An introduction to ontologies

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this is a presenation about ontologies and their relationship with requirements engineering

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An introduction to ontologies

  1. 1. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  2. 2. quando sarò grande voglio diventare una brava attrice ??? quand je serai grand je vais devenir une bonne actrice 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi What if they knew English??
  3. 3. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi Same language, but different words for the same thing
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ The printer near me” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “near” means to “me”? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ X is at the bank” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>river bank? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial institution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( paradigm taken by ‘Cyc 101 Tutorial’, OpenCyc.org) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Y is running” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing location? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(paradigm taken by ‘Cyc 101 Tutorial’, OpenCyc.org) </li></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  5. 5. <ul><li>… accessing heterogeneous data and information sources </li></ul><ul><li>.. input in natural language and output in machine-readable language </li></ul><ul><li>… increasing interoperability between systems </li></ul><ul><li>… clearly defined semantics </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  6. 6. <ul><li>Semantic Web – Web 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Thesauri </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  7. 7. <ul><li>Philosophy: the study of being (Plato, 400BC approx; Aristotle, 350 BC approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer science: a formal , explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation (Gruber, 1993) </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  8. 8. <ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule Interchange Format (RIF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CycL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eXtensible Markup Language (XML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Querying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARQL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPAQL </li></ul></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  9. 9. <ul><li>Protege: ontology editor & knowledge-base framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages: RDF, OWL, XML schema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://protege.stanford.edu/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OpenCyc : the open source version of the Cyc Knowledge Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language: CycL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.opencyc.org </li></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classes, sub-classes </li></ul><ul><li>Properties (attributes) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals (instances) </li></ul><ul><li>In order to model the domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>domain: requirements engineering </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi Figure taken by protégé OWL tutorial
  11. 11. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi Figures taken by protégé OWL tutorial
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  16. 16. <ul><li>An ontology explains: </li></ul><ul><li>What the domain concepts are </li></ul><ul><li>How they are related </li></ul><ul><li>Why they are related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  17. 17. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi … are continuously evolving and might be complex & conflicting
  18. 18. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi … need to be well-documented
  19. 19. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
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  24. 24. <ul><li>Requirements descriptions should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally complete </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  25. 25. <ul><li>Treceability </li></ul><ul><li>Readability </li></ul><ul><li>while maintaining Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>in requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies provide a mechanism of automated support of propagation of changes </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  26. 26. <ul><li>specification </li></ul><ul><li>change management </li></ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Impact analysis </li></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
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  33. 33. <ul><li>World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/ </li></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  34. 34. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  35. 35. <ul><li>The ‘Amigo ICCS’ ontology, part of ‘Service Description Vocabulary Ontologies’, Amigo project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>https://gforge.inria.fr/frs/?group_id=160 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘DP-1.29’ ontology, Nokia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://sw.nokia.com/schemas/nokia/DP-1.29.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘Travel’, ontology, Protégé Ontology library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://protege.cim3.net/file/pub/ontologies/travel/travel.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘ExecutionRequirements’ ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.isi.edu/ikcap/Wingse/executionRequirements.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘Requirements’ ontology, part of the ‘Engineering Ontologies’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// protegewiki.stanford.edu/wiki/Engineering_ontologies </li></ul></ul>24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi
  36. 36. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi All comics are taken by Dilbert, http://www.dilbert.com/
  37. 37. 24/04/11 Anna Mavroudi

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