Chap003

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  • There are several methods that can be used to accumulate manufacturing costs and determine unit product cost. One of these methods is known as a job-order cost system.
  • Chap003

    1. 1. Chapter Three Systems Design: Job-Order Costing
    2. 2. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing <ul><li>A company produces many units of a single product. </li></ul><ul><li>One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. </li></ul><ul><li>The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing Example companies: 1. Pınar Süt (dairy products ) 2. DYO Paints (chemical) 3. Coca-Cola (mixing and bottling beverages) <ul><li>A company produces many units of a single product. </li></ul><ul><li>One unit of product is indistinguishable from other units of product. </li></ul><ul><li>The identical nature of each unit of product enables assigning the same average cost per unit. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing <ul><li>Many different products are produced each period. </li></ul><ul><li>Products are manufactured to order. </li></ul><ul><li>The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Types of Product Costing Systems Process Costing Job-order Costing Example companies: 1. Boeing (aircraft manufacturing) 2. Mesa Insaat (large scale construction) 3. Walt Disney Studios (movie production) <ul><li>Many different products are produced each period. </li></ul><ul><li>Products are manufactured to order. </li></ul><ul><li>The unique nature of each order requires tracing or allocating costs to each job, and maintaining cost records for each job. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Comparing Process and Job-Order Costing
    7. 7. Quick Check  <ul><li>Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Eczac ıbaşı for Selpak . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Architects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Tamek for ketchup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Caterer for a wedding reception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Quick Check  <ul><li>Which of the following companies would be likely to use job-order costing rather than process costing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Eczac ıbaşı for Selpak . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Architects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Tamek for ketchup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Caterer for a wedding reception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Builder of commercial fishing vessels. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Direct Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing Overhead Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Charge direct material and direct labor costs to each job as work is performed. Direct Materials Direct Labor
    10. 10. Direct Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing Overhead, including indirect materials and indirect labor , are allocated to jobs rather than directly traced to each job. Direct Materials Direct Labor Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Manufacturing Overhead
    11. 11. Job-Order Cost Accounting PearCo Job Cost Sheet Job Number A - 143 Date Initiated 3-4-05 Date Completed Department B3 Units Completed Item Wooden cargo crate Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Req. No. Amount Ticket Hours Amount Hours Rate Amount Cost Summary Units Shipped Direct Materials Date Number Balance Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead Total Cost Unit Product Cost
    12. 12. Materials Requisition Form Will E. Delite
    13. 13. Job-Order Cost Accounting
    14. 14. Employee Time Ticket
    15. 15. Job-Order Cost Accounting
    16. 16. Why Use an Allocation Base? Manufacturing overhead is applied to jobs that are in process. An allocation base, such as direct labor hours, direct labor dollars, or machine hours, is used to assign manufacturing overhead to individual jobs. <ul><li>We use an allocation base because: </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible or difficult to trace overhead costs to particular jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing overhead consists of many different items ranging from the grease used in machines to production manager’s salary. </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of manufacturing overhead costs are fixed even though output fluctuates during the period. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Using a predetermined rate makes it possible to estimate total job costs sooner. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual overhead for the period is not known until the end of the period. </li></ul>The Need for a POHR $
    18. 19. Application of Manufacturing Overhead Actual amount of the allocation based upon the actual level of activity. Based on estimates , and determined before the period begins. Overhead applied = POHR × Actual activity
    19. 20. Overhead Application Rate For each direct labor hour worked on a particular job, $4.00 of factory overhead will be applied to that job. POHR = $4.00 per DLH $640,000 160,000 direct labor hours (DLH) POHR = Estimated total manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period Estimated total units in the allocation base for the coming period POHR =
    20. 21. Job-Order Cost Accounting
    21. 22. Job-Order Cost Accounting
    22. 23. Quick Check  <ul><li>Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $200. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $350. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $380. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. $730. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Quick Check  <ul><li>Job WR53 at NW Fab, Inc. required $200 of direct materials and 10 direct labor hours at $15 per hour. Estimated total overhead for the year was $760,000 and estimated direct labor hours were 20,000. What would be recorded as the cost of job WR53? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $200. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $350. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $380. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. $730. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Let’s summarize the document flow in a job-order costing system.
    25. 26. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary A sales order is the basis of issuing a production order. A production order initiates work on a job.
