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Funding Protected Areas Jim Barborak


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This presentation by Jim Barborak was delivered at the 'Concessioning tourism opportunities in conservation areas and maximising rural development' workshop, held in Maputo between 19-22 March 2012 (Day 2, Session 5, Financing tourism concessions)

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Funding Protected Areas Jim Barborak

  1. 1. Basic principles Government agencies, NGOs and communities that own or manage PA Who pays the bills? management agencies can and should try Funding protected areas and to become more self sufficient, particularly to pay for recurrent personnel and the role of concessions operations costs There are a number of techniques and mechanisms to achieve this Jim Barborak Concessions can be one of an array of mechanisms to fund PAs but are not a panacea USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoA key goal should be to develop the There are no miraculous solutions for theplanning, budgeting, and administrative challenge of financial and financial strategies Financial strategies are need to resolveneeded for an agency, program or both short and long term funding needsproject to meet its goals and objectiveswith the greatest effectiveness, Strategies and sources are needed toefficiency, social responsibility and cover both operational (recurrent costs)sustainability possible. and development costs.This requires keeping fixed costs low! USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo It is vital to begin the source for support in Funding techniques house, then locally, then regionally, then nationally, and only then think about Regular and special Alliances with other outside resources and support from budget allocations agencies: tourism, abroad. User fees and tariffs for agrarian reform, direct (e.g. Tourists) planning, tourism, and indirect users education, defense, Many people in developing countries public security, public (water users) switch this around! works Environmental service fee and payment Creation of foundations, systems endowments and trust funds Carbon markets USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo
  2. 2. Other mechanisms External sources of support Fiscal stamps and excise taxes Hunting and fishing licenses and permits for scientific research and resource use and export Multilaterals Excise taxes (guns, ammo, fishing and camping gear) Fines and auction of confiscated goods and use UNDP, UNEP, FAO, BIRF (B. Mundial) of confiscated equipment Regional Banks: ADB, etc. Tourism taxes European Union Commemorative stamps and coins Regional bodies Tax breaks and other fiscal incentives in return for donations of cash, equipment, land, materials Souvenirs and book sales USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo Bilateral agencies International Conventions CIDA (Canadá) HOLLAND Ramsar JICA World Heritage AECID USAID International ITTO DANIDA volunteers CBD, UNFCCC via GEF NORAD National resource management FINNIDA agencies (USDA GTZ/KFW DOI from USA) USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoNew mechanisms Funds from NGOs Can be global, BirdLife network Debt swaps under TFCA and other programs regional, national or FFI REDD and global carbon market local WCS Environmental service payment systems May be focused on WWF National and regional environmental funds environmental issues IUCN Trust funds and endowments or on social development TNC Private capital investments CI Often more flexible, quicker than bilaterals CARE and multilaterals National NGOs Local NGOs USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo
  3. 3. Sources of scholarships, research grants, Sources of direct revenuetechnical assistance, funds for exchanges Tourism activities Universities Fundraising campaigns and appeals Museums Souvenir sales Science foundations Visitor center proceeds DAAD Concerts, art sales, galas USIA, Fulbright Membership dues CUSO Corporate and individual philanthropic Other governments donations International volunteer agencies Friends associations USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoDon´t forget! So how can concessions help fund parks? NGOs are not necessarily good Directly through concessions fees entrepreneurs, neither are governments Directly through investments in physical plant and equipment NGOs, concessions, etc. require very clear Directly through donations and in-kind and well thought out statutes and services provides to PA authorities administrative and financial controls USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logoIndirect ways concessions can help Presentationsfund PAsIndirectly by increasing visitation and directentrance fees and other fees paid to Financing for private sector working in Malcolm Turner Mozambiqueconservation authoritiesIndirectly by reducing fixed costs of PA mgt. Financing for the private sec tor in tourism Sue Snyman concessions in southern AfricaIndirectly by supporting fundraising campaigns Maximizing local linkages into the Tourism Manuel Mutimucuio (the value chain – “the trickledown effect”)Indirectly through investments in communitiesthat reduce pressure on park resourcesIndirectly through physical presence USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo USAID/SPEED logo Technoserve logo