A Striking Ornamentation To Apparel Worn By Both Men And Women Alike
Traditional Chinese Knots Chinese knot (Chinese: 中國结 ) is a decorative handicraft arts that began as a form of Chinese folk art in the Tang and Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) in China . It was later popularized in the Ming and Qing Dynasty (1368-1911 AD). The art is also referred to as Chinese traditional decorative knots  . In other cultures, it is known as "Decorative knots" . History Archaeological studies indicate that the art of tying knots dates back to prehistoric times. Recent discoveries include 100,000-year old bone needles used for sewing and bodkins , which were used to untie knots . However, due to the delicate nature of the medium, few examples of prehistoric Chinese knotting exist today. Some of the earliest evidence of knotting have been preserved on bronze vessels of the Warring States period (481-221 BCE), Buddhist carvings of the Northern Dynasties period (317-581) and on silk paintings during the Western Han period (206 BCE-CE6). Further references to knotting have also been found in literature, poetry and the private letters of some of the most infamous rulers of China . In the 1700s, one of the book to talk extensively about the art was the book Dream of the Red Chamber  . The phenomenon of knot tying continued to steadily evolve over the course of thousands of years with the development of more sophisticated techniques and increasingly intricate woven patterns. During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) knotting finally broke from its pure folklore status, becoming an acceptable art form in Chinese society and reached the pinnacle of its success. Knotting continued to flourish up until about the end of imperial China and the founding of the Republic of China in 1911 AD when China began its modernization period  . From 1912 to the end of the cultural revolution in 1976, the art of Chinese knotting was almost lost  . In the late 1970s a resurgence of interest occurred in Taiwan , largely due to the efforts of Lydia Chen (Chen Hsia-Sheng) of the National Palace Museum who founded the Chinese Knotting Promotion Center . In the 1980s, Mrs. Chen focused her energies on the knotting artifacts preserved during the Qing Dynasty . Currently, Chinese knotting enjoys wide popularity in Taiwan with numerous specialty shops to be found.
<ul><li>In recent years, there has been a growing interest in Chinese knotting in New Jersey, particularly in the Chinese schools. Not only do the students love to learn the art, the parents have also become quite interested and involved. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, the author conducted a survey of thirty-three Chinese schools in New Jersey to see how many schools had knotting programs. The results indicate that 13 of the 33 schools had classes in knotting. The total number of students enrolled in the classes was 365. The school that had the largest number of students was the Hua-ren School. Of the 160 students in the school, 120 had instruction in knotting. Among the other schools, Mid-Jersey Chinese School, United Chinese School, Murray Hill Chinese School and Weide Chinese School all had relatively large number of students involved in knotting. At the time of the survey, four more Chinese schools already had plans for introducing knotting, and the rest of the 16 schools would have liked to hold classes but there was a shortage of teachers. There are altogether some 13 to 14 teachers, but none of them have standard knotting instruction manuals. Many use old texts they brought or ordered from Taiwan; others created their own teaching materials. As for the knotting supplies, the threads all had to come from Taiwan because the threads made here were not stiff enough. </li></ul><ul><li>The most appropriate age for the students to learn knotting is around 10 years of age. The beginners must first master the simple knots, such as the flat-knot, the linked-knots and elongated-knots. After having mastered the 14 different basic types of knots and the three kinds of three-dimensional Western influenced knotting methods, the students are ready to create their own objects of varying degrees of difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey also revealed that interest in knotting is growing, especially among the adults. Many parents of the students are especially enthusiastic. The adult-class of the Mid-Jersey Chinese School is an example. About 40 parents in the adult class cannot wait until the school begins to hone in on their knotting skills. According the principal of the school, the tying of Chinese knots requires patience, practice, memorization, and creativity—the same type of skills that are nurtured in Chinese calligraphy and painting. </li></ul><ul><li>The accomplished teachers, such as Ms. Chou Shenghong, Wang Manli, Yang Lintai and Xu Shenzheng have exhibited widely in New Jersey and have created a wide range of objects for their repertoire. Their displays attracted a large audience because of the intricacy and wide variety of colorful objects. Small objects, such as hair-clasps, knotted buttons, earrings, necklaces, broaches, fan decorations, flower arrangements, bracelets, etc. are the favorite of many viewers. Others appreciate the