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Tourism in Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals


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A presentation made by Dr Anna Spenceley at the Sustainable Tourism and Digitisation Conference in Mauritius, 23-24 May 2018

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Tourism in Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals

  1. 1. Tourism in Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals Dr Anna Spenceley Interna/onal consultant Chair, IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group Board member, Global Sustainable Tourism Council Interna/onal Conference on Digitalisa/on and Sustainable Tourism 23-24 May 2018 Le Meridien, Pointe au Piments, Mauri/us
  2. 2. Tourism and the SDGs
  3. 3. Tourism and the SDGs SDGs with tourism targets Note: Tourism can contribute to all 17 SDGs UNWTO (2017) Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030, Highlights
  4. 4. hUp:// of-africa/large-physical-map-of-africa.jpg
  5. 5. Propor/on of Africans who are poor fell from 56% in 1990 to 43% in 2012 – with 330 million poor people (World Bank, 2016) Tourism can contribute to poverty (BenneU et al, 1999): •  market comes to producers •  labour intensive (esp. women and youth) •  inter-sectoral linkages •  occurs in marginal areas (e.g. protected areas) •  fewer barriers to entry than other sectors Pafuri camp, South Africa •  Joint venture between community & Return Africa •  52 permanent staff (94% from local Makuleke community) •  Salaries of USD98,000 wages + benefits annually •  Impact on poverty reduc/on Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming
  6. 6. Tourism can catalyze sustainable agriculture (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017): •  Produc/on and supplies to hotels and restaurants •  Sales of local products to tourists •  Agro-tourism – addi/onal $ for farmers •  &Beyond + government + NGOs + academia + media •  Establishing marine conserva/on areas •  Tackling overfishing & killing endangered species •  Reef and endangered species protec/on, community empowerment and monitoring •  Capacity building including: conserva/on lessons; management of local fish stocks, community fishing prac/ces Braack & Mearns, 2017
  7. 7. ‘Healthy Parks Healthy People’ Visi/ng high biodiversity areas can give health benefits addressing obesity, cardiovascular disease, depression and anxiety (Sparkes & Woods, 2009) •  Tour de Tuli •  Wildrun •  Desert Knights •  KAZA Golf Classic Spenceley, 2018 Cross-border adventure products in transfron<er conserva<on areas (TFCAs), TFCA Tourism Community of Prac=ce
  8. 8. A skillful workforce is crucial in order to provide quality hospitality and experiences to tourists Tourism gives professional development & training opportuni/es for direct and indirect jobs for youth, women, and those with special needs (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) !Xaus Lodge, South Africa •  Community-owned, managed by private sector – Transfron/er Parks Des/na/ons •  28 permanent staff (93% local) •  Staff salaries of USD 883,900 between 2008-2017 •  Melissa Mienies: from cleaner to first female guide in Kgalagadi from community Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming hUps://
  9. 9. Tourism can empower women through jobs and income- genera/on from SMMEs (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) About 47% of hotel and restaurant employees are women (United Na/ons, 2017) but women are paid 10-15% less than male equivalents (UNWTO and UN Women 2010) Mantovani Guest House, South Africa •  Female owned - Sonja SchuUe •  19 ensuite rooms - renovated & expanded •  4-stars, AA ‘Highly recommended’ •  “It seemed natural to appoint women” Rylance & Spenceley, 2013a Motlejoa B&B, Lesotho •  Female owned – Manatela •  8 rooms •  Added a catering company •  Worker coopera/on policy Rylance & Spenceley, 2013b
  10. 10. Tourism investment in u/li/es - a cri/cal role in water access and security, hygiene and sanita/on. Efficient use of water in tourism, pollu/on control and technology efficiency can be key to safeguarding water (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Covane Lodge, Mozambique •  Community lodge – private operator •  Donor-funded re-investment pipeline & pump from Massingir dam to Canhane •  Community maintenance fund Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming Ngala Lodge, South Africa & Africa Founda<on •  Distribu/on of 1,200 Hippo Water Rollers in Welverdiend and Thlabekisa •  Funded by dona/ons andBeyond, undated hUp://
  11. 11. Tourism can accelerate the shis to renewable energy, & promote investment in clean energy sources (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Easiest to integrate into design – but some facili/es retrofit to be more energy efficient Mombo Camp, Botswana •  Switch from diesel to 100% solar •  Capital investment of USD 860 k •  93% reduc/on in carbon emissions (from 287 to 22 tonnes p/a) Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming Bale Mountain Lodge, Ethiopia •  25 Kw Micro-hydro power plant •  Biogas system from biodegradable waste hUps:// hUp:// africa_ethiopia_bale_mountain_lodge_view_credit_dale_morris_gallery.jpg