    26. 27. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Materials Requisition Manufacturing Overhead Account Materials used may be either direct or indirect. Direct materials Indirect materials
    27. 28. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Job Cost Sheets Employee Time Ticket Manufacturing Overhead Account An employee’s time may be either direct or indirect. Direct Labor Indirect Labor
    28. 29. Job-Order Costing Document Flow Summary Manufacturing Overhead Account Other Actual OH Charges Job Cost Sheets Materials Requisition Employee Time Ticket Applied Overhead Indirect Material Indirect Labor
    29. 30. Job-Order System Cost Flows Let’s examine the cost flows in a job-order costing system.
    30. 31. YSL-Haute Couture <ul><li>As of January 31, two jobs: AJ $100 and JA $150 (represents only DM costs) </li></ul><ul><li>During February purchased $550 of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>During February $200 and $250 of cloth used for AJ and JA respectively. The cost of buttons and threads were $100. </li></ul><ul><li>Salary of Tailors was $600: $300 for AJ (24 hrs) and $300 for JA (22 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Salary of chief designer and other supervisors were $3.000. </li></ul><ul><li>Other actual overhead expenses were a total of $3.450 </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated overhead expenses for the period was $6.800 for a total tailor hours of 50. </li></ul><ul><li>Both jobs were completed by the end of February </li></ul>
    31. 32. Job-Order System Cost Flows Raw Materials <ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Purchases </li></ul>Mfg. Overhead Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) Actual Applied <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Materials </li></ul>
    32. 33. Job-Order System Cost Flows Mfg. Overhead Salaries and Wages Payable Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Materials </li></ul>Actual Applied <ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul>
    33. 34. Job-Order System Cost Flows Mfg. Overhead Salaries and Wages Payable Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Materials </li></ul>Actual Applied <ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Other Overhead </li></ul>
    34. 35. Job-Order System Cost Flows Mfg. Overhead Salaries and Wages Payable Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Materials </li></ul>Actual Applied <ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Other Overhead </li></ul>If actual and applied manufacturing overhead are not equal, a year-end adjustment is required. <ul><li>Overhead Applied </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead Applied to Work in Process </li></ul>
    35. 36. Nonmanufacturing Cost Flows Nonmanufacturing costs are not assigned to individual jobs, rather they are expensed in the period incurred. Examples: 1. Salary expense of employees that work in a marketing, selling, or administrative capacity. 2. Advertising expenses are expensed in the period incurred.
    36. 37. Job-Order System Cost Flows Finished Goods Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead Applied </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Mfd. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Mfd. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Job-Order System Cost Flows Finished Goods Cost of Goods Sold Work in Process (Job Cost Sheet) <ul><li>Direct Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead Applied </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Mfd. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Mfd. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Sold </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Goods Sold </li></ul>
    38. 39. Defining Under- and Overapplied Overhead The difference between the overhead cost applied to Work in Process and the actual overhead costs of a period is termed either underapplied or overapplied overhead. Underapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is less than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period. Overapplied overhead exists when the amount of overhead applied to jobs during the period using the predetermined overhead rate is greater than the total amount of overhead actually incurred during the period.
    39. 44. Disposition of Under- or Overapplied Overhead OR $30,000 may be closed directly to cost of goods sold. Cost of Goods Sold PearCo’s Method Work in Process Finished Goods Cost of Goods Sold $30,000 may be allocated to these accounts.
    40. 45. Disposition of Under- or Overapplied Overhead PearCo’s Mfg. Overhead Actual overhead costs $650,000 $30,000 overapplied PearCo’s Cost of Goods Sold Unadjusted Balance Adjusted Balance Overhead applied to jobs $680,000 $30,000 $30,000
    41. 46. Allocating Under- or Overapplied Overhead Between Accounts Assume the overhead applied in ending Work in Process Inventory, ending Finished Goods Inventory, and Cost of Goods Sold is shown below:
    42. 47. Allocating Under- or Overapplied Overhead Between Accounts We would complete the following allocation of $30,000 overapplied overhead:
    43. 48. Overapplied and Underapplied Manufacturing Overhead - Summary PearCo’s Method
    44. 49. Quick Check  <ul><li>What effect will the overapplied overhead have on PearCo’s net operating income? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Net operating income will increase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Net operating income will be unaffected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Net operating income will decrease. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 50. Quick Check  <ul><li>What effect will the overapplied overhead have on PearCo’s net operating income? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Net operating income will increase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Net operating income will be unaffected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Net operating income will decrease. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 51. Multiple Predetermined Overhead Rates To this point we have assumed that there is a single predetermined overhead rate called a plantwide overhead rate. Large companies often use multiple predetermined overhead rates. May be more complex but . . . May be more accurate because it reflects differences across departments.