intricate birds, turtles, gold fish, frogs, butterflies, dragons, cranes, and shrimps. There are also miniature fruits and vegetable, such as corn, bananas, and pineapples. Other highly complex wall hangings are made with jades, vases, clay beads, woven bamboo baskets, and traditional palace lanterns. These objects not only reflect the artists’ individual taste and skill, but also Chinese national character. </li></ul><ul><li>The history of Chinese knotting goes back to prehistoric times. Knotting originated as a method of recording historical events. A large knot signified an important, major event; a small knot signified a minor event. Knots also came to signify love between two lovers. The Tang poet, Meng Jiao wrote on the multi-dimensional meaning of knots; knots for the lover, for the husband away from home, for the wife longing for her husband. The feelings of love and </li></ul>
<ul><li>As the art of knotting was passed down from generation to generation, it was transformed from its strictly functional application to an artistic and decorative one. During the 19th century, knotting reached its peak. From the imperial family down to the common people, Chinese knots were used to ornament the clothing of the imperial family, the caps of high officials, their belts and sashes, sword sheaths, carriage decorations, and cheomsam gowns of the modern day fashionable women. Many decorative knots are on display at the Palace Museum, including the knots used to embellish snuff bottles and the hanging decorations of the headdresses of the palace ladies. The artistry and craftsmanship had reached a high point. </li></ul><ul><li>In the history of Chinese folk arts, knotting occupies a prominent place because of its artistry and beauty, but it had its ups and downs depending on the changing times. Today, as our lives become more westernized, knotting has lost favor and began to decline so that the art has almost died out. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1960s, Taiwan promoted and rejuvenated the art of knotting. Folk art specialists were encouraged to seek out the elders who still knew the art of knotting to do demonstrations and to be interviewed. Ms. Xia-sheng Chen of the Palace Museum and The Voice of China magazine worked together and systematically introduced knotting to the Chinese and Western audience, and calling it “Chinese Knotting (Zhongguo jie).” As time went on, more and more people accepted it, and now it has become fashionable again. Classes in knotting began popping up everywhere. Thus, this Chinese art, which had been dormant for half a century, was revived on Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>The 80s was the golden period of knotting on Taiwan. Not only was it fashionable, even industries became interested in producing clothing, decorations, and New Year’s gifts using various kinds of decorative knots. They were well received by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, the artist Ms. Jinqin Chen-Lin moved from Taiwan to the United States and with her came the art of knotting. As soon as she arrived in the States, she began to promote the art and soon her reputation reached the Chinese schools in New Jersey, and the interest has not abated since. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese knotting as received more and more attention in New Jersey. People such as Marjorie Li and others believe that knotting is an art that has many levels of complexity and has much room for further creativity. It also has market potential. If the art can incorporate some Western elements, together with the right kind of promotion, Chinese knotting can have another renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of this writing, the English instruction for Chinese knotting is being completed. Soon it will available in the high school art classes and people will be able to find instruction on DVD with step-by-step demonstrations by a master artist, Mrs. Chou Shenghong. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy Knotting! </li></ul>
<ul><li>Archaeological studies indicate that the art of tying knots, which has been most simply defined by the Chinese dictionary Shuo Wen Chieh Tzu as "the joining of two cords", by the Chinese people has a legacy that extends back nearly 70,000 - 100,000 years. Recent findings including 100,000-year old bone needles used for sewing and Bodkins, instruments used to untie knots have been discovered to reveal this ancient tradition of knot tying. However, due to the inherent delicate nature of the medium, few extant examples of prehistoric Chinese knotting exist today. Some of the earliest evidence of knotting have been preserved on bronze vessels of the Warring States period (481-221 BCE), Buddhist carvings of the Northern Dynasties period (317-581) and on silk paintings during the Western Han period (206 BCE-CE6). Further references to knotting have also been found in literature, poetry and the private letters of some of the most infamous rulers of China. From these precious artifacts, it is undeniable that knots were an inherent and integral part of the everyday life of the Chinese people. </li></ul><ul><li>Some experts have suggested that the origins of Chinese knotting can be traced back to a cultural period in history that