Headquarters U.S. Air Force
          Fly – Fight – Win



  Lessons Learned Process
            and
   JLLIS/JLLR Integra...
CSAF’s Vision for
                    Air Force Lessons Learned




“As warriors, we must learn from lessons of the past t...
Lesson Learned (L2) Defined

An insight gained that improves military operations or
activities at the strategic, operation...
AF Lessons Process (AFLP)
                                                        Echelons


                     HQ Air F...
AF Lessons Process
                   Near-Term Goal: Networked Lessons


                HQ Air Force

 MAJCOM           ...
AF Lessons Process
                                                   Fundamental Functions

   Collection
       Perfor...
AF Lessons Process
                                                          AF L2 Process             External Process

 ...
AF—Joint L2 Integration

                    HQ                Combatant
Joint Staff
                 Air Force           ...
New Joint Database
                    Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLLIS)

Will phase in April-May 2008     ...
AFLP Output
   Primary product:
       Lessons pushed to AF DOTMLPF OPRs
       Lessons pushed to AF POM, PPBE OPRs

 ...
AF Lessons Process
                                                  Proactive Dissemination

   Anticipatory lessons lea...
Tracking
   All issues tracked through ALMS (JLLIS)
   Status updates provided to A9L by DOTMLPF OPR
   “Above the line...
Sample Periodic Review
                                                                              Progress of Specific
...
Complete
                         On Glidepath
                         Below Glidepath
                                  ...
Collateral Damage Mitigation

   ALMS ID:     91463-12895                       Status
   Event:       JCCO L2
   OPR: ...
Old AF Lessons Database
                       Advanced Lessons Management System (ALMS)

Will phase out in April-May 2008...
USAF-JLLIS L2 Homepage




   Fly – Fight – Win     17
AF-JLLIS Implementation
                                        Schedule
AF Tier-1 established & AF-JLLIS familiarization ...
AF-JLLIS Issues
   MCCLL JLLIS Tech Support has been OUTSTANDING!
   ALMS data transfer/transition
   AF L2 community A...
L2 Observation Tracking
                     Example




 Fly – Fight – Win             20
Questions?
         HQ USAF/A9L
         1500 Wilson Blvd, Suite 610
         Rosslyn, VA 22209

         (703) 696-4951 /...
Fly – Fight – Win   22
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Af Developing Burn Proof Garments