    47. 52. Job-Order Costing in Service Companies Job-order costing is used in many difference types of service companies.
    48. 53. The Use of Information Technology Technology plays an important part in many job-order cost systems. When combined with Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or a web-based programming language called Extensible Markup Language (XML), bar coding eliminates the inefficiencies and inaccuracies associated with manual clerical processes.
    49. 54. Appendix 3a The Predetermined Overhead Rate & Capacity
    50. 55. Predetermined Overhead Rate and Capacity <ul><li>Calculating predetermined overhead rates using an estimated, or budgeted amount of the allocation base has been criticized because: </li></ul><ul><li>Basing the predetermined overhead rate upon budgeted activity results in product costs that fluctuate depending upon the activity level. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculating predetermined rates based upon budgeted activity charges products for costs that they do not use. </li></ul>
    51. 56. Capacity-Based Overhead Rates Criticisms can be overcome by using estimated total units in the allocation base at capacity in the denominator of the predetermined overhead rate calculation. Let’s look at the difference!
    52. 57. An Example Equipment is leased for $100,000 per year. Running at full capacity, 50,000 units may be produced. The company estimates that 40,000 units will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate?
    53. 58. An Example Equipment is leased for $100,000 per year. Running at full capacity, 50,000 units may be produced. The company estimates that 40,000 units will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate? Traditional Method = $2.50 per unit $100,000 40,000 = Capacity Method = $2.00 per unit $100,000 50,000 =
    54. 59. Quick Check  <ul><li>Crest Winery in Woodinville leases an automatic corking machine for $100,000 per year. If run at full capacity, it can cork 50,000 cases of wine per year. The company estimates 40,000 cases of wine will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate based on the estimated number of cases of wine? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $2.00 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $2.50 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $4.00 per case. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 60. Quick Check  <ul><li>Crest Winery in Woodinville leases an automatic corking machine for $100,000 per year. If run at full capacity, it can cork 50,000 cases of wine per year. The company estimates 40,000 cases of wine will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate based on the estimated number of cases of wine? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $2.00 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $2.50 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $4.00 per case. </li></ul></ul>
    56. 61. Quick Check  <ul><li>Crest Winery in Woodinville leases an automatic corking machine for $100,000 per year. If run at full capacity, it can cork 50,000 cases of wine per year. The company estimates 40,000 cases of wine will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate based on the number of cases of wine at capacity ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $2.00 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $2.50 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $4.00 per case. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 62. Quick Check  <ul><li>Crest Winery in Woodinville leases an automatic corking machine for $100,000 per year. If run at full capacity, it can cork 50,000 cases of wine per year. The company estimates 40,000 cases of wine will be produced and sold next year. What is the predetermined overhead rate based on the number of cases of wine at capacity ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. $2.00 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. $2.50 per case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. $4.00 per case. </li></ul></ul>
    58. 63. Quick Check  <ul><li>When capacity is used in the denominator in the predetermined rate, what happens to the predetermined overhead rate as estimated activity decreases? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. The predetermined overhead rate goes up when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. The predetermined overhead rate stays the same; it is not affected by changes in activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. The predetermined overhead rate goes down when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 64. Quick Check  <ul><li>When capacity is used in the denominator in the predetermined rate, what happens to the predetermined overhead rate as estimated activity decreases? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. The predetermined overhead rate goes up when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. The predetermined overhead rate stays the same; it is not affected by changes in activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. The predetermined overhead rate goes down when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 65. Quick Check  <ul><li>When estimated activity is used in the denominator in the predetermined rate, what happens to the predetermined overhead rate as estimated activity decreases? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.The predetermined overhead rate goes up when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b.The predetermined overhead rate stays the same; it is not affected by changes in activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c.The predetermined overhead rate goes down when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul>
    61. 66. Quick Check  <ul><li>When estimated activity is used in the denominator in the predetermined rate, what happens to the predetermined overhead rate as estimated activity decreases? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.The predetermined overhead rate goes up when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b.The predetermined overhead rate stays the same; it is not affected by changes in activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c.The predetermined overhead rate goes down when activity goes down. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 67. Basing the rate on capacity
    63. 68. Basing the rate on expected volume
    64. 69. End of Chapter 3

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