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  • Ann Miller started her career as a library page while she pursued her BA in speech and drama at the University of Notre Dame. During the long hours of shelving in the university stacks she discovered the pleasure of poking around arcane collections (and sleeping on a book cart). After stints as a waitress and aspiring-actress, MBA student, pharmaceutical sales representative, and marketing director for a Bay Area theatre company, Ann found her way back to libraries. At Solano County Library started as a part-time volunteer coordinator and became the library's first Community Relations Coordinator. There she served as marketing professional by day and bedraggled graduate student by night, earning a master's degree in Communication Studies at California State University, Sacramento. She has conducted Word-of-Mouth Marketing workshops throughout California and taught an online course in library public relations called Pitching the Library. Her professional and academic interests include web design, ethnography and the psychology of persuasion.
  • Please include this slide
  • Review packets Breaks, restroom, have fun!
  • Blah, blah, blah
  • Product, place, price, promotion
  • adapted from a blog post “You ARE a marketer. Get over it.” At “Creating Passionate Users” Can anyone give us an example of one of these characteristics, either “old school” or “neo marketing” EXAMPLES: Press releases/ Blogs Reference desk/ Google Librarian book reviews/ user reviews Newsletter/ one-to-one contacts Neo marketing is part of the Internet 2.0 – it recognizes the importance of collaboration and community.
  • Discussion Who got Bingo first? What were the winning squares?
  • *Information and entertainment are becoming microtargeted. Authority is becoming less important as users choose peers over authorities. For some groups, blogs and other peer-to-peer information channels have replaced “authoritative” channels like newspaper, broadcast news, encyclopedias and expert reviews. *Remember that marketing is more than promotion. Users need to be considered at the beginning, not at the end when it comes to designing a product. A Business Week article called “Kill the Focus Group” points out that people are not always honest in front of other people. Corresponding one-on-one allows for greater honesty and customization of the dialog. America Online did a focus group with male users about spam. It turned out that they were uncomfortable admitting in a group that they didn’t have “full control of their laptops” *Narrowcast example: How many of us listen to Rush Limbaugh? Watch Fox News? Fox news is the most highly rated cable news network but none of us watch it. *In the old days there were only 3 choices of broadcast news, so everyone was on the same page. Which may not have been a good thing, but as our choices expand there are fewer and fewer people in each segmented audience
  • Email forwarding, Blog linking, Website linking, Search engines How many of you get “send this to 10 girlfriends” emails? Do you ever get the same one from different people? Has anyone every lived for a time in another country? How did you get your information? (Discuss Spanish-speaking population) A newsletter costs about 20 to send by mail – you can send a e-newsletter for a penny
  • EXAMPLE: Meet a friend, find out he’s thinking about a career change and want to be a teacher, he needs to take CBEST test, tell him about the library’s test database NEW IMAGE Give an example of a mass advertisement – give an example of a WOM message (Have a print example) Divorce/ Netlibrary divorce books
  • These words are used interchangeably but it useful to generally they can be defined as EXAMPLE: Viral - “send this to a friend” ; Buzz- may be accompanied by other promotions EXAMPLES OF BUZZ EXAMPLE OF VIRAL CAMPAIGN – Snakes on a Plane
  • Anyone have any other examples when word-of-mouth would not be appropriate?
  • [Maybe move music or jump to this slide during a break so that the music can play during break] How did we define buzz again? Walking into library Cerritos customer service example of Wow! How I was treated as a lowly graduate student Met at the gate, invited to lunch, meeting with the director I got a wow! Anyone else have an example of WOW customer service that your library has provided? That you have received? Providing WOW customer service is probably the most likely way most of us will generate positive word of mouth. But there are other ways..
  • How could we adapt these to a library promotion? [Load the next video while we discuss] Speaking of hilarious… Librarians can help you and your students navigate JSTOR Unfortunately, if you have any difficulties with J-Kwon, you are on your own. Full-text articles in JSTOR are available only to students, faculty, and staff of participating institutions. Full text J-Kwon lyrics are available to anyone with an Internet connection. JSTOR is a “scholarly tool of enormous potential.” It remains to be seen what potential this young mc may possess. Issues of journals in JSTOR are never “out"; they are always available. Our fruitless attempts to contact J-Kwon suggest that he is frequently out and rarely available. Issues of journals in JSTOR are never “out"; they are always available. Our fruitless attempts to contact J-Kwon suggest that he is frequently out and rarely available.