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  • General Moseley’s vision for lessons learned emphasizes the need for quick lesson dissemination as well as the need to better cement these lessons to DOTMLPF decisions. Lessons Learned (L2) evolve from collaborative and synchronized efforts and must influence the DOTMLPF process. They must be quick, adaptive, and feed into the requirements process as appropriate to take advantage of available resources.This briefing is focused on addressing and developing AF L2 processes to successfully meet that vision. The AF L2 processes outlined in this briefing include 3 distinct elements: a new “adaptive” quick release process, a more “deliberate” L2 process empowers the AF Lesson Program (AFLP) to link L2 to DOTMLPF decisions, and an “integrative” or “processes within processes” approach that will help embed L2 across existing initiatives and key organizations.
  • This definition is much broader than previous AF or joint uses of the term “lessons learned.” Previous joint and Air Force versions of this term have focused exclusively at the tactical level, and always on problems that needed to be fixed. This new definition retains the tactical level, and includes issues that require a resolution, but broadens the scope to include positive info-only lessons and raises the level to include operational and strategic lessons.Some examples of older versions of this definition—from the joint CJCSI 3150.25A and our Air ForceAFI 10-203 on exercise after-action reporting:Lesson Learned—A technique, procedure, or practical work-around that enabled a task to beaccomplished to a standard based on an identified deficiency or shortcoming.This definition is tactical only, and stems from only a deficiency or shortcoming. According to this version, without deficiencies or shortcomings there can be no lessons.
  • The current organizational structure includes formal lessons learned organizations, mostly in the A9L format, at the Air Staff, MAJCOM, and C-NAF levels. There are also numerous less formal learning processes in place within all of our various functional communities, or “tribes.” The latter include the various flying platforms as well as all of the different combat and support functions performed within the Air Force. These functional processes have always worked well to spread the word, typically at the tactical level, around a given community. The products at this level have been TTP, AFIs, handbooks, QA-flash bulletins, safety alerts, and anything else that gets the word out quickly within a specific functional part of the Air Force.
  • Our goal is an IT tool that enables a net-centric approach to lessons management. This would be administered by HAF/A9L, as the AF functional process owner, but would provide a forum for all concerned to share information.
  • This is the list of the main functions performed by the AFLP. Although many A9Ls are organized along the lines of a division each for Collection, Dissemination, and Tracking, there is a great deal of cross-matrixing among the SMEs as required. The validation process, for example, relies on operational expertise regardless of which division a given SME belongs to. Answering RFIs is another area that crosses A9L division boundaries.
  • This is an overview of the entire AF Lesson Process, or AFLP. Those parts of the process that exist within the formal AFLP are shown in blue; these typically occur in A9L at the HQAF, Major Command, or Numbered Air Force level. Those parts of the process that involve other AF, joint, other agency, or allied partner organization are shown in green. Finally, no process is perfect—there are some lessons that are either ignored or forgotten; this part of the process is shown in red.The process can be broken down into four steps—collection, validation, dissemination, and tracking. 1. Active and passive collection bring observations into the AFLP from numerous sources, both inside and outside the Air Force. Formal collections are studies performed or sponsored by A9L. Other inputs come from high-level senior leadership all the way down to individual airmen, and can include inputs at the strategic, operational, and tactical level. The scope of the AFLP is also very broad—in addition to lessons from operations and exercises we also collect inputs from all other aspects of the Air Force. After-action reports are one example of a formal method for getting lessons into the system from operations or exercises; recent organizational guidance places the A9 in charge of after-action reporting for the Air Force. A9L also has personnel deployed to the CENTCOM AOR for each rotation, and conducts interviews and writes AARs for major operations in theater.2. Validation by an A9L takes the observation and determines whether there is in fact valid, useful information that needs to be passed on to a broader audience. This can take the form of a “lesson identified,” which is some best practice or other good method of doing something that needs to be captured and disseminated. We also validate “issues” that are gaps or shortfalls in capability that need to be passed on to some AF lead organization to help them find a resolution to the issue. A key part of validation is analyzing the observation to determine a root cause or best practice—this allows the AFLP to help the Air Force resolve causes rather than the symptoms. The final step in validation is to determine the right DOTMLPF lead agent, typically on the Air Staff or in a designated lead MAJCOM, to pass the issue or lesson to for further work. A9L does not normally resolve issues directly, rather we take a supporting role to help other organizations solve issues in their lane of responsibility.3. Dissemination takes the validation lesson or issue and puts it in the right hands to make a difference within the Air Force. For “best practice” type lessons, this normally means forwarding the lessons to doctrine, TTP, AFI, or other formal publication methods. Lessons are passed on to the course managers at formal education centers such as Air University, to ensure that the latest lessons are being taught to the next generation of Air Force leadership. When an issue is disseminated to an OPR who is already working similar issues, they can often be consolidated into a single overall project. A9L also publishes its own formal study reports—some examples include reports on the Air War over Serbia, Operation Anaconda, Hurricane Katrina, and Airpower in IED Defeat.4. Tracking is done by periodically pulsing the Air Force OPRs working to resolve issues that have been identified through the AFLP. This currently occurs every 120 days, in synch with the Air Force senior general officers conference. A status report on these issues is often provided to the Chief of staff and other senior generals as part of the background material for these conferences. For those issues considered “complete,” A9L is instituting an annual long-term revisit to ensure that lessons once learned, or issues once resolved, to not become forgotten about. The chart shows, in red, what can happen when a lesson learned becomes a lesson forgotten, or when an issue resolution action proves not to actually solve the issue. In these cases, we will often see more input observations that indicate the problem is still out there—this flow is shown on the chart in dashed arrows. As part of validation, A9L will normally to a database search to see if a new observation is a “repeat writeup,” which has been worked through the process at some time in the past. When this occurs the original resolution OPR will be consulted to see whether the original fix was faulty, whether circumstances or enemy adaptation have caused a change, or something else has caused the input to recur.
  • One issue remains Below Glide Path (insufficient funding to implement remedy solution)May 07: 15 issues added from Airspace C2 studyNov 07: 3 Issues elevated from MAJCOMs145 issues added from the six FY07 CSAF L2 focus area studies:5 from Training Airmen for GWOT15 from Aggressor/Adversary Training17 from Joint Airbase Opening10 from IED Defeat## from Space Support to the Warfighter## from CAS/TST
  • <number>
  • 29 Oct 2007 (ACC/A8ZW): The update to planning software JWS V1.2.1 has been released and is in use. This software will aid in CDE mitigation.
  • Going from “lessons identified” to true “lessons learned” is often difficult, and takes time and effort, but history teaches that it’s usually worth the effort.
  • Af Developing Burn Proof Garments