has more recently been termed a "knotted cord culture". The worshipping of knotted cord or rope by the Chinese people is both an interesting and multifaceted phenomenon. For instance, the actual term for "rope" has similar pronunciation and subtle links in meaning to the terms "spirit" and "divine". Thus, knots were cherished and imbued with profound spiritual and religious meaning. In other words, the manipulation of rope was used to make sacred objects of worship. Moreover, rope took on added cultural and spiritual significance due to the fact that knotted cord resembled a coiled dragon. Subsequently, manifestations of dragon spirits were imbued in the intricate rope designs of this period. Since the Chinese people believed themselves to be descendants of the dragon, rope or knotted cord was used to make sacred objects of devotion, serving to unify the society at large. Thus, the art of knotting was not only multifarious, but also commonplace among the Chinese people. </li></ul><ul><li>Knotting simply cannot be looked upon as mere folk or leisure art. Even in its most rudimentary form, the functional and practical importance of knotting in Chinese society is undeniable. In fact, the knot was the basis for written and symbolic communication, a method of record keeping and a symbolic representation of meaningful historical events that occurred over time. For instance, events of importance were symbolized by the tying of knots; the size or girth of the knot itself was reliant upon the importance of significance of the event being archived. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Another critical aspect of knotting is its purity of aesthetic expression. For instance traditional Chinese garb, including dresses, jackets and night attire were oftentimes enhanced with knotted waist sashes, belt ornaments and button knots. In addition, Chinese button knots were not only functional and more durable than bone buttons, but were also a striking ornamentation to apparel worn by both men and women alike. In addition, common household objects were often adorned with highly intricately woven knots embellished with jade or beads. Musical instruments, swords, lanterns, jugs and mirrors were decorated with carefully crafted and delicately twisted handmade cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The lyrical rhythm, unabashed intensity of color, highly defined texture and detailed patterns of Chinese knots are deeply entwined in folkloric tradition. It is evident that decorative knotwork is ripe with symbolic meaning. There are currently 18 basic types of Chinese knots: including the "cross knot", "ring hitch" and the "Chinese lanyard knot" to name a few. Certain knots such as the "mystic knot" pattern with its seemingly endless and repetitive pattern evokes one of the fundamental truths of Buddhism and the cyclical nature of all existence. In essence, knotwork serves to create an atmosphere of well-being, good luck and health, longevity and harmony. As gifts, they are emotional, sentimental, and are often keepsakes between lovers and friends. The phenomenon of knot tying continued to steadily evolve over the course of thousands of years with the development of more sophisticated techniques and increasingly intricate woven patterns. Decorative knotwork would ultimately reach its pinnacle of popularity during the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911). Knotting finally broke from its pure folkloric status and became an acceptable art form in Chinese society. Knotting continued to flourish up until about 1911 AD when China was experiencing modernization. Moreover, the influx of Western science and technology ultimately proved less practical concerns such as knotting to be rather obsolete. </li></ul><ul><li>It is evident that the tradition of Chinese knotting has had a long and tenuous history. The perpetuation of this seemingly timeless art form was single-handedly spearheaded by Lydia Chen (Chen Hsia-Sheng). This knotting movement was initially revitalized in the 1960s-1970s by Chen. In the 1980s, Mrs. Chen focused her energies on the knotting artifacts preserved during the Ching Dynasty. Also a practicing knotter herself, Chen's unrelenting and impassioned interest in this art form has not only uncovered historical artifacts, but has reinvigorated this dormant craft while propelling its livelihood and development into the future. </li></ul>
knot is very useful for the beginning or end of any decorative knot. The knot forms an X shaped figure when complete. It is simple to make and does not loosen easily. The more you pull, the tighter it becomes. Materials: Use at least 8 inches of No. 5 thread View the entire process . Step 1: Take thread, fold in half, and fasten midpoint with pin. Step 2: Take right strand and slip under the left strand, and flip it up, then bring it down to form a loop. Step 3: Take the right strand again, cross over the loop and thread it under itself and pull straight forming a loose circular knot. Step 4: Now take left strand and tuck under right strand then swing over toward the left and up. Step 5: Take same strand and tuck under lower loop of the knot and pull down. Step 5: Pull the right strand to tighten and the knot is complete. Hints: Follow Steps 1 to 4 to complete.
