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Lam

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This presentation was made at a IUCN WCPA Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group side event at the World Parks Congress, Sydney, on 13 November 2014

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Lam

  1. 1. Presented to the World Parks Congress by Lamson Maluleke THE MAKULEKE JOINT VENTURE PARTNERSHIPS IN THE GLTFCA: TOURISM AS A NATURE BASD SOLUTION
  2. 2.  After the democratization of the country in 1994, the Makuleke community was one of the first communities in South Africa to win a land claim in 1998.  The Makuleke community regained the title to the land in 1998 after a restitution of land rights process which lasted for 2 years.  This negotiated settlement creates the framework for one of the most advanced programmes of community involvement in conservation and wildlife.  After the Pafuri land has been returned to its original owners (the Makuleke people),  The Makuleke community retained the land as part of Kruger National Park to be co-managed by the Makuleke community and the South African National Parks through the Joint Management Board (JMB).
  3. 3.  The Makuleke Contractual Park is 26,500 hectares in size and lies at the northern extremity of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa.  It is bounded by the Limpopo River in the north, Luvuvhu River in the south and Mutale River in the west.  The Limpopo River is also the boundary between South Africa and Zimbabwe, while the meeting point of the Limpopo and Luvuvhu Rivers is where South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique meet.  The Makuleke Contractual Park is a unique and special place.  It boasts a long and interesting history and is considered one of the high biodiversity areas in the Kruger National Park and South Africa more generally.
  4. 4.  Makuleke Region forms part of the GLTP  Initially, their involvement was more on peripheral  But they have now been given the recognition they deserve by the TFCA and are examples of how to benefit from tourism and conservation for other communities in the TFCA.  The Park Manager does attend the GLTP JMB committee
  5. 5. Regional perspective Pafuri Region: Conservation components
  6. 6. KRUGER NATIONAL PARK •Pafuri Gate •Tulamela Gate •Punda Maria Camp •Nyalaland hiking trail •Pafuri picnic site •Teba Facilities •Crook’s Corner •Tulamela Archaeological Site MAKUYA GAME RESERVE •Tshikondeni Gate •Hunting Camp •Ivory Trails Camp •Mutale Gorge •Mutale potholes & waterfalls •Luvuvhu Gorge MAKULEKE •Pafuri Gate •Outpost Safari Lodge •Wilderness Safari’s Camp •Runway •Lanner Gorge •Limpopo / floodplain GONAREZHOU NATIONAL PARK •Buffalo Bend Camp •Eduardo Mondlane Border Post PARQUE NATIONAL DO LIMPOPO •Teba Facilities Existing Infrastructure and attractions
  7. 7.  December 1998 - Settlement agreement finalized.  Sets out vision of community owned land within KNP system via “Contract Park”.  For 50 years but after 20 it can be withdrawn. (24.1) if CPA give 5 years notice.  Therefore in 2014 there will be a decision by CPA on future!  JMB (50/50 KNP/CPA) is established with power to manage the land within a Master Plan that was completed in March 2000.  CPA called for tourism development proposals in 1999.
  8. 8.  Benefits to the community includes:  The sustainable use of natural resources: - Hunting concession  Employments as a result of photographic tourism - The development of The Outpost Lodge - The Pafuri camp - The Levubu lodge - The Eco-training camp
  9. 9. Partner Chronologicall y Start date Period of concession Number of beds Actual beds Number of game vehicles The Outpost May 2001 15yrs +15yrs 24 plus 12 (but 8 if 32ttl) 24 EIA for 3 Elsmore August 2002 15yrs + 15yrs+ 15yrs 30 plus 20 = 50 0 0 Wilderness Safaris July 2005 15yrs +15yrs+15yrs Stage 1 is 18+44= 62 Stage 2 is 18 Option is 44 Total = 122 52 8 walking trail Total 62 6 Eco-training Novembe r 2004 15yrs + 15yrs+15yrs 20 20 1
  10. 10. Makuleke residents organised as members of the CPA: 15000 people CPA Exco 9 members 4 village reps 4 general reps Chief is ex-officio chair Elected every 2 years Implementation & admin office Supports exco & all projects Administrator Implementation officer Development Trust Includes Exco reps, DLA, Maitland Trust and WWB Finances community projects Interest used for Exco and implementation office costs Receives & manages revenues from hunting, tourism concessions, land restitution grant & funders/partners Friends of Makuleke Supporters of Makuleke Individuals & organisations who provide advice and technical support to Exco Development Forum Includes reps from tribal councils, municipal council, churches, women, civics Advises CPA exco which local projects to support with revenues from trust Specialist subcommittees Each exco member has