    1. 1. Headquarters U.S. Air Force Fly – Fight – Win Lessons Learned Process and JLLIS/JLLR Integration Col Scott “Street” Walker Director of AF Lessons Learned 1
    2. 2. CSAF’s Vision for Air Force Lessons Learned “As warriors, we must learn from lessons of the past to improve our current and future warfighting capabilities. Our AF Lessons Learned Process must influence our programming and budgeting as well as impact changes to training, materiel, and doctrine. It must be focused on an enduring, real-time process and quickly disseminate critical lessons to Airmen so we can fly, fight, and win.” Fly – Fight – Win 2
    3. 3. Lesson Learned (L2) Defined An insight gained that improves military operations or activities at the strategic, operational, or tactical level, and results in long-term, internalized change to an individual, group of individuals, or an organization AFI 90-1601  Always contains information of value to some person or organization  May have an associated issue that needs resolution  Can apply to any level  Includes combat operations and other activities  Results in long-term behavioral change  Can apply to an individual or group Goal: Inform AF / joint DOTMLPF, PPBE Fly – Fight – Win 3
    4. 4. AF Lessons Process (AFLP) Echelons HQ Air Force MAJCOM MAJCOM NAF NAF NAF NAF Functional Functional Functional Community Community Community Fly – Fight – Win 4
    5. 5. AF Lessons Process Near-Term Goal: Networked Lessons HQ Air Force MAJCOM Other Agency NAF Lessons Learned Coalition Information Network (JLLIS) Joint / Functional Community Other Service Units Airmen Fly – Fight – Win 5
    6. 6. AF Lessons Process Fundamental Functions  Collection  Perform formal collections  Assist informal collections and “push” lessons flow into AFLP  Validation  Identifies whether true lesson or issue exists  Drills lesson/issue down to root cause  Dissemination  Pushes lessons identified to publishing organizations  Distributes A9L-produced reports & studies  Makes lessons and reports available via data networks  Pushes “active” issues to DOTMLPF OPRs for resolution  Tracking  Tracks “active” issues through resolution process  Long-term periodic revisit on “completed” issues Fly – Fight – Win 6
    7. 7. AF Lessons Process AF L2 Process External Process Implement Lesson Published Formal Collection Resolution in - AFDD - TTP DOTMLPF / PPBE - AFI - Report - AU Curriculum - Other Other Written To Reports AF OPR Issue Senior Lesson Quick Leaders Identified Response Observation Validate Dissemination Airmen No Close Tactical Units Lesson Ignored/Forgotten Lesson Learned No Cultural Change/Backslide Cultural Change Not Taught/Tested Taught/Tested Joint/ Not Followed by Field/CCs Followed by Field/CCs Multinational/ No Reorganization Organizational Structure Interagency History, No Money Spent Systems Procured Other… Fly – Fight – Win 7
    8. 8. AF—Joint L2 Integration HQ Combatant Joint Staff Air Force Command HAF/A9L JFCOM JCOA Air/AF MAJCOM COMP Fly – Fight – Win 8
    9. 9. New Joint Database Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLLIS) Will phase in April-May 2008 NIPR & SIPR versions Fly – Fight – Win 9
