></ul><ul><li>-clothing was first used to protect us </li></ul><ul><li>from the elements such as cold, from </li></ul><ul><li>insect and animals. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Theories Of Motivation For Wearing Clothes (continued) <ul><li>4. Adornment theory. </li></ul><ul><li>-function of clothing is adornment, </li></ul><ul><li>personal decoration, or aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>expression. </li></ul><ul><li>-shows status and identity, and raises </li></ul><ul><li>one’s self esteem. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs <ul><li>Proposed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow. </li></ul><ul><li>A certain level must be attained before the next, higher one is activated. </li></ul><ul><li>One must first satisfy basic needs before progressing up the ladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 4-2 Page 118. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs (continued) <ul><li>Clothing can satisfy needs at nearly every level: </li></ul><ul><li>- Physiological: </li></ul><ul><li>clothing covers the body and protects </li></ul><ul><li>us from the elements. </li></ul><ul><li>- Safety: </li></ul><ul><li>clothing sold in US must pass </li></ul><ul><li>flammability standards. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs (continued) <ul><li>Clothing can satisfy needs at nearly every level: </li></ul><ul><li>- Social: </li></ul><ul><li>fashion is something to share with and </li></ul><ul><li>be seen in by others. </li></ul><ul><li>- Esteem: </li></ul><ul><li>wearing the latest fashion make us feel </li></ul><ul><li>good and give us a sense of status. </li></ul><ul><li>- Self actualization: </li></ul><ul><li>my clothes are an expression of the total me. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Consumer Involvement <ul><li>Do consumers form strong relationship with products and services? </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement: </li></ul><ul><li>a person’s perceived relevance of object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Consumer Involvement (continued) <ul><li>Involvement can be viewed as the motivation to process information. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Strategies To Increase Involvement <ul><li>Consumers differ in their level of involvement with respect to a product message. </li></ul><ul><li>A consumer’s motivation to process relevant information can be enhanced by one or more techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Appeal to the consumer’s hedonic need. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use novel stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use prominent stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Include celebrity endorsers. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Build a bond with consumers. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Values <ul><li>Values are fundamental beliefs that direct or motivate our behavior and decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>A person‘s set of values plays an important role in consumption activities, since many products and services are purchased because people believe they will help to attain a value related goal. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Core Values <ul><li>Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Tasks <ul><li>No.4 Page 136. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect a sample of fashion ads that appear to appeal to consumer values. What value is being communicated in each, and how is this done? Is this an effective approach to designing a marketing communication? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Demographic, Subcultures (Age, Race, Ethnicity)
  47. 47. <ul><li>Consumer lifestyles are affected by group memberships within the society at large. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Age And Consumer Identity <ul><li>People have many things in common with others merely because they are about the same age (or live in the same part of country). </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers who grew up at the same time share many cultural memories. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Age And Consumer Identity (continued) <ul><li>Four important age cohort: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Teens. </li></ul><ul><li>2. College students. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Baby boomers. </li></ul><ul><li>4. elderly. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Age And Consumer Identity (continued) <ul><li>Teenagers: </li></ul><ul><li>- making transition from childhood to </li></ul><ul><li>adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>- their self concepts tend to be unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>- they are receptive to products, </li></ul><ul><li>especially fashion. </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Gray Market <ul><li>Attempting to cater to all ages, ethnic group, and sizes. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Race And Ethnic Subcultures <ul><li>A group of consumers who are held together by common cultural and/or genetic ties. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers can no longer ignore the stunning diversity of cultures. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Race And Ethnic Subcultures (continued) <ul><li>Recently, several minority groups have caught the attention of marketers. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Tasks: <ul><li>No. 7 Page 212 </li></ul><ul><li>What are some important variables to keep in mind when tailoring marketing strategies to the elderly? How do these affect clothing they purchase? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Demographic Subcultures (Income And Social Class)
  56. 56. Consumer Spending And Economic Behavior <ul><li>Social class (status symbol). </li></ul><ul><li>Money and how consumption (income pattern). </li></ul>
  57. 57. To Spend Or Not To Spend? <ul><li>Consumer demand depends on both ability to buy and willingness to buy. </li></ul><ul><li>Discretionary spending: </li></ul><ul><li>the money available to a household after necessities are paid of </li></ul>
  58. 58. Individual Attitudes Toward Money <ul><li>Profiles: </li></ul><ul><li>Takes risks to get a head </li></ul><ul><li>Is better safe than sorry </li></ul><ul><li>(thrifty, and tries to minimize borrowing). </li></ul><ul><li>Puts others first </li></ul><ul><li>(money is a means of protecting loved ones). </li></ul>
  59. 59. Individual Attitudes Toward Money (continued) <ul><li>Profiles (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Travels first class or not at all </li></ul><ul><li>(buy luxury items) </li></ul><ul><li>Is controlled by money </li></ul><ul><li>(equates money with power). </li></ul><ul><li>Needs just enough to take care of self </li></ul><ul><li>(is not very interested in money). </li></ul><ul><li>Believe there’s more to life than money. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Consumer Confidence <ul><li>Beliefs about what the future hold is an indicator of consumer confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Which reflects optimistic or pessimistic about the future. </li></ul><ul><li>These belief influence how much money consumers will pump into the economy. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Social Class <ul><li>Economic conditions and social status often determine the type of clothing we select. </li></ul><ul><li>Social class, determined by a complex set of variables including: </li></ul><ul><li>- income </li></ul><ul><li>- family background </li></ul><ul><li>- occupation </li></ul>
  62. 62. Clothing Used To Regulate Distinction Between Class <ul><li>Clothing is one means of the control. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Social Classes Structure: <ul><li>Upper Upper </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Upper </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Middle </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Middle </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Lower </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Lower </li></ul>
  64. 64. Components Of Social Class <ul><li>Three major ones are: </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul><ul><li>Educational achievement. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Fashion excess can occur at many levels, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>- high price </li></ul><ul><li>- designer labels </li></ul><ul><li>- superfluous waste </li></ul><ul><li>- quantity of clothes for many occasions </li></ul><ul><li>- for every season </li></ul><ul><li>- in every color. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Fashion is often used as a status symbols to communicate real or desired social class. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Task <ul><li>No. 11. Page 246 </li></ul><ul><li>Compile a collection of ads that depict consumers of different social classes. What generalizations can you make about the reality of these ads and about the media in which they appear? </li></ul>
  68. 68. Psychographic (Personality, Attitudes, And Lifestyle)
  69. 69. Personality <ul><li>Which refers to a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way responds to his or her environment. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Fashion Theories (Based on Freud) <ul><li>Based on a psychoanalytic approach focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals subconsciously adopt and wear sexual symbols. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Brand Personality <ul><li>Refers to “brand equity.” </li></ul><ul><li>The extent that a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique association about a brand in memory. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Brand Personality (continued) <ul><li>Some apparel and accessory brands are easy to visualize with personalities. Example: </li></ul><ul><li>- Eddie Bauer (outdoors oriented). </li></ul><ul><li>- Gap (casual) </li></ul><ul><li>- Nike (sports) </li></ul><ul><li>- Rolex (expensive) </li></ul><ul><li>- Victoria’s Secret (romantic, sensual, and </li></ul><ul><li>sexy). </li></ul>