  • Did anyone get a X, higher? Ask those who scored high on the connector scale what might make them a connector What do you do if you’re not a connector? 1. Don’t feel bad. Most of us aren’t. How many of us make sure we have something to read on an airplane so we don’t have to talk to the person next to us? Connectors don’t do that. They talk. 2. Make sure you know the connectors in your library community and give them first notice of things you want everyone to know. 3. Take some first steps becoming MORE connected. Join a club. Take a class for fun. Volunteer. 4. Consider being a “strategic” connector. EX: Got a small business collection? Join the chamber or Rotary. 5. Next time you’re waiting in line, force yourself to say something to the person next to you. LUNCH
  • Mavens- Experts, the “go-to” people when you want an opinion (Librarians) Connectors- Acquainted with many people in diverse social networks Ambassadors- Connected to a group that is difficult for us to reach (Example of African American staff member who helped us promote a program through her church Salespeople- Charismatic people who have the ability to build trust and rapport. Example: Oprah – book clubs From Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point How do you find and use “influentials” if you are in a one-person branch or library?
  • Does anyone have an example of an unhappy customer who became a happy one? What’s a feedback loop? Ask people what they think and listen to them. Even when you don’t like what they say. How many times has someone started to tell you about a library problem and they hardly finish their sentence before you say “But, but, but… our databases have better information that Google. Anybody can put something on Google.” EX: Customer to me: “I was dreading opening your e-mail because I was so embarrassed about how I went off in my last email”
  • Who are the people in your library organization with the closest ties to the community? You can be strategic in the organizations you choose to join. Do any of you know Andrea Woodruff from the Lodi Public Library? She got a grant for a business collection and to promote it she joined the chamber of commerce, attended their mixers and got to know her users in a new way.
  • What if you were in an elevator and Bill Gates got in? You have 1 minute, maybe three to tell him about yourself. What would you say? [While we are discussing load the next page’s video]
  • Good morning, my name is Ann Miller and I am head of Collection Development for Boring Public Library. My job is to expedite the workflow of our catalogers and cataloging techs and to purchase digital and print collections that provide reciprocal and parallel functionality with the other partners in our consortium. I’m Ann Miller from Solano County Library. I love my job. No matter what is interesting me at the moment, even if it’s something off the wall, there will be someone at work who has at least heard of it. Librarians know a little bit about everything, that’s why they are so good at helping you find what you need. Have you been to your library lately? Check it out, it will probably surprise you. Here’s my card, if you come in, ask for me. To a teen: I’m Ann Miller from Solano County Library. My title is community relations coordinator but what that really means is that is my job to find out how the library can help you. Like what can the library do to help you get your homework done faster? [LISTEN] What do you do when you get stumped on a math problem? We have online tutors who can help you in just about every subject. You can IM them with your math problem, they can help you on an online white board, and if you like your tutor you can request that person next time you use the service. And it’s free! If video doesn’t work, use this speech as an example of gobledygook “ My name is kenny miller and I am a consultant specializing in document management. I work to provide document management solutions and network customization. I have a background in service and I am knowledgable on our product lines. Lets talk and see in what ways I can improve your document workflow.” Huh??
  • Not really a speech – an easy and interesting way to talk about the library so that you can get your message across without stumbling and perhaps do a little “market research” too.
  • Do you know how to … find all the articles written about XX at one time?
  • (Fly in an example of a privacy policy) How many and who opened How many and who forwarded; forwards that opened Comparison to last e-newsletter sent Who clicked what Clicks by URL
  • Marketing.Wom.10.6.09[1]

    1. 1. Word-of-Mouth Marketing for Libraries Instructor: Ann Miller [email_address] An Infopeople Workshop Summer/Fall 2009
    2. 2. This Workshop Is Brought to You By the Infopeople Project Infopeople is a federally-funded grant project supported by the California State Library. It provides a wide variety of training to California libraries. Infopeople workshops are offered around the state and are open registration on a first-come, first-served basis. For a complete list of workshops, and for other information about the project, go to the Infopeople website at
    3. 3. Workshop Overview <ul><li>What is word-of-marketing and why you should care </li></ul><ul><li>Your “elevator speech” </li></ul><ul><li>Making the most of social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting word-of-mouth success stories </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>What does the word “marketing” mean to you? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Marketing - Textbook definition: <ul><li>The activities of listening to customer needs, assessing the competitive landscape and then designing and creating products and services accompanied by messages that shape audience perceptions, leading to opportunities for revenue. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Translation <ul><li>Find out what they want </li></ul><ul><li>Give it to them at a reasonable cost </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them about it </li></ul>
    7. 7. You ARE a marketer, now deal with it! From the blog, creating passionate users
    8. 8. Old School vs. Neo-Marketing OLD Marketing department NEW Everyone’s responsibility Library controls Users have power Library’s content Users’ content Focus groups, surveys User feedback Advertising Evangelizing One way broadcasts Two-way conversations
    9. 9. Exercise #1 Word-Of-Mouth Bingo
    10. 10. What kind of relationships do you want to have with your patrons?
    11. 11. What is Word-of-Mouth Marketing? <ul><li>Activities that generate and amplify personal recommendations for your library and its services. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Why Should I Care ? <ul><li>Traditional marketing is becoming less effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeptical public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Narrowcasting” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous social media </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Potential for the exponential </li></ul><ul><li>Message is recorded (somewhere!), no longer ephemeral </li></ul><ul><li>Vital for “hard-to-reach” groups </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable for libraries! </li></ul>Technology Pumps It Up!