    10. 10. AFLP Output  Primary product:  Lessons pushed to AF DOTMLPF OPRs  Lessons pushed to AF POM, PPBE OPRs  Lessons pushed to & tracked in common joint L2 database (JLLIS/JLLR)  Accessible to all DoD, both NIPR and SIPR  Lessons pushed to AFDDEC for Doctrine Development  Lessons pushed to AU for Curriculum Development  Lessons learned presentations at:  CORONA  CFACC Course  CAPSTONE  WG & GP / Commanders Courses  Numerous other connections Fly – Fight – Win 10
    11. 11. AF Lessons Process Proactive Dissemination  Anticipatory lessons learned summaries  Prepare documents of appropriate length in advance (BBP, etc.)  Part of A9L mission at all levels  Examples:  HAF/A9L produced BBP on NEO L2 for Lebanon NEO in 2006  1AF has distributed L2 product in prep for hurricane season  A9L now has a seat in many CAT/OPT operations  Part of CAT job is to provide quick, focused lessons recap— AF/A9L providing a “top 10” lessons list to AFCAT  Most CAT members will not have time to digest 100 page report! Fly – Fight – Win 11
    12. 12. Tracking  All issues tracked through ALMS (JLLIS)  Status updates provided to A9L by DOTMLPF OPR  “Above the line” issue status provided to CORONA  AF only—other services, joint L2 processes do not track lessons long term  “Completed” issues get annual revisit  Is the resolution action working?  Do we see fresh instances of the original observation?  “Gatekeeper” check part of validating new observations  Is this a repeat writeup? Fly – Fight – Win 12
    13. 13. Sample Periodic Review Progress of Specific 135 Action(s) Taken to Address An Observation Actions completed this 60 period 53 Active Issues on Glide Path this period 48 48 Active Issues Below Glide Path this period New Issues added this period, being activated 15 13 11 9 8 2 1 8 0 0 5 Nov May Aug Nov Nov May Aug Nov Nov May Aug Nov Nov May Aug Nov 06 07 07 07 06 07 07 07 06 07 07 07 06 07 07 07 Nov 07: 145 issues added from CSAF FY07 Lessons Learned Focus Area studies Total: 33 HAF-level actionable issues completed since A9L stand-up Fly – Fight – Win 13
    14. 14. Complete On Glidepath Below Glidepath Sample Periodic Review New Addition Status changed this period Status Issue Title OPR Event Date Remarks ACO, AIP, SPINS, APG Review 9AF C2 Airsp 29 Jan 07 CAOC has process for periodic ACO/AIP/SPINS/APG update Command & Control of Air Power AF/A3 MCO L2 8 Mar 07 4 of 5 Falconers at AOC 10.1 baseline; AFIs/TTPs revised CRC ADAFCO Liaison AF/A3 C2 Airsp 29 Jan 07 ADAFCO/CRC training implemented/exercised Domestic Crises Orders & Sourcing Processes AF/A3 Katrina 28 Mar 06 AF/A3 implemented VOCO process with ACC, AFNORTH, ANG Process used during 2007 wildfires in California without issue Evacuation Patient Visibility AMC Katrina 29 Mar 06 TRAC2ES-Mobile now operational; deployed during 2007 Hurricane Season Gloves and T-Shirt Safety AF/SE CENTAF 23 Oct 06 CENTAF/CC Memo authorizes CENTAF Wg CCs to issue Nomex clothing to individuals performing duties ‘outside the wire and at increased burn injury risk’  AF developing burn-proof garments Reliable Jam-Resistant Voice Communications SAF/XC C2 Airsp 29 Jan 07 Issue determined to be duplicate. See SIPR ALMS 91199-76763 (Al Najaf 07 report) for detailed explanation