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Situational analysis tourism certification, water and waste management in Africa


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This presentation was given at the COP22 on Climate Change, on 8 November 2016. The paper is the result of a study commissioned by the African Development Bank.

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Situational analysis tourism certification, water and waste management in Africa

  1. 1. { Situational analysis: Sustainable tourism certification in Africa: Water and waste practices by hotels Dr Anna Spenceley, COP22, Morocco, 8 November 2016 Consultant, ANRC, AfDB Chair IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group
  2. 2. UNEP & GIZ, 2003: Fig 1; Pixabay Hotels – water and waste
  3. 3. What can certification do? Rewarding good practices: • Improve efficiency and reduce operating costs • Increase sales • Gain credible independent recognition • Identify ways to improve internal management Meeting obligations: • Demonstrate compliance with legal requirements • Comply with tour operator standards and requirements ITP, 2016; Travel Foundation, undated; Green Star Hotel Program
  4. 4. Hotel Certification in Africa African certification programs International certification programs
  5. 5. { 24 68 153 129 1 8 13 6 44 89 1 13 118 27 1 7 1 11 (MOROCCO) 1
  6. 6. What people say about certification in Africa “Government needs to promote energy, water and waste audits among tourism businesses so that they start understanding the benefits of sustainable tourism and then get certification ready.” “Most businesses don’t relate their expenses with the cost of certification – hence they are unable to see the Return On Investment (ROI) ratio that certification does produce”.
  7. 7. Waste criteria in certification Criteria categories: ITC Standards Map; Images Pixabay
  8. 8. Waste criteria examples “The tourism business implements a waste management plan which has quantitative goals to minimize waste produced as well as to re-use, recycle or effectively dispose of it.” “All waste storage needs to be well contained within appropriate structures, with a solid floor to prevent leakage and soil contamination / chemical pollution” “The enterprise waste management plan includes a plan to reduce pollution from refrigerants, used fuel, paints, and large batteries and there is evidence of implementation of this plan” “The business shall develop, implement and manage a Noise & Nuisance Management Document which addresses all sources of noise emanating from its operational activities.”
  9. 9. Water criteria in certification Criteria categories: ITC Standards Map; Images Pixabay
  10. 10. Water criteria examples “A guest towel and linen reuse program is operated during the tour and staff receive instruction on the implementation of the program.” “The facility disposes of its waste water in a responsible manner, with no discharge of any raw effluent into the environment.” “If you do not have a dry or entirely natural garden, do you use grey water (from laundry, showers, and hand basins) for irrigation?” “Quality of freshwater supply is controlled monthly and documented by external organization (pH- value, chlorine, total dissolved solids).”
  11. 11. What incentives exist?
  12. 12. Effective new incentives? Incentives need -  Short pay-back periods – e.g. water saving devices  Sufficient returns – i.e. enough to change behaviour  Appropriate scale – i.e. size of hotel
  13. 13. Training needed For government departments (n=36) For hotels (n=36) Manuals and guidelines on water and waste management already exist
  14. 14. Case studies
  15. 15. Case study 1: Travelife • 131 hotels certified in Africa: • Egypt (57), Tunisia (31), Morocco (16), Mauritius (12), Cabo Verde (7), Kenya (4), Tanzania (2), South Africa (1) and the Gambia (1) • Market incentive • Travelife Collection links certified hotels to 30 tour operators and travel agents promoting sustainable holidays • Collaboration • Work with ABTA, The Travel Association, and the Travel Foundation on the ‘Make Holidays Greener campaign’
  16. 16. Case study 2: Green Hotel Star  76 certified hotels in Egypt  Criteria:  Waste criteria: 9 mandatory, 6 optional  Water criteria: 15 mandatory, 7 optional  Ministry of Tourism launching a package of incentives – including funds for technologies  Innovation in hotels: portable sprinklers (Iberotel Lido), pool backwash water for irrigation (Three Corners Rihana)
  17. 17. Case study 3: Wilderness  48 camps owned or managed in 6 countries: East Africa (Seychelles), Southern Africa (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe). In 2015 also in Central Africa (DRC)  Integrated reporting:  Certification:  53% reduction bottle water since 2012 (467,485 fewer)  Increase in camps recycling from 7% in 2012 to 47% in 2016
  18. 18. Case study 4: KAZA TFCA  Kavango Zambezi TFCA treaty between Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe  Incentive for certification: Eligible for inclusion in Futouris catalogue & Fair Trade Holidays  25 new lodge certifications in 1 year (with water and waste criteria) in Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe  Handbook on Sustainable Supply Chain Management due 2016  Challenge of destination with small lodges (<20 rooms) for tour operators
  19. 19. Case study 5: Constance Ephelia  313 room resort on Mahe, Seychelles  Certified twice:  In 2015:  Waste reduction saved Ephelia USD 17,100 in landfill and transport costs  10 staff received USD4,763 for recyclables they collected  Bottle water from reverse osmosis was 54% of all drinking water – saving 200,000 plastic bottles
  20. 20. Certification:  Sufficient tourism certification programmes in Africa (18 operating)  Comprehensive criteria for waste and water in certification programs  Regional program to integrate sustainability criteria in star-ratings  But - very few hotels in Africa have been certified – less than 3.4% Incentives:  Cost savings incentivise certification, good waste and water management  Tax allowances and more information would encourage more certification, and better waste & water management Training and tools:  Many tools and guidance documents exist - but are not well known  Training is needed for government and hotels - workplace based Key findings:
  21. 21. Recommendations for AfDB support: •Policy gap analysis for AfDB member states on incentives for water and waste management, and certification. •Guidance on incentive development and mainstreaming options - with technical support and mentoring •Generic and country-specific guidance on policy and regulation establishment, including inclusion of sustainability criteria in star-rating programs •Backstopping through incentive design, establishment, piloting and scaling up Services to governments •Research to support decision making: Return On Investment from certification, water and waste management; Case studies; Best practices; Incentives. •Disseminate research and other tools by establishing an online resource library. •Conduct a systematic analysis to describe and quantify the collective impact of certification on overall water and waste management in Africa. Knowledge development •Increase in-house and/or outsourced technical support to AfDB to support member states. •Raise awareness of the benefits of sustainable tourism certification - for governments and hotels. •Country-specific strategies for establishing/scaling up training for relevant government staff and hotel representatives. •Training of trainers in AfDB countries to establish national-level expertise •Mentoring and backstopping as needed by member states. Capacity building •Develop strategic partnerships with multilaterals, bi-laterals, NGOs and existing networks to promote networking and linkages between bodies working on certification, waste and water management. Coordination & cooperation
  22. 22. Thank you! Dr Anna Spenceley Phone: +248 256 4559