  12. 12. In 2006, Africa travel and tourism directly supported Ø  + 8 million jobs (2.6% of total employment) Ø  + 20 million jobs (6.5% of total employment) (including indirect jobs) (WTTC, 2017) Money from tourism can redistribute wealth from the rich to the poor e.g. spending on transport, accommoda/on, excursions, shopping, and food /drink Simien Lodge, Ethiopia •  38 staff (96% local) •  Fair salaries and service charges – 4 x value of other jobs in local town •  50:50 split men and women hUp:// Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming
  13. 13. Tourism development relies on good public and private infrastructure. Tourism can influence public policy for improvements that aUract tourists, foreign investment (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) and supports communi/es Makasutu Cultural Forest, The Gambia •  Accommoda/on on plavorms floa/ng on /dal water (1-2 m) •  Takes advantage of natural winds for ven/la/on •  Local fishermen access fishing zones along the river
  14. 14. Tourism can be a powerful tool for reducing inequali/es - engaging local popula/ons and key stakeholders & giving people opportuni/es to prosper (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Community-based small business: Witsieshoek, South Africa Spenceley, Rylance, Nanabahay and van der WaU, 2016 Joint ventures between community and private sector operator: Damaraland, Namibia
  15. 15. Tourism can help to advance urban infrastructure and accessibility, promote regenera/on and preserve cultural and natural heritage, assets on which tourism depends Investment in green infrastructure creates greener ci/es for residents and tourists (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Kigali, Rwanda •  Model of future Kigali city – ambi/ous masterplan to become the ‘Singapore of Africa’ •  Gateway for gorilla & cultural tourism hUps://’s-ci/es-future
  16. 16. The tourism sector can adopt sustainable consump/on and produc/on (SCP) modes, and accelerate the shis towards sustainability (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Certification in Africa •  18 certification programs operating •  715 hotels certified in 19 countries (<3.4% hotels) Spenceley, 2016
  17. 17. Tourism contributes to and is affected by climate change. By reducing its carbon footprint in the transport and accommoda/on sector, tourism can benefit from low carbon growth (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Mauritius •  Design of environmental good practice guidelines for the Mauritius Hotel Industry •  AHRIM / ComSec •  Handbook, implementation plan •  “Guidelines for energy efficiency” – appliance selection tools (e.g. aircon, oven, laundry, lighting solar PV, water heating) •  Sample energy management plans: air conditioning, hot water, lighting, kitchens and laundry Spenceley, Bashain and Saini, 2011; AHRIM, 2011
  18. 18. Coastal and mari/me tourism rely on healthy marine ecosystems. Tourism development must help conserve and preserve fragile marine ecosystems - promote a blue economy - contribute to sustainable use of marine resources (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) hUp:// Country Beaches Marinas Boats Morocco 24 2 South Africa 45 7 10 © Jus/n Hoffman Blue Flag in Africa
  19. 19. Rich biodiversity and natural heritage are osen the main reasons why tourists visit a des/na/on. Tourism can play a major role in conserving and preserving biodiversity and genera/ng revenue as an alterna/ve livelihood to local communi/es (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Nikwichi Lodge, Mozambique •  Created 120,000 ha conserva/on areas with 16 communi/es •  Regulate land use & stop hun/ng Bisate Lodge, Rwanda •  Extensive reforesta/on program around Volcanoes Nat. Park •  15,000 indigenous trees planted •  20 community members casual staff Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming
  20. 20. Tourism revolves around billions of encounters between people of diverse cultural backgrounds Tourism, which benefits and engages local communi/es, can also consolidate peace in post-conflict socie/es (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Spenceley, 2014; 2018; Jones, 2018
  21. 21. Tourism has the ability to strengthen private/public partnerships and engage mul/ple stakeholders – interna/onal, na/onal, regional and local – to work together to achieve the SDGs and other common goals (UNWTO & UNDP, 2017) Spenceley, Snyman and Eagles, 2017 hUps://
  22. 22. hUp:// of-africa/large-physical-map-of-africa.jpg •  Implica/ons for repor/ng •  Mixed qualita/ve and quan/ta/ve data •  Embedded within case studies •  How to help na/ons monitor & report on the SDGs using digi/sa/on?
  23. 23. Thank you! Dr Anna Spenceley -  Consultant, -  Chair, IUCN WCPA TAPAS Group -  Board member, GSTC Email: Blog: Website: Key Source: Anna Spenceley and Andrew Rylance (in prep) The contribu=on of the tourism to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, in McCool, S. and Bosak, K. (eds) A research agenda for sustainable tourism, Edward Elgar Key Source: Snyman & Spenceley, forthcoming