SOF & SOF-Conventional Integration AFSOC MCO L2 9 Mar 07 ASOC Initial Qualification Training Course syllabus completed and funding procured; 1st class projected for spring 08 Air Traffic Control (ATC) Integration AF/A3 C2 Airsp 29 Jan 07 Air Traffic Control (ATC) Integration has been combined with Integrating Non-DoD Airspace Users based on SME recommendation based on issue similarity. Collateral Damage Mitigation ACC MCO L2 8 Mar 07 Status has improved this quarter from Below Glide Path--JWAC has released improved CDE tools, JWS v 1.2.1 with mods to support GBU- 39 weaponeering. Fly – Fight – Win 14
    15. 15. Collateral Damage Mitigation  ALMS ID: 91463-12895 Status  Event: JCCO L2  OPR: ACC/A8Z  Issue: Improve tools to predict weapons to minimize and employ aids to mitigate collateral damage  Details:  CAOC ISR Div uses manual look-up tables to conduct Collateral Damage Estimates (CDE) – no automated tool in use  Automated CDE tools (FAST-CD, CDE-Wizard) not currently approved for use in CENTCOM AOR  CDE-Wizard not compatible with JADOCS  JWS v 1.2 with mods to support GBU-39 weaponeering planned for release soon  JWAC has released improved CDE tools  Air Warfare Battlelab studying Scaled Kill Munitions Fly – Fight – Win 15
    16. 16. Old AF Lessons Database Advanced Lessons Management System (ALMS) Will phase out in April-May 2008 NIPR & SIPR versions SIPR: http://lessonslearned.langley.af.smil.mil Fly – Fight – Win 16
    17. 17. USAF-JLLIS L2 Homepage Fly – Fight – Win 17
    18. 18. AF-JLLIS Implementation Schedule AF Tier-1 established & AF-JLLIS familiarization 6 Dec – 4 Feb ALMS data transfer; Doc Library file uploads 12 Dec/2 Jan AF-JLLIS Users Guide Complete AF L2 process review 28 Jan – 31 Mar Develop AF-JLLIS L2 Tracking Tool? 4 Feb – 25 Mar Establish NAF/MAJCOM “Tier-2” sites 4 Feb – 25 Mar WJTSC 08-1 10-12 Mar Implement AF-JLLIS L2 Tracking Tool? 17-21 Mar AF-JLLIS L2 Workshop 25-26 Mar Request & implement SIPR AF-JLLIS based on NIPR AF-JLLIS 25 Mar – 14 Apr ALMS data transfer OT&E, and data partitioning 31 Mar – 7 Apr Final NIPR ALMS data transfer & Doc Library uploads 7-10 Apr NIPR AF-JLLIS IOC & NIPR ALMS shutdown 10 Apr Final SIPR ALMS data transfer & Doc Library uploads 14-17 Apr SIPR AF-JLLIS IOC & SIPR ALMS shutdown 18 Apr Fly – Fight – Win 18
    19. 19. AF-JLLIS Issues  MCCLL JLLIS Tech Support has been OUTSTANDING!  ALMS data transfer/transition  AF L2 community AF-JLLIS training/familiarization  Information sharing between COCOMs, AF Component Commands and USAF  Long-term tracking of L2 observations/issues  Tracking of observations/issues being worked by action OPRs leading to DOTMLPF solutions  Periodic activation and review/tracking of lessons after DOTMLPF solution implemented Fly – Fight – Win 19
    20. 20. L2 Observation Tracking Example Fly – Fight – Win 20
    21. 21. Questions? HQ USAF/A9L 1500 Wilson Blvd, Suite 610 Rosslyn, VA 22209 (703) 696-4951 / DSN 426-4951 scott.walker@pentagon.af.mil https://www.lessonslearned.hq.af.mil/ https://www.lessonslearned.hq.af.smil.mil/ “We should write that spot down…” Fly – Fight – Win 21
    22. 22. Fly – Fight – Win 22

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