special portfolio • JMB • Hunting • Culture & Heritage • External support (partners and donors) • Private sector (Bid committee) • Training and skills Development Joint Management Board (JMB) Comprises reps from Exco and KNP Deals with land and wildlife management in Makuleke Region of the KNP Makuleke residents organised as members of the CPA: 15000 people CPA Exco 9 members 4 village reps 4 general reps Chief is ex-officio chair Elected every 2 years Implementation & admin office Supports exco & all projects Administrator Implementation officer Development Trust Includes Exco reps, DLA, Maitland Trust and WWB Finances community projects Interest used for Exco and implementation office costs Receives & manages revenues from hunting, tourism concessions, land restitution grant & funders/partners Friends of Makuleke Supporters of Makuleke Individuals & organisations who provide advice and technical support to Exco Development Forum Includes reps from tribal councils, municipal council, churches, women, civics Advises CPA exco which local projects to support with revenues from trust Specialist subcommittees Each exco member has special portfolio • JMB • Hunting • Culture & Heritage • External support (partners and donors) • Private sector (Bid committee) • Training and skills Development Joint Management Board (JMB) Comprises reps from Exco and KNP Deals with land and wildlife management in Makuleke Region of the KNP
  11. 11. A new governance arrangement Joint Management Board Park Manager Joint Management Committee Working Group: Conservation and Tourism Working Group: Safety and Security Working Group: Social Working Group: Infrastructure Development
  12. 12.  A clear rights framework was put in place through the settlement agreement when the community got ownership of their land back from the state.  The community agreed to keep their reclaimed land under conservation management and became a “Contract Park” jointly managed with SANParks.  They set up a Communal Property Association (CPA) accountable to community members, which manages their land asset and the partnerships with SANParks and private tourism concessionaires.  The CPA has nearly 15 year of trying to maximise the benefit to the community through tourism leases and conservation related activities.  These structures set an example of good governance and accountability to the vision, community and partnership agreements. WHAT MAKES IT WORK
  13. 13.  They have drawn their private sector partners into the decision making process around the Joint Management Board.  This means the private sector are more involved in conservation and infrastructure planning and investments.  They have created an inclusive Conservation and Development Trust to receive and spend money in the region on conservation.
  14. 14.  Government, NGO and Donor support for the community is critical. The community is not able to negotiate and manage private sector concessionaires without getting help from government or NGO’s.  Over the last 13 years there have been many conflicts and difficult decisions that the Makuleke CPA needed professional input on.  The Makuleke community were lucky that they had lots of support from international donors and local NGOs.  Tourism takes at least 4 years or more to start generating income for the community in both jobs and lease fees.  The Makuleke CPA in this case therefore decided to use hunting as a quick way to get income and show their community the value of having rights on their returned land.
  15. 15.  Tourism income from leases is variable as it was linked to a percentage of turnover of the lodges.  This meant that the income to the CPA and community depended on the number of tourists.  The actual amounts earned were way below the predictions made by concessionaires when the contracts were signed.  The CPA has now renegotiated all the leases and they all now have a “guaranteed minimum lease fee”. If the 10% turnover is higher then they get the higher amount.  The lack of this was devastating to the CPA when a flood destroyed the one lodge and there was no trading or income for over 2 years.
  16. 16.  Being part of the Kruger has both its benefits as well as problems. It is wonderful being part of a world renown conservation area and the tourist operators find it easier to market the region.  Being part of the GLTP is a bonus in the marketing of the land  However sometimes conservative conservation officials on the ground do not respect the community ownership and the rights they have.  We created a common vision and program for all the stakeholders in the form of the 2013 Conservation and Development Framework. It has given certainty and clarity to the tourism and conservation plans and strategies. This has removed most of the doubt and conflict form the partnerships.
  17. 17. Thank You !!

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