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Review of Legal Frameworks globally Rita Casimiro

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This presentation by Rita Casimiro was delivered at the 'Concessioning tourism opportunities in conservation areas and maximising rural development' workshop, held in Maputo between 19-22 March 2012 (Day 1, Session 2, Legal frameworks)

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Review of Legal Frameworks globally Rita Casimiro

  1. 1. Base Convenções Internacionais Enquadramentos legais das – Como se torna o direito internacional publico Moçambique: Dualista e recepção plena. vinculativo na ordem interna? Publicação - produção de concessões: Exemplos Os diferentes sistemas seguem teorias Monistas efeitos. Algumas convenções ratificadas: e Dualistas. Diversidade Biológica (CBD) Resolução 2/94 A incorporação faz-se Espécies em vias de por: extinção (CITES) - Rita Casimiro Resolução 30/81 recepção plena, Terras Húmidas (Ramsar) recepção semi-plena Resolução 45/2003 19 March 2012, Girassol Indy, Maputo (transformação) USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoBase Experiências – pontos em comum Política – orientações e estratégias de implementação - interesse público - Moçambique: África do Sul – questões de justiça social, uso necessidades colectivas: CRM sustentável dos recursos naturais e dos requisitos de Redução da pobreza Propriedade da terra gestão financeira das PA. Envolvimento do sector Resolução Conselho Ministros privado Componentes de Lei América do Sul – forças propulsoras de processos de sustentabilidade Assembleia República desenvolvimento de concessões mais Biodiversidade e gestão Decreto e Decreto-Lei inclusivos/participativos: reconhecimento dos direitos ambiental Conselho Ministros dos povos indígenas e matérias relacionadas com a Direitos das comunidades locais Diplomas Ministeriais apropriação de terras. Ministros Enquadramento Legal – América do Norte – preservação da biodiversidade e conjunto hierárquico - legislação primária e secundária sustentabilidade ambiental são preocupações centrais. USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo SADC SADCNamíbia Regime Monista Namíbia PA – em terras públicas e comunais. Política de Concessões de Turismo e Recursos Bravios de 2007: Sistema de PA – tutela do Ministério do Ambiente e Empowerment de Namibianos previamente Turismo e gerido pela Namibia Community Based desfavorecidos Tourism Assistance Trust. Promoção do desenvolvimento sustentável, do alívio da pobreza e criação de emprego Transformações pós-apartheid – devolução de direitos Apoiar o desenvolvimento de capacidades, limitados de propriedade sobre espécies selvagens e habilidades e acesso a capital por parte dos terra às comunidades locais que se organizem numa Namibianos entidade legal de gestão dos recursos naturais chamada conservancy. USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo 1
  2. 2. SADC SADC África do SulNamíbia Regime Dualista – necessário acto de aprovação. Concessões de caça têm sido atribuídas por via de leilões comerciais. SANParks – empresa pública com autoridade para gerir os parques nacionais e mandato direccionado para a Modelos de concessão: conservação da biodiversidade, incluindo a contratação Concessão de 2 níveis: com conservancy e esta com de concessões, adjudicadas ao nível provincial e nos termos da legislação sobre PPP. parceiro privado; Compropriedade com comunidades. USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo SADC ColômbiaÁfrica do Sul Regime Dualista de recepção plena. Com a entrada em vigor da política sobre land restitution (e casos em tribunal desde finais de 1990) os modelos de concessão foram actualizados em conformidade. Desde 1994, os parques nacionais são geridos como um sistema pela Natural Parks Unit do Ministério do Ambiente, Habitação e Desenvolvimento Territorial. Modelos de concessão: Concessão de 2 níveis aonde a agência de nível A diminuição do financiamento público e das receitas do provincial concede direitos de cessão de sector do turismo levaram o país a começar a exploração/lease a comunidades locais devidamente implementar novas estratégias de gestão da organizadas em development trusts, e que em torno conservação em PA: acordos de ecoturismo de base Devem estabelecer parcerias financeiras e comunitária e adopção de um modelo geral de contrato operacionais com o sector privado. (contrato de concessão para serviços de ecoturismo). USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoColômbia EUA O quadro de políticas compreende: a Política Nacional Teoria Monista (aplicabilidade directa na ordem para o desenvolvimento do Ecoturismo, Orientações de nacional): Política para o Ecoturismo de base Comunitária e A Supremacy Clause da constituição norte americana Política de Concessões de Ecoturismo. Os contratos de determina que all Treaties made, or which shall be concessão são regidos pela Lei da Contratação do made, under the authority of the United States, shall Governo. be the supreme Law of the land, mas Praticamente todos os tratados devem ser Modelos de concessão: incorporados na lei federal pelo Congresso para que produzam efeitos. Concessões directas ao sector privado que, consoante as características específicas da PA, pode ou não celebrar contratos com as comunidades, ou A National Park Service é a agência federal incumbida criar uma SPV; da gestão da conservação e das concessões em todos não regulam matérias de gestão da conservação, os parques nacionais. monitoria e cumprimento que são da responsabilidade exclusiva da Unidade. USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo 2
  3. 3. EUA EUAQuadro legal: Modelos de concessões: Lei de melhoramento da gestão das concessões de As concessões são adjudicadas normalmente por 1998 concurso e conforme previsto nos planos de gestão Políticas de gestão (executórias) – orientações e do parque e de serviços comerciais para contratação regulamentos obrigatórios dos parques. de serviços ou do tipo BOT, e Desde que nas comunidades vizinhas ao parque nãoOperações devem ser “consistentes, na medida do que haja capacidade para a prestação de tais serviços oupraticamente for o mais elevado possível, com a realização de trabalhos.preservação e conservação dos recursos e valores daunidade do parque (…) e demonstrar uma coerente(sound) gestão e advocacia”. USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo 3

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