<ul><li>The Button Knot used in traditional Chinese dresses is one of the most practical knots. </li></ul><ul><li>It is small and tight and good for use as a button. It can also be used to fix the ends of </li></ul><ul><li>other knots, or as the beginning or end of knotting decorations. The Button Knot looks </li></ul><ul><li>like a diamond and, hence, sometimes called a Diamond Knot. If the string is very thick </li></ul><ul><li>, this can be substituted by a Double Connection Knot. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: Each knot needs 6" of No. 5 string, and a total length of 16"~20" is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hints: Although the button knot looks small, it is actually quite complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>After completion of Step 2, pay attention to the shaded hole and the center hold indicated by star (*) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Follow Step 3 for end a ‘s routing andStep 4 for end b’s routing respectively. Both ends have to be routed through the shaded hole and center hole accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Step 5, pull up the shaded circle and pull down both ends (a) & (b) evenly and slowly to become Step 6 (one of the Button Knot applications). </li></ul><ul><li>4. From Step 6 follow the line and tighten the loop to complete the Button Knot. If You split the ends from the completed Button Knot, as shown in Step 7, then you have a Button Flower as shown in Step 8 (Another Button Knot application). </li></ul>
<ul><li>knot resembles a three-leaf clover and is a symbol of good luck. There are many varieties of this knot </li></ul><ul><li>with many applications. It is popular knot. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: Use No. 5 thread of 12 inches in length. </li></ul><ul><li>View the entire process </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1. Form the letter M with the string and hold in place with pins. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Take the right bend in the “M” and tuck it under the left leg of “M” and fasten with pin. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Take right strand again and make a figure 8 loop the top one goes into the loop just formed </li></ul><ul><li>in the previous step. Fasten again with pin. Also fasten the other part of the 8 with pin. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Again take the left strand slip it through the first figure 8 loop. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Take right strand again and thread through original bottom loop from the bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6. Finally take the same strand double back and bring it through the top loop again from the bottom. (students must watch the video closely for these complicated procedures which are to difficult to explain in words.) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7. Tighten string to form the knot. </li></ul><ul><li>Hints: Follow the four steps depicted in the figures. Lay down the knot on a table and pull in the directions the arrows show. Adjust the size of each lobe to be equal. </li></ul>2 leaf knot 3 leaf knot
<ul><li>It was believed that a Ru-Yi would bring its owner happiness and good luck. A Ru-Yi symbolizes </li></ul><ul><li>power and magic. It was considered a lucky item, the owner of which would have enjoyed much </li></ul><ul><li>happiness. The uses of Ru-Yi knots are many and it is easy to tie this knot. It can be combined </li></ul><ul><li>with other types of knots for larger and more elaborate decorations. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: Each knot needs 28" of No. 5 string, a length of 48" will be needed to work with. </li></ul><ul><li>Hints: Each Ru-Yi Knot consists of four Cloverleaf knots. Fold the string into two equal halves and make a Cloverleaf knot at the center. Leave about 1.5" at each end and make a Cloverleaf knot on each side. The tightening is a little tricky. If you don’t do it right, you may have to start it all over again. Adjust each lobe as you make the knot and don’t leave too much string at the end. Of course, leave it longer when a thicker string is needed. </li></ul>
<ul><li>這個結是獨特的因為它看起來與前線和後面不同。前線看起來像一個十字架 , 但後面看起來像正方形。所以 , it’s 有時叫一個方形的結。這是一個相對地簡單的結做。它與其它結頻繁地被結合。這個結的一種共同的應用將使用它做火薄脆餅乾由多次重覆樣式。 </li></ul><ul><li>材料 : 使用螺紋二個片斷 8-10 英寸第 5 螺紋。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 1 。放置螺紋二條子線在彼此以形式十字架 , 水平的子線在垂直。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 2 。採取垂直上面和重疊水平在右邊形成圈。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 3 。採取正確的子線水平和重疊圈。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 4 。摺疊垂直左子線在圈由水平形成。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 5 。採取上部子線水平 , 摺疊和插入入圈。 </li></ul><ul><li>驟 6 。拉緊和調整並且發怒結是完全的。 </li></ul><ul><li>提示 : 跟隨箭頭在步驟 4 和慢慢地拉扯 串在所有四個方向。確定 串不扭轉。 </li></ul>This knot is unique in that it looks different from the front and the back. The front looks like a cross, but the back looks like a square. Therefore, sometimes it’s called a Square Knot. This is a relatively simple knot to make. It is frequently combined with other knots. A common application of this knot is to use it to make a fire cracker by repeating the pattern over and over again. Materials: Use two pieces of thread 8-10 inches of No. 5 thread. Step 1. Lay two strands of thread over each other in the form a cross, the horizontal strand over the vertical. Step 2. Take top of vertical and fold over horizontal to the right forming a loop. Step 3. Take the right strand of the horizontal and fold over the loop. Step 4. Fold left strand of vertical over the loop formed by the horizontal. Step 5. Take upper strand of the horizontal, fold back and insert into the loop. Step 6. Tighten and adjust and the Cross Knot is complete. Hints: Follow the arrow in Step 4 and slowly pull the string in all four directions. Make sure the strings are not twisting. 十字結