    14. 14. It All Begins With One-to-One <ul><li>One-to-one is: </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Tailored </li></ul>
    15. 15. I Thought Viral Was a Bad Thing …? <ul><li>Word-of-mouth – person to person </li></ul><ul><li>Viral- word-of-mouth enhanced by online interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz – Everyone is talking about it – message is no longer moving linearly. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Word-of-mouth Is Not Appropriate When: <ul><li>Product is complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Forced, fake, or bought </li></ul><ul><li>Product is a dog </li></ul>
    17. 17. Creating Buzz <ul><li>Let’s give them something to talk about! </li></ul><ul><li>The Wow! factor </li></ul><ul><li>Customer care = marketing </li></ul>
    18. 18. “ Six Buttons of Buzz” <ul><li>Taboo </li></ul><ul><li>Outrageous </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual </li></ul><ul><li>Hilarious </li></ul><ul><li>Remarkable </li></ul><ul><li>Secrets </li></ul><ul><li>(from Mark Hughes, Buzz Marketing ) </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Johnson County Library, KS </li></ul>
    20. 20. Exercise #3 Are You a Connector?
    21. 21. The People Who Make it Happen <ul><li>“ Influentials” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mavens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salespeople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(From Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point ) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Tapping Into Social Networks <ul><li>Who are three “connectors” you can use to spread your message? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sales people”? </li></ul><ul><li>Mavens? </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Spreading the Word <ul><li>Listening not telling </li></ul><ul><li>Use the feedback loop- even if it hurts </li></ul>
    24. 24. Networking in Organizations <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Library volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Service organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in your community </li></ul>
    25. 25. Introducing Yourself to a New Network <ul><li>Your “elevator speech” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clear, concise, compelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no mumbo jumbo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end with invitation for interaction </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. You Can Only Go Up From Here… <ul><li> </li></ul>
    27. 27. Your “Elevator Speech”: What can you say in the time it takes for an elevator ride ? Exercise #3
    28. 28. Sample “hooks” <ul><li>We help people help themselves </li></ul><ul><li>We can help you start something big </li></ul><ul><li>We are Oceanside’s stimulus package and we won’t go away </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know there are more libraries in the US than there are McDonalds? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know how to…? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Electronic Word-of-Mouth <ul><li>Email newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace, Twitter, Facebook, Flick’r, YouTube, RSS, wikis, etc. </li></ul>
    30. 30. User expectations <ul><li>Customized </li></ul><ul><li>Content driven </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Connected </li></ul>
    31. 31. Email Newsletters <ul><li>Publish for pennies </li></ul><ul><li>Opt in </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy policy </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring email marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good: Opened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better: click-through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>best: forwarded </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Writing for the Web <ul><li>Reading online is different than print </li></ul><ul><li>Users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skip intros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scan headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Register first words of headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 51 seconds reading an e-newsletter </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Eye-tracking heat map
    33. 33. Give users the opportunity to share <ul><li>Forward email </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmark a webpage </li></ul><ul><li>Share on social media site </li></ul>
    34. 34. Thinking About Social Media Social media is how people engage, participate, and share online the experiences they leave behind. It is fundamentally changing the way we communicate.
    35. 35. Power of Social Media <ul><li>Fosters intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains a larger circle of “friendships” </li></ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul><ul><li>Voyeuristic </li></ul><ul><li>Addictive </li></ul>
    36. 36. Social media can help to… <ul><li>Offer immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>Build relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities for future face-to-face interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Bypass traditional media </li></ul><ul><li>Provide customer service/ solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage participation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and manage reputation </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions to consider: <ul><li>How does social media fit with goals of organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the current customers? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the potential customers? </li></ul><ul><li>What has worked and not worked in the past? </li></ul><ul><li>The players – who does what? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Engagement Pyramid Write a blog; upload a video Rate a product or service; comment on a blog, write in a discussion forum Share online video; update profile, upload photos Watch online videos, read blogs, download podcasts Charlene Li – It’s All About the Relationships, Curators Producers Commenters Sharers Watchers
    39. 39. Listen then engage <ul><li>Participate in social media, by having conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage interactions (polls, questions, retweets, commenting) </li></ul><ul><li>Respond immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared for involvement across the organization – PIO, customer service, administration, “behind the scenes” folks </li></ul>
    40. 40. Getting in on the conversation
    41. 41. Measuring Word-Of-Mouth <ul><li>What is the depth of our user’s engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>Web, email, and social media analytics </li></ul><ul><li>Net promoter scale- How likely are you to </li></ul>
    42. 42. Exercise #4 Adapt a Case History
    43. 43. They may forget what you said, but they will never forget how you made them feel. -Carl Buechner