如果二串被使用 , 您能做一個圓的專欄與兩個跟隨同樣自轉或做一個方形的專欄與一個在一自轉和其他在相反自轉 If two strings are used, you can make a round column with both following the same rotation or make a square column with one on one rotation and the other on the opposite rotation. ( 前線 Fornt) ( 後面 Back) ( 圓 Round) ( 正方形 Square)
<ul><li>This is, of course, an auspicious knot frequently used on monk’s garments or drapes </li></ul><ul><li>in temples signifying good luck. It is an elegant knot. For tying this knot you need very </li></ul><ul><li>nimble fingers. You wil need to use all your fingers of your left hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 Step 1. Take thread and fold into halves. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Take thread in left hand and bring loop (loop 1) back over index finger. Separate the double thread over index finger into two loops (loops 2 and 3, from right to left). Together with the loop formed in Step 1, you have three loops. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Take the non-loop double thread (stem) and wind it under and up between loops 2 and 3 and hold with fourth finger (since we are not using pins this time, you have to use your fingers to hold loops in place.) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Then take loop 3 and fold it over the stem and hold with middle finger. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Then take loop 1 and fold over loop 3 and hold. Step 6. Finally take loop 2 fold it over loop 1 and tuck it under the stem over the index finger (must be loosened first). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7. You should have a figure like a three-leaf clover with the stem facing you. Now the first phase is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 Step 1. Take stem of clover pattern and swing it up between loop 1 and 2 (counting counterclockwise, the loop to the right of the stem is 1, the middle one is 2, and the left hand one 3). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Take loop 1 and fold over between loop 2 and 3 and fasten with pin, if you like </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Take loop 2 and fold down over loop 1 and fasten with pin. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Finally, take loop 3, fold over and insert between the two strands of the stem. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Now tighten the threads and adjust the loops; this complicated double Good Luck Knot is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Hints: Fold the string into halves and make four groups, as shown in Step 1. Make one cross knot in one direction and the next in the opposite direction. Tighten the main body and adjust the loops </li></ul>
<ul><li>圈子意味團聚或完美 , 和是一個吉利標誌為中國人民。瓣結有許多瓣和看起來像一個圓花安排。 </li></ul><ul><li>材料 : </li></ul><ul><li>為 5 瓣結您需要 12" 第 5 串。長度的 32" 是需要的運作與。 </li></ul><ul><li>提示 </li></ul><ul><li>: 這個結是相當複雜的。依照被說明仔細地跟隨步在圖。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 1 開始以苜蓿葉形立交路口結。但是 , 注意在步驟上的區別 2 。一起採取第一二個圈和審閱第三個圈。我們髮夾固定位置。 </li></ul><ul><li>當審閱第四個圈 , 發布第一圈和從事第二和第三個 , 依照被顯示在步驟 3 。跟隨這個序列繼續栓。 </li></ul><ul><li>步驟 4 和步驟 5 也許似乎難隨後而來。是耐心和實踐幾次 </li></ul><ul><li>在步以後在步驟 5, 拉扯所有圈在 方向由箭頭表明在步驟 6 。調整各個瓣的大小但拿著主體保持形狀原封。 瓣的數量可能是五 , 六 , 或十 , 根據您的設計。您可以增加 ( 由縫合 ) 小珠在中心。為一個大小珠 , 最好有更多瓣。 </li></ul>Circle means reunion or perfection, and is an auspicious symbol for the Chinese people. The Petal Knot has many petals and looks like a circular flower arrangement. Materials: For a 5-petal knot you need 12" of No. 5 string. A length of 32" is needed to work with. Hints: This knot is quite complex. Follow the steps carefully as illustrated in the figures. (1) Step 1 starts with a Cloverleaf Knot. However, note the difference in Step 2. Take the first two loops together and go through the third loop. Us a hair pin to fix the position. (2) When going through the fourth loop, release the first loop and work on the second and the third one, as shown in Step 3. Follow this sequence to continue the tying. (3) Step 4 and Step 5 may seem difficult to follow. Be patient and practice a few times. (4) After the step in Step 5, pull all loops in the directions indicated by the arrows in Step 6. Adjust the size of each petal but hold the main body to keep the shape intact. The number of petals can be five, six, or up to ten, according to your design. You may add (by sewing) a bead at the center. For a large bead, it is better to have more petals. 團錦結
<ul><li>Pan-Chang is one of the eight Buddhist treasures. The Pan-Chang Knot is eintricate </li></ul><ul><li>and elegant and has many uses. It can also be combined with other knots for a larger </li></ul><ul><li>design. It is tightly knotted together and can be used for hanging a heavy ornaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Four rows of Pan-Chang Knot requires 22" of No. 5 string. You need a length of </li></ul><ul><li>60" to work with.Six rows of Pan-Chang Knot requires 36" of No. 5 string. You need a </li></ul><ul><li>length of 84" to work with. </li></ul><ul><li>Eight rows of Pan-Chang Knot requires 54" of No. 5 string. You need a length of 160" work with. </li></ul><ul><li>Hints: This knot appears complicated, but follows a regular pattern, as shown in the figures . </li></ul>